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Vegetables
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1. Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States).
Match Strength: 4.891

OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between the intake of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and antioxidants, and the risk of prostate cancer in male participants in a large multiethnic cohort study. METHODS: Food and nutrient intakes in 1993-1996 were calculated from a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to account for the food and nutrient intake of the ethnic groups represented in the study (82,486 African-American, Japanese-American, Native-Hawaiian, Latino and White males included here). Follow-up for incident cancers utilized local SEER registries. Vital ... Read More »
» Published in Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Nov;17(9):1193-207.

2. Evidence that urinary excretion of thiouracil in adult bovine submitted to a cruciferous diet can give erroneous indications of the possible illegal use of thyrostats in meat production.
Match Strength: 4.849

Thyrostats have been banned for use as veterinary drugs in Europe since 1981 because of their carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. Until now, the identification of thiouracil in animal biological matrices has been interpreted as the consequence of an illegal administration. The present paper studies the influence of a cruciferous-based feed on the occurrence of thiouracil as a residue in urine. Urine samples collected from two heifers fed on cabbage or rapeseed cakes were analysed for the presence of thiouracil by 3-iodobenzylbromide derivatization and liquid chromatography-electrospray ... Read More »
» Published in Food Addit Contam. 2006 Oct;23(10):974-80.

3. Validation of a self-completion measure of breakfast foods, snacks and fruits and vegetables consumed by 9- to 11-year-old schoolchildren.
Match Strength: 4.475

Objective:To evaluate the validity and reliability of a dietary recall questionnaire, designed for group-level comparisons of foods eaten at breakfast and intake of fruits, vegetables, sweet items and crisps.Design:Validity was assessed relative to 24-h dietary recall interviews, and reliability by comparing the baseline data with 4-month follow-up data.Subjects and setting:Fifty-eight schools took part in the validity assessments, with 374 children completing both measures. Reliability was assessed using 29 schools, with 1233 children at baseline and 1033 at follow-up. Children were aged 9-11 ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep 20;

4. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Match Strength: 4.444

The consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) in observational cohorts. The purpose of this study was to assess the strength of this association in a meta-analysis. Cohort studies were selected if they reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for coronary heart disease or mortality and if they presented a quantitative assessment of fruit and vegetable intake. The pooled RRs were calculated for each additional portion of fruit and/or vegetables consumed per day, and the linearity of the associations were examined. Nine studies were ... Read More »
» Published in J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2588-93.

5. Thawing of frozen vegetables observed by a small dedicated MRI for food research.
Match Strength: 4.362

The thawing process for boiled and frozen edible vegetables was traced by a dedicated MRI for food research. The MRI system is small, with a 1.0-T static magnetic field, and can be placed in an ordinary research room with a light air conditioner. Images of green soybeans, broad beans, okra, asparagus and taro were measured by the spin-echo method (echo time=7 ms) with 0.1 or 0.2 s and 1 s repetition times. The images appeared along with the thawing time, and signals uniformly covered the sliced plane of the samples in the thawed condition. Information about the thawing process and tissue ... Read More »
» Published in Magn Reson Imaging. 2006 Oct;24(8):1111-9. Epub 2006 Sep 6.

6. Correlates of vegetable consumption among young men in the Norwegian National Guard.
Match Strength: 4.153

The aim of this study was to investigate socio-environmental, personal and behavioural factors associated with vegetable consumption among young men in the military. Respondents included 578 male recruits (mean age 19.7) in the Norwegian National Guard (response rate 78%). Data were collected with a food diary (4-day record) and an attitudinal questionnaire. A model including items on personal factors (attitudes, preferences, self-efficacy, knowledge and perceived availability), socio-environmental factors (social influence, socio-economic status, eating habits at home) and behavioural factors ... Read More »
» Published in Appetite. 2007 Jan;48(1):46-53. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

7. Combined effects of maternal smoking status and dietary intake related to weight gain and birth size parameters.
Match Strength: 3.916

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction of smoking status and dietary intake during pregnancy and its relationship to maternal weight gain and birth size parameters. DESIGN: An observational prospective study. SETTING: Free-living conditions. POPULATION: Four hundred and eight healthy pregnant Icelandic women. METHODS: Maternal smoking status, lifestyle factors and dietary habits were evaluated with questionnaires. Intake of foods and supplements was also estimated with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for the previous 3 months. All questionnaires were filled out between 11 ... Read More »
» Published in BJOG. 2006 Nov;113(11):1296-302. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

8. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.
Match Strength: 3.850

This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score ... Read More »
» Published in Appetite. 2007 Jan;48(1):78-86. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

9. A diet quality index for American preschoolers based on current dietary intake recommendations and an indicator of energy balance.
Match Strength: 3.572

OBJECTIVE: Based on current dietary intake recommendations and a recommendation to limit sedentary activity in preschoolers, an overall diet quality index for preschoolers (RC-DQI) incorporating a component for energy balance to measure adequacy of nutrition for growth, development, and disease prevention was developed. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The newly developed index was used in nationally representative samples of 2- to 5-year-olds in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96 and 1998 (n=5,437). Index components included added sugar, total fat, ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Oct;106(10):1594-604. Comment in: J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Oct;106(10):1533.

10. Overweight and obesity among children and youth.
Match Strength: 2.648

OBJECTIVES: This article describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children and youth aged 2 to 17, based on direct measurements of their height and weight. Data from 1978/79 and 2004 are compared, and trends by sex and age groups are presented. DATA SOURCES: Data based on direct measurements are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS): Nutrition. Other information is from the 1978/79 Canada Health Survey and the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in the US. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: The estimated prevalence of overweight ... Read More »
» Published in Health Rep. 2006 Aug;17(3):27-42.

11. Etiology and risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma: possibilities for chemoprophylaxis?
Match Strength: 2.492

The rapid increase in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, particularly among white males, seems to be a true increase occurring in many parts of the industrialised world during the last few decades. Some main risk factors have been established: i.e. Barrett's oesophagus, gastrooesophageal reflux, high body mass, male sex, tobacco smoking, and high dietary intake of fruit and vegetables. Several other potential risk factors have been studied for which the evidence is less clear, including medications that relax the lower oesophageal sphincter or diets high in fat or low in nutrients ... Read More »
» Published in Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;20(5):803-12.

12. Citrus juice modulates antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles in orchidectomized rats.
Match Strength: 2.453

Oxidative stress and hypogonadism are two factors linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in males. Eating fruits and vegetables is known to reduce the incidences of oxidative stress. The objective of this research was to delineate whether drinking daily squeezed orange juice (OJ) or grapefruit juice (GJ) modulates oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes while impacting cardiovascular risk factors in hypogonad male rats. In the present study, 36 1-year-old male rats were equally divided among the following four treatments: sham (control), orchidectomized (ORX), ORX + OJ, ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Food. 2006 Fall;9(3):422-6.

13. Adult obesity.
Match Strength: 2.450

OBJECTIVES: Based on direct measures of height and weight, this article compares the prevalence of obesity among adults aged 18 or older in 1978/79 and 2004. Prevalence by demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics is presented, along with associations between obesity and selected chronic conditions. Canadian and US data are also compared. DATA SOURCES: Data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey: Nutrition, the 1978/79 Canada Health Survey and the 1986 to 1992 Canadian Heart Health Surveys. US data are from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination ... Read More »
» Published in Health Rep. 2006 Aug;17(3):9-25.

14. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?
Match Strength: 2.418

Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these ... Read More »
» Published in Environ Health. 2006 Sep 21;5:26.

15. A new statistical method for estimating the usual intake of episodically consumed foods with application to their distribution.
Match Strength: 2.393

OBJECTIVE: We propose a new statistical method that uses information from two 24-hour recalls to estimate usual intake of episodically consumed foods. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: The method developed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) accommodates the large number of nonconsumption days that occur with foods by separating the probability of consumption from the consumption-day amount, using a two-part model. Covariates, such as sex, age, race, or information from a food frequency questionnaire, may supplement the information from two or more 24-hour recalls using correlated mixed model ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Oct;106(10):1575-87. Comment in: J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Oct;106(10):1533.

16. Immunity and antioxidant capacity in humans is enhanced by consumption of a dried, encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.
Match Strength: 2.328

The daily consumption of fruits and vegetables is a common dietary recommendation to support good health. We hypothesized that a commercially available encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (FVJC) could support functional indices of health due to increased intake of various phytonutrients. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled investigation of 59 healthy law students who consumed either FVJC or placebo capsules for 77 d. Blood was collected on d 1, 35, and 77 to examine the number of circulating alphabeta- and gammadelta-T cells, cytokine production, ... Read More »
» Published in J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2606-10.

17. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.
Match Strength: 2.263

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with ... Read More »
» Published in Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug;14(8):1444-53.

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* All information on Level1Diet.com is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.



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Replace omega-6 vegetable oils with omega-9 olive oil... Eat oily fish like tuna, sardines, anchovy, salmon, herring... Beans, lentils, peas add fiber... Nine or more 3-ounce servings of fruits or vegetables per day...