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 << Prev 20  Showing 1 to 20 of 1,136 Matches Next 20 >>

1. Intricate knots in proteins: function and evolution.
Match Strength: 2.055

Our investigation of knotted structures in the Protein Data Bank reveals the most complicated knot discovered to date. We suggest that the occurrence of this knot in a human ubiquitin hydrolase might be related to the role of the enzyme in protein degradation. While knots are usually preserved among homologues, we also identify an exception in a transcarbamylase. This allows us to exemplify the function of knots in proteins and to suggest how they may have been created. Publication Types: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S ... Read More »
» Published in PLoS Comput Biol. 2006 Sep 15;2(9):e122. Epub 2006 Jul 28.

2. Are amyloid diseases caused by protein aggregates that mimic bacterial pore-forming toxins?
Match Strength: 1.828

Protein fibrillization is implicated in the pathogenesis of most, if not all, age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanism(s) by which it triggers neuronal death is unknown. Reductionist in vitro studies suggest that the amyloid protofibril may be the toxic species and that it may amplify itself by inhibiting proteasome-dependent protein degradation. Although its pathogenic target has not been identified, the properties of the protofibril suggest that neurons could be killed by unregulated membrane permeabilization, possibly by a type of protofibril referred to here as the ... Read More »
» Published in Q Rev Biophys. 2006 May;39(2):167-201. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

3. The renin-angiotensin system: a therapeutic target in atrial fibrillation.
Match Strength: 1.782

There is growing evidence to suggest a role for the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Experimental animal data suggest RAS-dependent mechanisms for the development of a structural and electrophysiologic substrate for AF. This is consistent with clinical data demonstrating the effectiveness of RAS blockade in preventing new-onset or recurrent AF in a variety of patient populations including patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and those undergoing electrical cardioversion for AF. This review ... Read More »
» Published in Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Sep;29(9):1006-12.

4. Fine-scale population differentiation and gene flow in a terrestrial salamander (Plethodon cinereus) living in continuous habitat.
Match Strength: 1.703

Several recent studies have shown that amphibian populations may exhibit high genetic subdivision in areas with recent fragmentation and urban development. Less is known about the potential for genetic differentiation in continuous habitats. We studied genetic differentiation of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) across a 2-km transect through continuous forest in Virginia, USA. Mark-recapture studies suggest very little dispersal for this species, whereas homing experiments and post-Pleistocene range expansion both suggest greater dispersal abilities. We used six microsatellite loci ... Read More »
» Published in Heredity. 2007 Jan;98(1):53-60. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

5. Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation level via co-culture with osteoblasts.
Match Strength: 1.693

The close apposition of osteoblasts and chondrocytes in bone and their interaction during bone development and regeneration suggest that they may each regulate the other's growth and differentiation. In these studies, osteoblasts and chondrocytes were co-cultured in vitro, with both direct and indirect contact. Proliferation of the co-cultured chondrocytes was enhanced using soluble factors produced from the osteoblasts, and the differentiation level of the osteoblasts influenced the differentiation level of the chondrocytes. In addition, the chondrocytes regulated differentiation of the co ... Read More »
» Published in Tissue Eng. 2006 Sep;12(9):2425-33.

6. The ecology of virulence.
Match Strength: 1.674

Theoretical work has shown that parasites should evolve intermediate levels of virulence. Less attention has been given to the ecology of virulence. Here I explore population-dynamic models of infection in an annual host. The infection does not kill the host; but it can decrease the number of offspring produced by the host, and the magnitude of this effect depends on host population size. Hence, 'virulence' is density dependent, and is defined here as the difference in birth rates between uninfected and infected hosts, divided by the birth rate of uninfected hosts. The results suggest that ... Read More »
» Published in Ecol Lett. 2006 Oct;9(10):1089-95.

7. Acquisition of simple auditory and visual sequences in cerebellar patients.
Match Strength: 1.663

Previous studies suggest a role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences. In the present study sequences of two acoustic tones of different frequencies and sequences of two visual stimuli with different colours were presented with short, long and very long durations. Thirteen cerebellar patients and 13 controls were required to indicate whether the order of stimuli was identical or opposite to a reference by saying 'yes' or 'no'. To minimize motor requirements no time restrictions were given. In none of the test conditions a significant difference between patients and ... Read More »
» Published in Cerebellum. 2006;5(3):206-11.

8. The role of DMARDs in systemic sclerosis therapy.
Match Strength: 1.597

The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence for disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In the previously published trials, DMARD therapy was usually initiated for severe skin thickening, organ involvement and alveolitis. These studies suggest beneficial effects of methotrexate, azathioprine, ciclosporine A and cyclophosphamide therapy in SSc patients. However, many of these data were derived from retrospective analyses with low numbers of patients, short-term follow-up and often without an appropriate control group. Finally, some of ... Read More »
» Published in Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Oct;45 Suppl 3:iii42-iii44.

9. Peer groups and substance use: examining the direct and interactive effect of leisure activity.
Match Strength: 1.573

This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic adolescents, exploring the variations in the use of alcohol and illegal drugs among three different patterns of leisure activity, controlling for parental ties and school commitment. The findings show that alcohol and substance use varies significantly across ... Read More »
» Published in Adolescence. 2006 Summer;41(162):321-39.

10. Monomers of condensed tannins affect the larval exsheathment of parasitic nematodes of ruminants.
Match Strength: 1.564

The current control of parasitic nematodes in small ruminants relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics, but the development of resistance requires research in alternatives. Bioactive plants represent one of those solutions. Previous results suggest that plants rich in condensed tannins (CTs) might have direct anthelmintic effects. However, the relationships between the biochemistry of active compounds and the mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. Therefore, this study examined in vitro the effects of different CT monomers on the exsheathment of infective larvae for two nematode ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Oct 4;54(20):7481-7.

11. Cutting edge: T cell requirement for CD28 costimulation is due to negative regulation of TCR signals by PTEN.
Match Strength: 1.557

Recent studies suggest that the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays a critical role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Using T cell-specific PTEN knockout mice (PTENDeltaT), we have identified a novel mechanism by which PTEN regulates T cell tolerance. We found that TCR stimulation alone, without CD28 costimulation, is sufficient to induce hyperactivation of the PI3K pathway, which leads to enhanced IL-2 production by naive PTENDeltaT T cells. Importantly, as a result of this increased response to TCR stimulation, PTENDeltaT CD4(+) T cells no longer require ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1;177(7):4262-6.

12. Competitive sorption-desorption behavior of triazine herbicides with plant cuticular fractions.
Match Strength: 1.504

Sorption interactions of plant cuticular matter with organic compounds are not yet fully understood. The objective of this study was to examine the competitive sorption-desorption interactions of the triazine herbicides (atrazine and ametryn) with cuticular fractions isolated from tomato fruits and leaves of Agave americana. The 13C NMR data suggest a rubber-like nature for the cutin. This biopolymer exhibited reversible and noncompetitive sorption. Enhanced desorption of atrazine was recorded in the bi-solute system with bulk and dewaxed A. americana cuticles. 13C NMR analyses of these ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Oct 4;54(20):7761-8.

13. Pharmacokinetic studies of coagulation factors: relevance of plasma and extracellular volume and body weight.
Match Strength: 1.502

Summary. The clinical utility of pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of infused clotting factor concentrates in subjects with inherited coagulation disorders (e.g. haemophilia) remains unproven. In this regard, differences in drug distribution and elimination between very young children and older subjects is likely to be of importance, and there is preliminary information to suggest that the elimination half-life of infused factor VIII (FVIII) is shorter in very young boys with haemophilia A as compared to older subjects. The cause for this difference is likely multifactorial and may relate, in part, ... Read More »
» Published in Haemophilia. 2006 Nov;12 Suppl 4:33-9.

14. HER-2/neu genotype of breast cancer may change in bone metastasis.
Match Strength: 1.497

The genotype of breast cancer (BRC) is considered to be relatively stable during tumor progression, accordingly, determination of the estrogen receptor and HER-2/neu status is currently based on the primary tumor. However, recent data suggest that the gene expression profile of the metastatic lesion can be different compared to that of the primary BRC. Accordingly, it is possible that the HER-2/neu status is different in the metastatic lesion and the primary BRC. Since the bone is the most frequent metastatic site during the progression of BRC, we have analyzed the HER-2/neu status of 48 bone ... Read More »
» Published in Pathol Oncol Res. 2006;12(3):149-52. Epub 2006 Sep 23.

15. Seaweed diversity enhances nitrogen uptake via complementary use of nitrate and ammonium.
Match Strength: 1.468

The consequences of declining biodiversity remain controversial, in part because many studies focus on a single metric of ecosystem functioning and fail to consider diversity's integrated effects on multiple ecosystem functions. We used tide pool microcosms as a model system to show that different conclusions about the potential effects of producer diversity on ecosystem functioning may result when ecosystem functions are measured separately vs. together. Specifically, we found that in diverse seaweed assemblages, uptake of either nitrate or ammonium alone was equal to the average of the ... Read More »
» Published in Ecology. 2006 Sep;87(9):2397-403.

16. Centrosome duplication: is asymmetry the clue?
Match Strength: 1.459

The structure of the yeast Sfi1-centrin complex, and its asymmetric position within the yeast centrosome, suggest a model for the initiation of centrosome duplication and provides a target for licensing this event ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Biol. 2006 Sep 19;16(18):R808-10.

17. Spatial cognition based on geometry and landmarks in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus).
Match Strength: 1.456

Recent evidence suggest that encoding of spatial information based on extended surfaces may differ from encoding based on discrete arrays of local elements. Here we investigated the use of these different frames of reference in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to search for food hidden under sawdust in the center of the floor of a square-shaped landmark array, with its center in coincidence with the center of a square-shaped enclosure. Displacement of the array to a corner caused a shift of searching behavior toward the array, the search activity spanning between the center of the arena ... Read More »
» Published in Behav Brain Res. 2006 Nov 25;175(1):119-27. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

18. GGA1 acts as a spatial switch altering amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing.
Match Strength: 1.447

The beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein (APP) is cleaved sequentially by beta-site of APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) and gamma-secretase to release the Abeta peptides that accumulate in plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). GGA1, a member of the Golgi-localized gamma-ear-containing ARF-binding (GGA) protein family, interacts with BACE and influences its subcellular distribution. We now report that overexpression of GGA1 in cells increased the APP C-terminal fragment resulting from beta-cleavage but surprisingly reduced Abeta. GGA1 confined APP to the Golgi, in which fluorescence resonance energy ... Read More »
» Published in J Neurosci. 2006 Sep 27;26(39):9913-22.

19. Commentary--Pathophysiology of airflow obstruction: could there really be an early test of prognostic significance?
Match Strength: 1.431

This article represents a commentary on a controversial hyphothesis described by Dr.Milic-Emili in this issue. The authors discuss the hyphothesis and suggest that a re-examination of longitudinal lung function data could prove or deny his suggestion. Publication Types: ... Read More »
» Published in COPD. 2004 Apr;1(1):93-5. Comment on: COPD. 2004 Apr;1(1):85-92.

20. A false expression of CD8 antigens on CD4+ T cells in a routine flow cytometry analysis.
Match Strength: 1.429

The two-colour flow cytometry method applied in a routine enumeration of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets reveals that in some patients the entire population of CD4+ lymphocytes seems to express CD8 determinants as well. However, expression of the CD8 antigens on the cell surface is much lower in comparison with typical CD8+ cells. Moreover, in one-colour staining with an anti-CD8 antibody, cells with weak CD8 expression are not observed and only one typical population of CD8+ lymphocytes is seen. Investigating this phenomenon, we showed that after washing patient cells in RPMI before CD4 ... Read More »
» Published in Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2006;44(3):179-83.

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