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1. Effect of the cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist rimonabant on inflammation in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Match Strength: 12.133

We studied whether cannabinoid receptor (CB1) blockade with rimonabant has an anti-inflammatory effect in obese mice, and whether this effect depends on weight loss and/or diet consumption. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were treated orally with rimonabant (HFD-R) or vehicle (HFD-V) for 4 weeks. Paired-feeding was conducted in two additional groups of obese mice to achieve either the same body weight (HFD-BW) or the same HFD intake (HFD DI) as HFD-R. All these groups of mice were maintained on HFD throughout, with mice on normal diet (ND) throughout as lean controls. Rimonabant ... Read More »
» Published in Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Mar;19(3):505-13. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

2. Impact of weight loss on cortisol secretion in obese men with and without metabolic syndrome features.
Match Strength: 10.250

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Disturbances in cortisol metabolism have been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss induced by an energy-restricted diet on postprandial cortisol secretion in obese men with and without metabolic syndrome features. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve obese men (BMI: 32.5-36.2 kg/m2), six without and six with at least three markers of metabolic syndrome, and six lean men (BMI: 22.2-24.9 kg/m2) participated. Plasma cortisol was measured at fasting and at 30 min intervals for 3h after standard ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Jan;16(1):28-34. Epub 2005 Jun 28.

3. Effect of weight loss on P wave dispersion in obese subjects.
Match Strength: 10.095

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate effect of loss weight on P wave dispersion in obese subjects. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: After a 12-week weight loss program (diet and medical therapy), a total of 30 (24 women and six men) obese subjects who had lost at least 10% of their original weight were included in the present study. All subjects underwent a routine standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Electrocardiograms were transferred to a personal computer by a scanner and then magnified 400 times by Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA). P wave ... Read More »
» Published in Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug;14(8):1378-82.

4. Obesity and inflammation: the effects of weight loss.
Match Strength: 9.256

Following the discovery of TNF-alpha and leptin as secretory products of adipocytes in the early 1990s, subsequent obesity research focused on the new functional role of adipose tissue, as an active endocrine organ. Many more inflammatory peptides have been linked to adiposity, which ultimately characterised obesity as a state of low-grade systemic inflammation, or 'metaflammation' which may link obesity to its co-morbidities. The aim of the present review is to examine the effects of weight loss on inflammation in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy, populations. Studies were broadly ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Res Rev. 2008 Dec;21(2):117-33.

5. Effect of weight loss with or without orlistat treatment on adipocytokines, inflammation, and oxidative markers in obese women.
Match Strength: 8.781

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of adipose tissue related hormones, cytokines, and antioxidative substances in obese women before and after intervention with diet alone or with diet plus an inhibitor of gastrointestinental lipase-orlistat. DESIGN: Seventy-one obese women of childbearing age were included in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups according to the type of intervention: group A1 (n=35) included women who received orlistat as well as a hypocaloric diet, and group A2 (n=36) included women who were only on hypocaloric diet. The intervention ... Read More »
» Published in Hormones (Athens). 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):259-69.

6. Weight loss larger than 10% is needed for general improvement of levels of circulating adiponectin and markers of inflammation in obese subjects: a 3-year weight loss study.
Match Strength: 8.781

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of: I) short- (8 weeks), II) long-term (3 years) weight loss, and III) the degree of weight loss on circulating levels of adiponectin, high sensitive-C reactive protein (hs-CRP), and fibrinogen in obese subjects. Moreover, to evaluate the effect of the lipase inhibitor, orlistat, on these parameters. DESIGN: Weight loss induced in 93 obese subjects (mean weight: 108.9+/-15.8 kg) through 8-week very-low-energy diet (VLED, 800 kcal/day) followed by randomization to orlistat or placebo together with lifestyle intervention for further 3 years. Adiponectin and ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Feb;158(2):179-87.

7. Overweight men's motivations and perceived barriers towards weight loss.
Match Strength: 8.210

Objective:To explore motivation and perceived barriers towards weight loss among Danish men.Design:The study was of an explorative nature, using qualitative focus group interviews as a method.Setting:Copenhagen, Denmark.Subjects:Twenty-two overweight men, at the age of 25-44 years and motivated for weight loss, were recruited and distributed into four focus groups. The men were primarily unskilled workers. Overall 13 men participated and each group contained three or four participants.Intervention:The interview guide was partly structured, partly unstructured and the themes of the interviews ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep 20;

8. Inflammatory state and stress condition in weight-lowering Lys109Arg LEPR gene polymorphism carriers.
Match Strength: 8.052

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carrying variants on the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) may have an impact on inflammatory and stress markers. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the role of the Lys109Arg LEPR gene polymorphism on inflammatory (leptin and IL-6) and stress (cortisol) markers in obese subjects who followed a hypocaloric diet designed to lose weight. METHODS: One hundred and seventy (80 females/90 males) Caucasian subjects (body mass index: 30.8 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)), were genotyped for the Lys109Arg polymorphism by a PCR/RFLP procedure. Anthropometric measurements were assessed and blood ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Med Res. 2009 May;40(4):306-10. Epub 2009 Jun 4.

9. Role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels on body composition after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in pre-menopausal morbidly obese women.
Match Strength: 7.966

In humans, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) has been postulated to have anabolic and lipolytic properties that could potentially counteract the catabolic effect of cortisol. DHEAS secretion is reduced in morbid obesity, likely due to hyperinsulinemia, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LASGB), by inducing considerable and rapid weight loss, reduces insulin levels. To investigate the role of decreased insulin levels after LASGB-induced weight loss on DHEAS levels and on body composition changes, we studied 30 pre-menopausal morbidly obese women (BMI ranging 37-62 kg/m2) before, 6, 12 ... Read More »
» Published in J Endocrinol Invest. 2005 Jun;28(6):509-15.

10. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.
Match Strength: 7.879

OBJECTIVE: The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the ... Read More »
» Published in Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug;14(8):1344-52.

11. Adiposopathy: how do diet, exercise and weight loss drug therapies improve metabolic disease in overweight patients?
Match Strength: 7.878

An increase in bodyweight is generally associated with an increased risk of excessive fat-related metabolic diseases (EFRMD), including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, not all patients who are overweight have EFRMD, and not all patients with EFRMD are significantly overweight. The adipocentric paradigm provides the basis for a unifying, pathophysiological process whereby fat gain in susceptible patients leads to fat dysfunction ('sick fat'), and wherein pathological abnormalities in fat function (adiposopathy) are more directly related to the onset of EFRMD ... Read More »
» Published in Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2006 Nov;4(6):871-95.

12. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects.
Match Strength: 7.622

OBJECTIVE: Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Oct;155(4):575-81.

13. Prolonged fasting in patients with chronic pain syndromes leads to late mood-enhancement not related to weight loss and fasting-induced leptin depletion.
Match Strength: 7.416

Periods of fasting are practiced worldwide on a cultural/religious background, and related mood-enhancing effects are postulated. We aimed to assess the effect of fasting on mood and to explore the interaction with neuroendocrine activation and leptin depletion in a controlled explorative study on consecutive inpatients (BMI < 35 kg/m2) of a nutritional ward. 36 subjects (38.9 +/- 7.0 years; 29 female, BMI 26.7 +/- 4.1 kg/m2) participated in an 8-day modified fast (300 kcal/day), 19 patients (38.1 +/- 5.9 years; 18 female, 23.5 +/- 4.1 kg/m2) received a mild low calorie diet. Measurements ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Neurosci. 2006 Oct-Dec;9(5-6):195-200.

14. The evolution of very-low-calorie diets: an update and meta-analysis.
Match Strength: 7.314

OBJECTIVE: Very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs), providing <800 kcal/d, have been used since the 1970s to induce rapid weight loss. Previous reviews of the literature have disagreed concerning the relative efficacy of VLCDs vs. conventional low-calorie diets (LCDs) for achieving long-term weight loss. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We sought to update findings on the clinical use, safety, and efficacy of VLCDs and to perform a meta-analysis of randomized trials that compared the long-term efficacy of LCDs and VLCDs. Original research articles were retrieved by a Medline search and from prior ... Read More »
» Published in Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug;14(8):1283-93.

15. The Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project: Rationale and design.
Match Strength: 7.234

This paper outlines the rationale and design of the Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project, in which detailed biologic profiling of three hundred and fifty obese individuals (body mass index (BMI): 30-50 kg/m(2)) will be conducted as they lose weight via seven distinct interventions. These profiles will be compared to those of fifty normal, healthy, control participants (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The interventions include the following: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, dietary interventions of differing macronutrient composition and diverse ... Read More »
» Published in Contemp Clin Trials. 2005 Dec;26(6):616-25. Epub 2005 Oct 18.

16. Comparison of the effects of food versus protein restriction on selected nutritional and inflammatory markers in rats.
Match Strength: 7.043

We previously demonstrated that feeding a 2% protein AIN-76 diet ad libitum for 14 days resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical changes including weight loss, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, higher levels of plasma cytokines, oxidative stress in the liver, and activation of inflammatory signaling to interleukin (IL)-6, as compared with a 20% protein diet. In the present study, 54 rats were randomly given a standard rat chow diet ad libitum, or a 25% or 50% reduction of this intake for 14 days. The results showed that weight gain was less in the 25% food-restricted group and halted in ... Read More »
» Published in Metabolism. 2009 Jun;58(6):835-42.

17. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function.
Match Strength: 6.888

Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The effects of these interventions depend on weight loss per se, changes in fat distribution without weight loss ... Read More »
» Published in Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011 Jan 28;10(1):13.

18. Effects of weight loss and risk factor treatment in subjects with elevated serum C3, an inflammatory predictor of myocardial infarction.
Match Strength: 6.877

BACKGROUND: Serum C3 is an inflammatory predictor of myocardial infarction and a covariate of fasting insulin and several endogenous risk factors. This study was performed to ascertain whether risk factor control may reduce elevated C3 concentrations. METHODS: After traditional risk factor and C3 assessment in 1100 unselected men aged 55-64 years, 238 men with persistently elevated C3 levels (>=1.19 g/l, high tertile) were randomised into 2 groups: 43 controls, who were referred to their general practitioner, and 195 subjects who were intensively treated with diet, and anti-hypertensive or ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Cardiol. 2005 Apr 20;100(2):217-23.

19. Dose-response study of effect of oleuropein, an olive oil polyphenol, in an ovariectomy/inflammation experimental model of bone loss in the rat.
Match Strength: 6.877

BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study was carried out to assess the dose-dependent bone-sparing effect of oleuropein, an olive oil phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, on bone loss induced by talc granulomatosis in oestrogen-deficient rat. METHODS: Among 98 rats, 20 were sham-operated (SH) while the others (78) were ovariectomised (OVX). The SH and 26 OVX rats (controls) were given a standard diet for 100 days. The 52 remaining OVX rats were allocated to 4 groups that received oleuropein at 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 mg/kg body weight per day for 100 days. Three weeks before ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;25(5):859-68. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

20. The skinny on weight-loss surgery: what occupational health nurses need to know.
Match Strength: 6.562

Occupational health nurses are in a position to follow individuals undergoing bariatric surgery before and after the procedure. By fully understanding the health problems caused by obesity, occupational health nurses can effectively communicate the importance of diet and exercise. Publication Types: ... Read More »
» Published in AAOHN J. 2006 Sep;54(9):405-10; quiz 411-2.

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* All information on Level1Diet.com is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.



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