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1. Coconut fats.
Match Strength: 17.801

In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty ... Read More »
» Published in Ceylon Med J. 2006 Jun;51(2):47-51.

2. Facts on fats.
Match Strength: 14.224

Cardiovascular disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may share common risk factors in their causal pathways. Decades of research from the cardiovascular sciences on fats have led investigators to focus on specific types of fats rather than total fat as a whole. They have established that saturated and trans-unsaturated fats (trans fats) are damaging to cardiovascular health while polyunsaturated fats, particularly the marine omega 3 fatty acids appear protective. This has led to a number of studies investigating the associations of fat and AMD. Though the causal relationship ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;34(5):464-71. Comment in: Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;34(5):393-4.

3. Effects of dietary fats versus carbohydrates on coronary heart disease: a review of the evidence.
Match Strength: 12.384

Recommendations arising from the traditional diet-coronary heart disease (CHD) paradigm, which focuses on effects of total and saturated fat on serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, may have failed to reduce CHD risk and inadvertently exacerbated dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and weight gain, particularly among individuals who are older, female, sedentary, or obese. A suitable dietary paradigm must consider types and qualities of fats and carbohydrates consumed, their effects on a range of intermediary risk factors, and characteristics that may modify individual ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Nov;7(6):435-45.

4. Dietary copper and high saturated and trans fat intakes associated with cognitive decline.
Match Strength: 12.246

BACKGROUND: Evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies and animal models suggests that intakes of dietary fats and copper may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high dietary copper intake is associated with increased cognitive decline among persons who also consume a diet high in saturated and trans fats. DESIGN: Community-based prospective study. SETTING: Chicago, Ill.Patients Chicago residents 65 years and older. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive function was assessed using 4 cognitive tests administered during in-home interviews at 3-year ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Neurol. 2006 Aug;63(8):1085-8.

5. The role of dietary fats in plant-based diets.
Match Strength: 12.130

In the United States, the notion that low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets are essential for health has grown into an obsession, driven largely by an effort to reduce heart disease and, more recently, certain types of cancer. We know that saturated fatty acids are more closely associated with risk factors for heart disease than are unsaturated fatty acids. Many people believe that plant-based diets are healthy because they are low in fat. However, plant-based diets are not necessarily low-fat. In true plant-based diets, unsaturated fatty acids predominate, whereas saturated fatty acids come ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):512S-515S.

6. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mediates the pro-lipogenic effects of dietary saturated fat.
Match Strength: 12.129

Dietary saturated fats have often been implicated in the promotion of obesity and related disorders. It has been shown recently that saturated fats act through the transcription factor SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c) and its requisite coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta), to exert their pro-lipogenic effects. We show here that a diet high in the saturated fat stearate induces lipogenic genes in wild-type mice, with the induction of the Scd1 (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) gene preceding that of other lipogenic genes. ... Read More »
» Published in J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 26;282(4):2483-93. Epub 2006 Nov 23.

7. Diet does not explain the high prevalence of dyslipidaemia in paediatric renal transplant recipients.
Match Strength: 11.862

Dyslipidaemia exists frequently after renal transplantation (RTx) and promotes atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the association between daily intake of nutrients and serum lipids after paediatric RTx. We studied 45 children with acceptably functioning kidney grafts and adequately completed food records at a median age of 10.6 years (range 4.3-17.2 years), a median 5.2 years (range 1.0-11.0) after RTx, and 178 healthy controls at a median age of 9.0 years (range 3.2-18.7 years). Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B concentrations were higher in the RTx ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Nephrol. 2008 Feb;23(2):297-305. Epub 2007 Nov 15.

8. Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study.
Match Strength: 11.836

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle and vascular factors have been linked to dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the role of dietary fats in the development of dementia is less clear. METHODS: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples initially studied in midlife (1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987). Fat intake from spreads and milk products was assessed using a structured questionnaire and an interview. After an average follow-up of 21 years, a total of 1,449 (73%) individuals aged 65-80 years participated in the re-examination in 1998. Altogether 117 persons had dementia. RESULTS: ... Read More »
» Published in Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;22(1):99-107. Epub 2006 May 19.

9. Dietary fats and asthma in teenagers: analyses of the first Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT)
Match Strength: 11.802

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of asthma may be associated with dietary factors. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between nutrient intake and physician-diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A stratified, multiple-staged sampling design was used to select study areas, in which household interviews were carried out to gather information on health status and 24-h food recall. Data from 1166 adolescents, 13-17 years of age, were analysed. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, total calorie and energy-adjusted fat intake were associated with the prevalence of asthma, whereas vitamin A and ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Exp Allergy. 2001 Dec;31(12):1875-80.

10. Differential metabolic effects of saturated versus polyunsaturated fats in ketogenic diets.
Match Strength: 11.064

Ketogenic diets (KDs) are used for treatment of refractory epilepsy and metabolic disorders. The classic saturated fatty acid-enriched (SAT) KD has a fat:carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 4:1, in which the predominant fats are saturated. We hypothesized that a polyunsaturated fat-enriched (POLY) KD would induce a similar degree of ketosis with less detrimental effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Twenty healthy adults were randomized to two different weight-maintaining KDs for 5 d. Diets were 70% fat, 15% carbohydrate, and 15% protein. The fat contents were 60 or 15% saturated, 15 or ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1641-5.

11. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.
Match Strength: 10.876

A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact ... Read More »
» Published in Med J Malaysia. 1991 Mar;46(1):41-50.

12. A rapid method for the quantification of fatty acids in fats and oils with emphasis on trans fatty acids using Fourier Transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR).
Match Strength: 10.870

A rapid method was developed for classifying and quantifying the FA composition of edible oils and fats using Fourier Transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). The FT-NIR spectra showed unique fingerprints for saturated FA, cis and trans monounsaturated FA, and all n-6 and n-3 PUFA within TAG to permit qualitative and quantitative comparisons of fats and oils. The quantitative models were based on incorporating accurate GC data of the different fats and oils and FT-NIR spectral information into the calibration model using chemometric analysis. FT-NIR classification models were developed ... Read More »
» Published in Lipids. 2005 Aug;40(8):855-67.

13. A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Match Strength: 10.749

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily strikes the elderly. Studies in both humans and animal models have linked the consumption of cholesterol and saturated fats with amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition and development of AD. Yet, these studies did not examine high fat diets in combination with reduced carbohydrate intake. Here we tested the effect of a high saturated fat/low carbohydrate diet on a transgenic mouse model of AD. RESULTS: Starting at three months of age, two groups of female transgenic mice carrying the "London" APP mutation ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 Oct 17;2:28. Comment in: Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 Oct 17;2:27.

14. Consumption of trans fats and estimated effects on coronary heart disease in Iran.
Match Strength: 10.730

Objective:To investigate the consumption of industrial trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in Iranian homes and the proportion of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in Iran attributable to such intake.Design, setting and participants:The consumption of industrial TFAs was determined using (1) detailed in-home assessments of dietary intake among 7158 urban and rural households containing 35 924 individuals and (2) gas chromatography to determine TFA contents of the most commonly consumed partially hydrogenated oils. The population-attributable risk for CHD owing to TFA consumption was calculated on the ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan 31;

15. Various dietary fats differentially change the gene expression of neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation in rats.
Match Strength: 10.721

Various high-fat diets are obesogenic but not to the same extent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of saturated fat n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the central neuropeptidergic system in adult rats. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation, we evaluated the net effect of feeding in these fats, comparing the effects of a high- to low-fat diet, and the diversity of the effects of these fats in the same amount within the diet. We also determined plasma lipids, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations. Six-week ... Read More »
» Published in J Neuroendocrinol. 2007 May;19(5):364-73.

16. Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group.
Match Strength: 10.653

A 2-day forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing trans fatty acids without increasing saturated fats in the food supply while maintaining functionality and consumer acceptance of packaged, processed, and prepared foods. Attendees represented the agriculture and oilseed industry and oil processing, food manufacturing, food service, government, food technology, and health and nutrition disciplines. Presentations included food science behind fatty acid technology, the health science of dietary fatty acids, alternatives to trans fatty acids, and the use ... Read More »
» Published in Circulation. 2007 Apr 24;115(16):2231-46. Epub 2007 Apr 10. Erratum in: Circulation. 2007 June 26;115(25):e650.

17. Effect Of Source Of Dietary Fats On Serum Glucose, Insulin, And Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Responses To Mixed Test Meals In Subjects With Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Match Strength: 10.611

We recently demonstrated that normal subjects given mixed test meals of varying fatty acid composition showed significantly greater serum insulin responses to meals enriched with polyunsaturated fat as compared to those in which the fat content was derived from saturated fatty acids. To determine if a similar phenomenon occurs in subjects with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) responses to three mixed test meals of varying fatty acid composition were assessed in twelve subjects with NIDDM. Baseline means ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Coll Nutr. 1988 Apr;7(2):129-36.

18. Long-chain saturated fatty acids consumption and risk of gallstone disease among men.
Match Strength: 10.597

BACKGROUND: Various saturated fatty acids have different effects on blood lipids and insulin secretion in experiments. The effect of long-term consumption of specific and different classes of saturated fatty acids on the risk of gallstone disease in humans is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied consumption of saturated fatty acids and risk of gallstone disease in a cohort of 44,524 US men from 1986 to 2002. Intake of saturated fatty acids was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Newly diagnosed gallstone disease was ascertained biennially. RESULTS: ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Surg. 2008 Jan;247(1):95-103.

19. Tropical oils: nutritional and scientific issues.
Match Strength: 10.466

Individually and in combination with other oils, the tropical oils impart into manufactured foods functional properties that appeal to consumers. The use of and/or labeling in the ingredient lists give the impression that these oils are used extensively in commercially processed foods. The estimated daily intake of tropical oils by adult males is slightly more than one fourth of a tablespoon (3.8 g), 75% of which consists of saturated fatty acids. Dietary fats containing saturated fatty acids at the beta-position tend to raise plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, which, of course, contribute to ... Read More »
» Published in Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1992;31(1-2):79-102.

20. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance.
Match Strength: 10.205

Insulin resistance occurs in 20%-25% of the human population, and the condition is a chief component of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the sphingolipid ceramide is a common molecular intermediate linking several different pathological metabolic stresses (i.e., glucocorticoids and saturated fats, but not unsaturated fats) to the induction of insulin resistance. Moreover, inhibition of ceramide synthesis markedly improves glucose tolerance and prevents the onset of frank diabetes in obese rodents. ... Read More »
» Published in Cell Metab. 2007 Mar;5(3):167-79. Comment in: Cell Metab. 2007 Mar;5(3):161-3.

21. Diabetes Is Related To Fatty Acid Imbalance In Eskimos
Match Strength: 10.151

The reasons for the rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes (NIDDM) among Alaskan Eskimos are only partly understood. This study examines the association of fatty acid metabolism in 68 Alaskan Eskimos with NIDDM or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 386 with normal glucose tolerance > 24 years old. The prevalence of NIDDM was 12% and IGT was 18% in those > 54 years of age and in those < 55 years of age was 3.7% and 3.0%, respectively. Those with abnormal glucose tolerance had lower concentrations of some omega-3 fatty acids (FAs 18:3 omega-3, 20:5 omega-3) and some omega-6 FAs (18:3 omega ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Circumpolar Health. 1999 Apr;58(2):108-19.

22. Interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and subclinical atherosclerosis.
Match Strength: 10.136

BACKGROUND: Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol alter cardiovascular disease risk, but their effect on subclinical atherosclerosis remains understudied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine and quantify the interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and mean carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). DESIGN: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among 620 persons of Aboriginal, South Asian, Chinese, or European origin aged 35-75 y, who had lived in Canada for >or=5 y. Mean IMT was calculated from 6 well-defined segments of the right and ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):168-74.

23. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults.
Match Strength: 10.064

OBJECTIVE: To examine, in free-living adults eating self-selected diets, the effects on plasma cholesterol of substituting saturated fat rich foods with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat rich foods while at the same time adhering to a total fat intake of 30-33% of dietary energy. DESIGN: Two randomised crossover trials. SETTING: General community. SUBJECTS: Volunteer sample of healthy free-living nutrition students at the University of Otago. Trial I, n=29; and trial II, n=42. INTERVENTIONS: In trials I and II participants were asked to follow for 2(1/2) weeks a diet high in ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Oct;55(10):908-15.

24. A role for ceramide, but not diacylglycerol, in the antagonism of insulin signal transduction by saturated fatty acids.
Match Strength: 10.042

Multiple studies suggest that lipid oversupply to skeletal muscle contributes to the development of insulin resistance, perhaps by promoting the accumulation of lipid metabolites capable of inhibiting signal transduction. Herein we demonstrate that exposing muscle cells to particular saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), but not mono-unsaturated FFAs, inhibits insulin stimulation of Akt/protein kinase B, a serine/threonine kinase that is a central mediator of insulin-stimulated anabolic metabolism. These saturated FFAs concomitantly induced the accumulation of ceramide and diacylglycerol, two ... Read More »
» Published in J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 21;278(12):10297-303. Epub 2003 Jan 13.

25. Dietary fats and arterial thrombosis: effects and mechanism of action.
Match Strength: 9.993

Dietary fats have a pronounced effect on arterial thrombosis: in rats, long-chain saturated fatty acids are thrombogenic, oleic acid is neutral, and linoleic acid is anti-thrombotic. These effects are likely to be mediated, at least in part, by changes in platelet fatty acid composition and--consequently--platelet function. Blood coagulability and differences in vitamin E intake seem of no (or minor) importance. In man, dietary linoleic acid inhibits platelet aggregation and other parameters of platelet activation. Dietary fat effects on vascular prostacyclin formation have not yet been found ... Read More »
» Published in Prog Biochem Pharmacol. 1977;13:326-38.

26. The changing structure of diets in the European Union in relation to healthy eating guidelines.
Match Strength: 9.928

OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this paper is to assess diets in the European Union (EU) in relation to the recommendations of the recent World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization expert consultation and to show how diets have changed between 1961 and 2001. DATA AND METHODS: Computations make use of FAOSTAT data on food availability at country level linked to a food composition database to convert foods to nutrients. We further explore the growing similarity of diets in the EU by making use of a consumption similarity index. The index provides a single number measure of dietary ... Read More »
» Published in Public Health Nutr. 2006 Aug;9(5):584-95.

27. What should we eat? Evidence from observational studies.
Match Strength: 9.889

Observational studies provide a wealth of important correlations between diet and disease. There is a clear pattern of dietary habits that is associated with reduced rates of a multitude of common illnesses, including heart attack, cancer, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. In some cases, interventional studies have proven the benefits of dietary change; in others, there is insufficient evidence to prove causation. Based on the existing evidence, the optimal diet should emphasize fruits and vegetables, nuts, unsaturated oils, whole grains, and fish, while minimizing saturated fats (especially ... Read More »
» Published in South Med J. 2006 Jul;99(7):744-8.

28. Determination of total trans fats and oils by infrared spectroscopy for regulatory compliance.
Match Strength: 9.871

The mandatory requirement in many countries to declare the amount of trans fat present in food products and dietary supplements has led to a need for sensitive and accurate methodologies for the rapid quantitation of total trans fats and oils. Capillary gas chromatography (GC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) are the two methods most commonly used to identify and quantify trans fatty acids for food labeling purposes (see the article by Delmonte and Rader in this ABC issue for a detailed presentation of GC methodology). The present article provides a comprehensive review of the IR technique and ... Read More »
» Published in Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Apr 13;

29. Plasma lipid changes in young adult couples consuming polyunsaturated meats and dairy products.
Match Strength: 9.854

Twenty-five young couples consumed either a saturated or polyunsaturated fat diet for a 20-week period. The polyunsaturated beef, lamb and dairy products, high in linoleic acid, were produced by feeding ruminant animals "protected lipid" feeds which prevent hydrogenation of fats in the rumen. The experimental design provided for four dietary groups: A) saturated diet for 20 weeks; B) polyunsaturated diet for 20 weeks; C) saturated diet for 10 weeks then polyunsaturated diet for 10 weeks; and D) polyunsaturated for 10 weeks then saturated diet for 10 weeks. Polyunsaturated-to-saturated ratios ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Clin Nutr. 1975 Oct;28(10):1126-40.

30. Plasma fatty acids and lipoproteins in type 2 diabetic patients.
Match Strength: 9.818

BACKGROUND: The dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetic patients is characterized by high VLDL, abnormal LDL composition and low HDL cholesterol concentrations. The aim of this study was to establish whether the type of dietary fats affects LDL size and density and HDL cholesterol concentrations in these patients. METHODS: Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition, which reflects the type of dietary fatty acids, was quantified by gas chromatography. LDL relative flotation (LDL-Rf), a measure of LDL particle size and density, was determined by single vertical spin density gradient ultracentrifugation ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006 May-Jun;22(3):226-31.

31. Nutritional Fats and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer
Match Strength: 9.749

Dietary factors are important predictors for the risk of diabetes type 2. Increased consumption of fibre-rich foods, fruits and vegetables as well as limited amounts of total and saturated fats are essential elements in the prevention of diabetes type 2. The association between these dietary factors and the appearance of diabetes was not only present in cohort studies but were also major elements in the dietary part of the two large diabetes prevention trials (Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, Diabetes Prevention Program). There is also strong evidence for a relation between obesity and total ... Read More »
» Published in Physiol Behav. 2004 Dec 30;83(4):611-5.

32. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans.
Match Strength: 9.680

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. METHODS: Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats) and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Metab (Lond). 2007 Jan 15;4:3.

33. The changing roles of dietary carbohydrates: from simple to complex.
Match Strength: 9.660

The dietary recommendations made for carbohydrate intake by many organizations/agencies have changed over time. Early recommendations were based on the need to ensure dietary sufficiency and focused on meeting micronutrient intake requirements. Because carbohydrate-containing foods are a rich source of micronutrients, starches, grains, fruits, and vegetables became the foundation of dietary guidance, including the base of the US Department of Agriculture's Food Guide Pyramid. Dietary sufficiency recommendations were followed by recommendations to reduce cholesterol levels and the risk for ... Read More »
» Published in Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Sep;26(9):1958-65. Epub 2006 Jun 22.

34. Dietary animal-derived iron and fat intake and breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.
Match Strength: 9.624

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats and other constituents have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer risk. Iron, an essential micronutrient with pro-oxidant properties, has received little attention, and specific fats may augment its toxicity. We investigated the effects of iron and fats from various food sources on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Participants in a population-based case-control study, 3,452 breast cancer cases, and 3,474 age-frequency-matched controls, completed in-person interviews, including a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. Plant- and animal-derived iron ... Read More »
» Published in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Mar 13;

35. Essential fatty acids and prostaglandins.
Match Strength: 9.580

The World Health Organization's recommendation for dietary intake of essential fatty acids is 3% of energy (en%) of linoleate. Evidence from rat studies suggests that more than 3 en% is desirable for the regulation of eicosanoid metabolism. With such a low level of available linoleate, humans tend to synthesize more prostanoids than they do with 6% or more energy from linoleate. High rates of prostanoid synthesis probably are deleterious, so that the lower rate commensurate with 6-12 en% of linoleate probably is desirable. The amount of linoleate needed for normal function is influenced by the ... Read More »
» Published in Prev Med. 1987 Jul;16(4):485-92.

36. Quality of Dietary Fatty Acids, Insulin Sensitivity and Type 2 Diabetes
Match Strength: 9.573

Epidemiological evidence and intervention studies clearly indicate that the quality of dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity in humans, in particular, saturated fat worsens it, while monounsaturated and omega-6 polyunsaturated fats improve it. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids do not seem to have any effect on insulin sensitivity, at least in humans. Moreover, there is also good epidemiological evidence that the quality of dietary fat may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes, again with saturated fat increasing and unsaturated fat decreasing this risk. No intervention study is available at ... Read More »
» Published in Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Mar;57(2):84-7.

37. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins.
Match Strength: 9.416

The FAO/WHO Rome Report recommended an increase in the consumption of fat in countries where malnutrition is endemic; for maintenance, 3% of the dietary energy as essential fatty acids (EFA) may be adequate; in pregnancy and lactation an additional 1.5 to 2.4% energy as EFA is needed. For population at high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) the recommendations were to decrease saturated fat in particular and increase EFA intake in the diet, reduce sugar, alcohol and cholesterol. These recommendations were similar to those of the Royal College of Physicians but the ... Read More »
» Published in Postgrad Med J. 1980 Aug;56(658):557-62.

38. Diet composition and insulin action in animal models.
Match Strength: 9.383

Critical insights into the etiology of insulin resistance have been gained by the use of animal models where insulin action has been modulated by strictly controlled dietary interventions not possible in human studies. Overall, the literature has moved from a focus on macronutrient proportions to understanding the unique effects of individual subtypes of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Substantial evidence has now accumulated for a major role of dietary fat subtypes in insulin action. Intake of saturated fats is strongly linked to development of obesity and insulin resistance, while that of ... Read More »
» Published in Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S85-90.

39. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.
Match Strength: 9.222

Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):616S-620S.

40. Trans fatty acids, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.
Match Strength: 9.203

Type 2 diabetes, a growing global health problem, has a complex etiology involving many interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Essential to the development of the disease is insulin resistance of the peripheral tissues. Insulin resistance may be partly modified by the specific types of dietary fatty acids. Trans fatty acids (TFAs), created through the transformation of polyunsaturated fatty acids from their natural cis form to the trans form, are abundant in the Western diet. TFAs take on similar properties as saturated fats, and appear to be more atherogenic. High intakes of ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Rev. 2006 Aug;64(8):364-72.

41. Dietary fats, fatty acids, and their effects on lipoproteins.
Match Strength: 9.197

All saturated fatty acids, with the notable exception of stearic acid (C18:0), raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. A few less ubiquitous fatty acids also have LDL cholesterol effects. Trans-monounsaturated fatty acids, at equivalent doses of saturated fatty acids, raise LDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, at three times the dose of saturated fatty acids, lower LDL cholesterol. Higher intakes of most fatty acids raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, with the notable exception of trans-monounsaturated fatty acids, which lower HDL cholesterol to the same ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2006 Nov;8(6):466-71.

42. Fat intake and the risk of gastroschisis.
Match Strength: 9.147

BACKGROUND: Young age has been associated with an increased risk of gastroschisis. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of gastroschisis may be related to vascular disruption. Nutrients that may be associated with vasoconstriction include dietary fat and its subtypes. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary fats and gastroschisis and whether maternal age modified this association. METHODS: Data came from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), which included 304 isolated gastroschisis cases and 3313 controls. Dietary intake in the year ... Read More »
» Published in Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006 Apr;76(4):241-5.

43. Greater enrichment of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins with apolipoproteins E and C-III after meals rich in saturated fatty acids than after meals rich in unsaturated fatty acids.
Match Strength: 9.089

BACKGROUND: Although there is considerable interest in the postprandial events involved in the absorption of dietary fats and the subsequent metabolism of diet-derived triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, little is known about the effects of meal fatty acids on the composition of these particles. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of meal fatty acids on the lipid and apolipoprotein contents of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. DESIGN: Ten normolipidemic men received in random order a mixed meal containing 50 g of a mixture of palm oil and cocoa butter [rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs)], ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):25-34.

44. Advice That Includes Food Sources of Unsaturated Fat Supports Future Risk Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Match Strength: 9.086

Abstract Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart disease than pregnant women without GDM. Advice given during the GDM pregnancy provides an opportunity to develop protective dietary patterns for the long-term management of this risk. Dietary guidelines for the prevention and management of type 2 DM support the inclusion of unsaturated fats, but food advice needs to target this outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of women with GDM given general low-fat advice (control group) to women ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Dec;104(12):1863-7.

45. Dietetic guidelines on food and nutrition in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease - evidence from systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (second update, January 2006).
Match Strength: 9.086

AIM: To update dietetic guidelines based on systematic review evidence on dietary advice to prevent further events in people with existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) (secondary prevention). METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE were comprehensively searched to January 2005 for systematic reviews on aspects of diet and heart health. Reviews were included if they searched systematically for randomized controlled trials relating to diet and secondary prevention of CVD. Each review was critically appraised by at least two members of the UK Heart Health and Thoracic Dietitians Group. ... Read More »
» Published in J Hum Nutr Diet. 2006 Dec;19(6):401-19. Comment in: J Hum Nutr Diet. 2006 Dec;19(6):399-400.

46. The Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Phospholipids and the Insulin Sensitivity in Elderly Diabetic Patients. the Pro.V.A. Study
Match Strength: 8.936

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide indicating that life-style habits are important determinants for this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary fats on insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. METHODS: In a randomly selected sample of population aged 65 and older, plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was determined by gaschromatography. The plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition is a reliable marker of the type of fats present in the diet. Insulin resistance was estimated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). ... Read More »
» Published in Aging Clin Exp Res. 2002 Dec;14(6):474-8.

47. Effects of type of fat in the diet on iron bioavailability assessed in suckling and weanling rats.
Match Strength: 8.920

Differences in iron bioavailability from human milk and milk formulas may in part be due to differences in lipid composition. We investigated the short and long term effects of diets based on different fats [corn, coconut, olive, or soy oil, human milk fat (HMF) and a formula fat blend (FF)] on iron absorption in rats. Suckling rat pups dosed with 59Fe-labeled diets containing different fat sources were killed after 6 h, and blood and individual tissues were counted. Iron availability was estimated by % 59Fe in blood. Pups dosed with a more saturated fat (coconut oil) had a higher % 59Fe in ... Read More »
» Published in J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001;15(1):18-23.

48. Interrelationships of alpha-tocopherol with plasma lipoproteins in African green monkeys: effects of dietary fats.
Match Strength: 8.859

The distributions of plasma lipoprotein alpha-tocopherol and lipids were studied in African green monkeys consuming diets enriched in saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Plasma total alpha-tocopherol concentrations were not different among the animals fed the three diets, whereas plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly different among the diet groups. The alpha-tocopherol: total lipid molar ratio in plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher compared to low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low plus intermediate-sized low ... Read More »
» Published in J Lipid Res. 1993 Nov;34(11):1863-71.

49. Prenatal high saturated fat diet modifies behavioral effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.
Match Strength: 8.857

Pregnant rats were fed a control diet, a high saturated fat diet, or a high polyunsaturated diet lacking in vitamin E and zinc, for 6 weeks prior to breeding and continued to consume these diets during pregnancy. Beginning on gestation day 8, rats in each diet group were intubated with 5.3 or 0 g/kg alcohol. Rats in the 0 and 3 g/k group were pair fed to those in their respective 5 g/kg groups. A fourth group received one of the three diets ad lib, and was not intubated. On postnatal day 20, offspring were tested for locomotor activity and head-dipping behavior. Animals prenatally exposed to ... Read More »
» Published in Alcohol. 1997 Jan-Feb;14(1):25-9.

50. Dietary lipids in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease: implications for therapy
Match Strength: 8.840

Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but no conclusive evidence has emerged showing that these hallmarks are the cause and not a product of the disease. Many studies have implicated oxidation and inflammation in the AD process, and there is growing evidence that abnormalities of lipid metabolism also play a role. Using epidemiology to elucidate risk factors and histological changes to suggest possible mechanisms, the hypothesis is advanced that dietary lipids are the principal risk factor for the development of late-onset ... Read More »
» Published in Drugs Aging. 2003;20(6):399-418.

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