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1. (+)-Catechin is more bioavailable than (-)-catechin: relevance to the bioavailability of catechin from cocoa.
Match Strength: 14.926

Catechin is a flavonoid present in fruits, wine and cocoa products. Most foods contain the (+)-enantiomer of catechin but chocolate mainly contains ( - )-catechin, in addition to its major flavanol, ( - )-epicatechin. Previous studies have shown poor bioavailability of catechin when consumed in chocolate. We compared the absorption of ( - ) and (+)-catechin after in situ perfusion of 10, 30 or 50 micromol/l of each catechin enantiomer in the jejunum and ileum in the rat. We also assayed 23 samples of chocolate for (+) and ( - )-catechin. Samples were analyzed using HPLC with a Cyclobond I-2000 ... Read More »
» Published in Free Radic Res. 2006 Oct;40(10):1029-34.

2. Structural identification and distribution of proanthocyanidins in 13 different hops.
Match Strength: 12.482

Ten newly isolated hop proanthocyanidin oligomers and flavan-3-ol monomers from 13 different hops have been identified as gallocatechin, gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, gallocatechin-(4alpha-->6)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin, catechin-(4alpha-->6)-gallocatechin, afzelechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, and gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 31;54(11):4048-56.

3. Stabilization of collagen using plant polyphenol: role of catechin.
Match Strength: 11.573

Collagen, a unique connective tissue protein finds extensive application as biocompatible biomaterial in wound healing, as drug carriers, cosmetics, etc. A work has been undertaken to study the stabilization of type I collagen using the plant polyphenol catechin. Catechin treated collagen fibres showed a shrinkage temperature around 70 degrees C implying that catechin is able to impart thermal stability to collagen. Catechin treated collagen fibres has been found to be stable even after treatment with high concentration of the secondary structural destabilizer, urea. Circular dichroism studies ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Biol Macromol. 2005 Oct 30;37(1-2):47-53. Epub 2005 Sep 23.

4. Synthesis of modified proanthocyanidins: introduction of acyl substituents at C-8 of catechin. Selective synthesis of a C-4-->O-->C-3 ether-linked procyanidin-like dimer.
Match Strength: 11.522

The regioselective introduction of substituents at C-8 of (+)-catechin is described, leading to the synthesis of several catechin derivatives with various substitution patterns to be used for the further synthesis of modified proanthocyanidins. Thereafter, a new 3-O-4 ether-linked procyanidin-like derivative was synthesized. Its formation was selectively achieved through TiCl(4)-catalyzed condensation of 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)tetra-O-benzyl catechin with the 8-trifluoroacetyl adduct of tetra-O-benzyl catechin ... Read More »
» Published in Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):559-62.

5. Flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from the bark of Salix purpurea L.
Match Strength: 11.142

From a commercial aqueous ethanolic extract obtained from the bark of Salix purpurea L. the flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, catechin-3-O-(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid)-ester, the dimeric procyanidins B1, B3 and the trimeric procyanidins epicatechin-(4B-->8)-catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin and epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin were isolated. Structure elucidation was performed by NMR, CD, MS, degradation and optical rotation methods. A fraction containing higher oligomeric procyanidins was investigated by 13C NMR. Data ... Read More »
» Published in Pharmazie. 2007 Mar;62(3):231-4.

6. Alpha-anomer-selective glucosylation of (+)-catechin by the crude enzyme, showing glucosyl transfer activity, of Xanthomonas campestris WU-9701.
Match Strength: 11.015

Alpha-anomer-selective glucosylation of (+)-catechin was carried out using the crude enzyme, showing alpha-glucose transferring activity, of Xanthomonas campestris WU-9701 with maltose as a glucosyl donor. When 60 mg of (+)-catechin and 50 mg of the enzyme (5.25 units as maltose hydrolysing activity) were incubated in 10 ml of 10 mM citrate-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 6.5) containing 1.2 M maltose at 45 degrees C, only one (+)-catechin glucoside was selectively obtained as a product. The (+)-catechin glucoside was identified as (+)-catechin 3'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (alpha-C-G) by 13C-NMR, (1)H-NMR ... Read More »
» Published in J Biosci Bioeng. 2000;90(6):625-30.

7. Catechin transformation as influenced by aluminum.
Match Strength: 10.956

Polyphenols (catechins) are vital biomolecules in tea plants (Camellia sinensis), which are well-known as typical Al accumulators. However, the interaction between Al and catechin remains obscured. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Al on the transformation of (+)-catechin. Solutions with OH/Al molar ratios of 2.5 (pH 5.5) and 3.0 (pH 7.0) prepared at Al/catechin molar ratios (R) of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 were aged for 7 and 30 days, respectively. The precipitates were collected and examined by wet chemistry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jan 11;54(1):212-8.

8. Role of green tea polyphenols in the inhibition of collagenolytic activity by collagenase.
Match Strength: 10.893

Inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols viz., catechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the action of collagenase against collagen has been probed in this study. Catechin and EGCG treated collagen exhibited 56 and 95% resistance, respectively, against collagenolytic hydrolysis by collagenase. Whereas direct interaction of catechin and EGCG with collagenase exhibited 70 and 88% inhibition, respectively, to collagenolytic activity of collagenase against collagen and the inhibition was found to be concentration dependent. The kinetics of inhibition of collagenase by catechin and EGCG has ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Biol Macromol. 2006 Dec 12;

9. Role of green tea polyphenols in the inhibition of collagenolytic activity by collagenase.
Match Strength: 10.893

Inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols viz., catechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the action of collagenase against collagen has been probed in this study. Catechin and EGCG treated collagen exhibited 56 and 95% resistance, respectively, against collagenolytic hydrolysis by collagenase. Whereas direct interaction of catechin and EGCG with collagenase exhibited 70 and 88% inhibition, respectively, to collagenolytic activity of collagenase against collagen and the inhibition was found to be concentration dependent. The kinetics of inhibition of collagenase by catechin and EGCG has ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Biol Macromol. 2006 Dec 12;

10. Daily consumption of green tea catechin delays memory regression in aged mice.
Match Strength: 10.629

Almost all elderly people show brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction, even if they are saved from illness, such as cardiac disease, malignancy and diabetes. Prevention or delay of brain senescence would therefore enhance the quality of life for older persons. Because oxidative stress has been implicated in brain senescence, we investigated the effects of green tea catechin (GT-catechin), a potential antioxidant, in senescence-accelerated (SAMP10) mice. The mouse is a model of brain senescence with short life span, cerebral atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Mice were fed water containing 0 ... Read More »
» Published in Biogerontology. 2006 Sep 7;

11. Elevated levels of DNA repair enzymes and antioxidative enzymes by (+)-catechin in murine microglia cells after oxidative stress.
Match Strength: 10.584

(+)-Catechin possesses a broad range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative effect. However, little is reported on the mechanism by which (+)-catechin protects microglia cells from DNA damage by oxidative stress. In this study, TUNEL assay and DNA electrophorysis indicated that (+)-catechin markedly blocked DNA fragmentation and apoptosis of microglia cells by tBHP exposure. A potent antioxidative effect of (+)-catechin was confirmed by comparison with a putative antioxidant agent, N-acetylcysteine at the lower doses. Furthermore, the increased intracellular ROS by tBHP ... Read More »
» Published in J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006 Jan-Mar;8(1-2):61-71.

12. Catechin derivatives in Jatropha macrantha stems: characterisation and LC/ESI/MS/MS quali-quantitative analysis.
Match Strength: 10.406

A phytochemical investigation on methanol extract of stems of Jatropha macrantha led to the isolation of catechin, catechin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside and proanthocyanidin B-3 along with other catechin polymers. Their structures were established by NMR and ESI/MS experiments. Additionally, an LC/ESI/MS qualitative study and an LC/ESI/MS/MS quantitative study of the phenolic fraction of J. macrantha stems were performed. Combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (DAD) with positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) performed with Ion Trap ... Read More »
» Published in J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Feb 24;40(3):639-47. Epub 2005 Nov 18.

13. (+)-Catechin-aldehyde condensations: competition between acetaldehyde and glyoxylic acid.
Match Strength: 10.398

(+)-Catechin reaction with two aldehydes (acetaldehyde and glyoxylic acid) was studied in winelike model solution. The two aldehydes were reacted either individually or together with (+)-catechin and in molar excess. The reactions were followed by HLPC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS to monitor (+)-catechin disappearance as well as dimer and polymer appearance. In all reactions a reaction order of close to 1 for (+)-catechin disappearance was observed. (+)-Catechin disappearance was slower in the presence of acetaldehyde (t(1/2) = 6.7 +/- 0.2 h) compared to glyoxylic acid (t(1/2) = 2.3 +/- 0.2 h). When the ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 21;53(19):7552-8.

14. Protective role of antioxidant vitamin E and catechin on idarubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
Match Strength: 10.264

Idarubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic extensively used in acute leukemia. In the present study we investigated whether vitamin E and catechin can reduce the toxic effects of idarubicin. Vitamin E (200 IU kg(-1) week(-1)), catechin (200 mg kg(-1) week(-1)), idarubicin (5 mg kg(-1) week(-1)), idarubicin + vitamin E (200 IU kg(-1) week(-1)), and idarubicin + catechin (200 mg kg(-1) week(-1)) combinations were given to male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 210 to 230 g (N = 6/group). Idarubicin-treated animals exhibited a decrease in body and heart weight, a decrease in myocardial contractility, ... Read More »
» Published in Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Nov;35(11):1379-87.

15. Separation of catechin compounds from different teas.
Match Strength: 9.649

Catechin compounds from Korean and Chinese green tea, and pu-erh, Indian black, Longjing, Tieguanyin, Bamboo, Jasmine, Oolong, Flower, Red teas, as potential anticancer and antioxidant components, were target material in this work. After extracting the green tea with water at 50 degrees C for 4 h, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned with water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the five catechin compounds epigallocatechin, (+) catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin ... Read More »
» Published in Biotechnol J. 2006 Feb;1(2):209-13.

16. Antioxidant effects of "beta catechin".
Match Strength: 9.634

The free radical scavenging effect of "beta catechin", an antioxidant preparation containing green tea extract, ascorbic acid, sunflower seed extract, dunaliella carotene and natural vitamin E, was evaluated. Two techniques were used: electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry to measure radical-scavenging activity, and measurement of its effect on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in brain. A 0.05% solution of "beta catechin" completely scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals (6.1 x 10(15)spins/ml). A 10% solution of "beta catechin" completely scavenged superoxide (4.2 x 10(15) ... Read More »
» Published in Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1995 Apr;35(5):995-1008.

17. Effect of gallic acid and catechin on Lactobacillus hilgardii 5w growth and metabolism of organic compounds.
Match Strength: 9.595

The effects of different concentrations of (+)-catechin and gallic acid on the growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus hilgardii in different media were evaluated. These phenolic compounds at concentrations normally present in wine not only stimulated the growth rate but also resulted in greater cell densities during the stationary phase of growth in both media. During the first hours of growth both phenolic compounds activated the rate of glucose and fructose utilization and only catechin increased the malic acid consumption rate. Gallic acid and catechin were consumed from the beginning of L. ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Sep;49(9):4359-63.

18. Characteristics of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin transport across pig intestinal brush border membranes.
Match Strength: 9.480

BACKGROUND/AIMS: (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are considered as disease preventive flavan-3-ols of foods like fruits, beverages and chocolate. We investigated mechanisms and kinetics of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin uptake employing a validated in vitro model with isolated pig brush border membrane vesicles. METHODS: Vesicles were isolated from pig small intestine employing the divalent cation method. Characterization (marker enzymes, electron microscopy) confirmed their purity and function. Transport studies with (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin under predefined conditions [presence ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(1):59-65. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

19. Effect of catechin on the activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase in cultured rat brain astrocytes.
Match Strength: 9.436

Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in recent. Oxygen free radicals produced during cerebral infarction increases the damage to neurons. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the endogenous antioxidant enzyme that can effectively scavenge superoxide radicals. Catechin is a hydrophilic antioxidant usually existed in tea, fruits and vegetables. In the cultured rat brain astrocytes (RBA), the activity of SOD (both Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD subtypes) was markedly increased by incubation with catechin at low concentration (0.1 microM) for 2 days (short-term) and 7 days (long-term). ... Read More »
» Published in Neurosci Lett. 2002 Aug 16;328(3):281-4.

20. Epigallocatechin gallate induces apoptosis of monocytes.
Match Strength: 9.380

BACKGROUND: Monocytes are the main effector cells of the immune system, and the regulation of their survival and apoptosis is essential for monocyte-involved immune responses. Green tea polyphenol catechin has been reported to have antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activities, but its effect on monocytes has not yet been explored. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of catechin, we studied the effect of catechin, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on the apoptosis of monocytes. METHODS: Isolated peripheral blood monocytes were incubated without or ... Read More »
» Published in J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Jan;115(1):186-91.

21. Biooxidation of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin into 3,4-dihydroxyflavan derivatives by the endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. isolated from a tea plant.
Match Strength: 9.363

The microbial transformation of (+)-catechin (1) and (-)-epicatechin (2) by endophytic fungi isolated from a tea plant was investigated. It was found that the endophytic filamentous fungus Diaporthe sp. transformed them (1, 2) into the 3,4-cis-dihydroxyflavan derivatives, (+)-(2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,7,3',4'-hexahydroxyflavan (3) and (-)-(2R,3R,4R)-3,4,5,7,3',4'-hexahydroxyflavan (7), respectively, whereas (-)-catechin (ent-1) and (+)-epicatechin (ent-2) with a 2S-phenyl group resisted the biooxidation. Publication Types: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov ... Read More »
» Published in Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005 Jul;53(7):866-7.

22. Pro-Inflammatory Flavonoids Which Are Inhibitors of Prostaglandin Biosynthesis
Match Strength: 9.328

Catechin dimers induce a large long-lasting oedema when injected in the paw of the rat. This oedema is not inhibited by methysergide, promethazine, indomethacin, phenidone, bromophenacyl bromide and colchicine. It is not modified in rats made leukopenic by methotrexate. It is slightly delayed in Brown Norway rats which were kallikrein-kininogen deficient. Similarly catechin dimers induce the formation of a large peritoneal exudate in the rat. The exudate contains insignificant levels of leucocytes and 5-hydroxytryptamine. It contains kinins but its PG content is very low. The exudate does not ... Read More »
» Published in Prostaglandins Leukot Med. 1985 Jul;19(1):11-24.

23. A lack of evidence for an ecological role of the putative allelochemical (+/-)-catechin in spotted knapweed invasion success.
Match Strength: 9.273

Allelopathy is a notoriously difficult mechanism to demonstrate. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in allelopathy because of the work done on the invasive weed spotted knapweed and its putative allelochemical, (+/-)-catechin. In this study we collected and analyzed soil samples taken from three, long-term knapweed infested sites in Montana, USA during the summer and fall of 2005. We only detected catechin in all the soil cores at one time point (August, 2005) at two of the sites. Field levels from these two sites were nearly three orders of magnitude lower than what has previously ... Read More »
» Published in J Chem Ecol. 2006 Oct;32(10):2327-31.

24. Catechin derivatives: specific inhibitor for caspases-3, 7 and 2, and the prevention of apoptosis at the cell and animal levels.
Match Strength: 9.263

Tea-catechin derivatives are shown to inhibit activities of caspases-3, 2 and 7 in vitro, and prevented experimental apoptosis at the cell and animal levels. Epigallo-catechin-gallate showed the strongest inhibition at 1 x 10(-7)M to these caspases, but cysteine cathepsins and caspase-8 were not inhibited. Caspase-3 inhibition showed a 2nd-order allosteric-type, but the inhibition of caspases-2 and 7 showed a non-competitive-type. The apoptosis-test using cultured HeLa cells was inhibited by these catechins. In rat hepatocytes, apoptosis was induced by d-galactosamine in vivo. In this case, ... Read More »
» Published in FEBS Lett. 2006 Feb 6;580(3):741-6. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

25. Gargling with tea catechin extracts for the prevention of influenza infection in elderly nursing home residents: a prospective clinical study.
Match Strength: 9.240

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of gargling tea catechin extracts on the prevention of influenza infection in elderly nursing home residents. DESIGN: A prospective study conducted for 3 months from January to March 2005. SETTINGS/LOCATION: A nursing home in Japan. SUBJECTS: A total of 124 elderly residents of at least 65 years of age were enrolled in the study. Seventy-six residents (83 +/-8.2 years, mean +/-standard deviation; 24 men, 52 women) gargled with tea catechin extract (catechin group) and were compared with 48 age- and sex-matched residents who gargled without tea catechin ... Read More »
» Published in J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Sep;12(7):669-72.

26. Salivary hydrogen peroxide produced by holding or chewing green tea in the oral cavity.
Match Strength: 9.209

Tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins have been studied for disease prevention. These compounds undergo oxidation and produce H(2)O(2). We have previously shown that holding tea solution or chewing tea leaves generates high salivary catechin levels. Herein, we examined the generation of H(2)O(2) in the oral cavity by green tea solution or leaves. Human volunteers holding green tea solution (0.1-0.6%) developed salivary H(2)O(2) with C(max) = 2.9-9.6 muM and AUC(0 --> infinity) = 8.5-285.3 muM min. Chewing 2 g green tea leaves produced higher levels of H(2)O(2) (C(max) = 31.2 muM, AUC(0 --> ... Read More »
» Published in Free Radic Res. 2007 Jul;41(7):850-3.

27. Determination of Rutin, Catechin, Epicatechin, and Epicatechin Gallate in Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by Micro-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection.
Match Strength: 9.203

A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 25;

28. Spin-trapping study on the hydroxyl radical formed from a tea catechin-Cu(II) system.
Match Strength: 9.178

A spin-trapping method was applied to examine the formation of the hydroxyl (OH) radical from a tea catechin-Cu(II) system to elucidate a previous result that some tea catechin-Cu(II) systems induced DNA scission. Three tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), were used. The spin-trapping agent, 5,5'-dimethyl-pyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO), was dissolved in a pH 9 phosphate buffer solution, then a catechin and Cu(II) were added in that order, and the ESR spectral change was monitored for one hour. The order of adding the catechin and Cu ... Read More »
» Published in Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Aug;65(8):1697-706.

29. Synthesis and Preliminary Anticancer Activity Studies of C4 and C8-Modified Derivatives of Catechin Gallate (CG) and Epicatechin Gallate (ECG).
Match Strength: 9.082

We have developed an improved and reliable method for stereoselective functionalization at C4 of naturally occurring (+)-catechin. Our method utilizes DDQ oxidation followed by trapping of the quinonemethide intermediate with allyl alcohol. The quinonemethide intermediate can be regenerated from the allyl ether by exposure to boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. This reactive intermediate can be trapped with a wide range of external nucleophiles. NBS bromination, lithium halogen exchange, and alkylation gave access to C8-allyl derivatives of (+)-catechin, and this allyl group was used ... Read More »
» Published in J Org Chem. 2006 Dec 22;71(26):9701-9712.

30. Doxorubicin hepatotoxicity and hepatic free radical metabolism in rats. The effects of vitamin E and catechin.
Match Strength: 9.073

Doxorubicin (DXR) is an anthracycline antibiotic, broadly used in tumor therapy. In the present study we investigated whether vitamin E and catechin can reduce the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Vitamin E (200 IU/kg/week), catechin (200 mg/kg/week), doxorubicin (5 mg/kg/week), doxorubicin+vitamin E (200 IU/kg/week), doxorubicin+catechin (200 mg/kg/week) combinations were given to rats weighing 210-230 g (n=6/group). Changes in major enzymes participating in free radical metabolism superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicology. 2005 Apr 1;209(1):39-45. Epub 2005 Jan 8.

31. Decline in glutathione peroxidase activity is a reason for brain senescence: consumption of green tea catechin prevents the decline in its activity and protein oxidative damage in ageing mouse brain.
Match Strength: 9.061

The accumulation of oxidative damage is believed to contribute to senescence. We have previously found that the consumption of green tea catechins (GT-catechin), which are potent antioxidants, decreases oxidative damage to DNA and improves brain function in aged mice with accelerated senescence (SAMP10 mice). To investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of GT-catechin, we measured the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the brains of aged SAMP10 mice. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), an essential enzyme for reduction of hydrogen and lipid peroxides, was ... Read More »
» Published in Biogerontology. 2007 Feb 20;

32. UV-visible spectroscopic investigation of the 8,8-methylmethine catechin-malvidin 3-glucoside pigments in aqueous solution: structural transformations and molecular complexation with chlorogenic acid.
Match Strength: 9.041

The physicochemical properties of 8,8-methylmethine catechin-malvidin 3-O-glucoside isomers, commonly referred to as catechin-ethyl-malvidin 3-O-glucoside, have been studied in aqueous solutions and compared with those of the parent anthocyanin (malvidin 3-O-glucoside). The hydration and acidity constants (pKh and pKa) of the catechin-ethyl-malvidin 3-O-glucoside pigments and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were determined by UV-visible spectroscopic measurements. The ethyl-linked catechin-malvidin 3-O-glucoside pigments present higher stability toward hydration than the parent anthocyanin. The high ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jan 11;54(1):189-96.

33. Rapid reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the major cocoa polyphenols and inter-relationships of their concentrations in chocolate.
Match Strength: 9.019

Chocolate and other cocoa-containing products are a rich source of polyphenols. This paper describes an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method that can separate and quantify in 3 min six of the major chocolate polyphenols: catechin; epicatechin; B2 (epicatechin-4beta-8-epicatechin); B5 (epicatechin-4beta-6-epicatechin); C1 (epicatechin-4beta-8-epicatechin-4beta-8-epicatechin); and tetramer D (epicatechin-4beta-8-epicatechin-4beta-8-epicatechin-4beta-8-epicatechin). A survey of 68 chocolate samples indicated that there was a strongly predictive relationship between epicatechin ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Apr 18;55(8):2841-7. Epub 2007 Mar 16.

34. Catechin and epicatechin from Smilacis chinae rhizome protect cultured rat cortical neurons against amyloid beta protein (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity through inhibition of cytosolic calcium elevation.
Match Strength: 8.975

We previously reported that the Smilacis chinae rhizome inhibits amyloid beta protein (25-35) (Abeta (25-35))-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Here, we isolated catechin and epicatechin from S. chinae rhizome and also studied their neuroprotective effects on Abeta (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Catechin and epicatechin inhibited 10 microM Abeta (25-35)-induced neuronal cell death at a concentration of 10 microM, which was measured by a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. ... Read More »
» Published in Life Sci. 2006 Nov 10;79(24):2251-9. Epub 2006 Jul 28.

35. Dietary influence on pancreatic cancer growth by catechin and inositol hexaphosphate.
Match Strength: 8.875

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is an extremely virulent form of cancer with few effective treatments. Catechin and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), two naturally occurring molecules found in green tea and high-fiber foods, respectively, are compounds that have been shown to demonstrate anti-proliferative effects when administered as single therapeutic agents against a number of cancers. We hypothesized that, alone and in combination, IP6 and catechin would be effective against pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic (PANC-1 and MIAPACA) cancer cell lines were cultured and treated ... Read More »
» Published in J Surg Res. 2007 Jul;141(1):115-9.

36. Selective and sensitive hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin based sensor for simple monitoring of (+)-catechin in some commercial drinks and biological fluids.
Match Strength: 8.867

(+)-Catechin (CAT) was considered as a polyphenolic compound abundantly contained in plants. It exerts protective effect against cancer, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. These protective effects are mainly attributed to its antioxidative activity by scavenging free radicals. Therefore, the need of simple, selective and sensitive monitoring of (+)-catechin in commercial drinks and biological fluids is crucial. A new selective and sensitive voltammetric quantification of (+)-catechin was investigated at low cost hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin modified carbon paste sensor in acidic ... Read More »
» Published in Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Jun 19;593(2):178-87. Epub 2007 May 6.

37. Polyphenols enhance platelet nitric oxide by inhibiting protein kinase C-dependent NADPH oxidase activation: effect on platelet recruitment.
Match Strength: 8.848

Several studies demonstrated an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular events. Platelet recruitment is an important phase of platelet activation at the site of vascular injury, but it has never been investigated whether polyphenols influence platelet recruitment. The aim of the study was to analyze in vitro whether two polyphenols, quercetin and catechin, were able to affect platelet recruitment. Platelet recruitment was reduced by NO donors and by NADPH oxidase inhibitors and was enhanced by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase. Quercetin and catechin, but not single ... Read More »
» Published in FASEB J. 2006 Jun;20(8):1082-9.

38. (-)-Catechin suppresses expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 and increases expression and secretion of adiponectin protein in 3T3-L1 cells.
Match Strength: 8.842

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific secretory hormone that can increase insulin sensitivity and promote adipocyte differentiation. Administration of adiponectin to obese or diabetic mice reduces plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels. Green tea polyphenols posses many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic activities. To investigate whether green tea polyphenols have an effect on the regulation of adiponectin, we measured expression and secretion levels of adiponectin protein after treatment of each green tea polyphenols in 3T3L1 ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec 12;

39. Anti-ulcer effect of tea catechin in rats.
Match Strength: 8.788

Oral administration of tea catechin dose-dependently prevented absolute ethanol-induced (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) or restraint plus water immersion stress-induced acute gastric mucosal injury (300, 400 mg/kg) in rats. When the effect of test compound was evaluated on the 15th day after acetic acid injection to rats, repeated oral administration of tea catechin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg twice daily) dose-dependently accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. Tea catechin (10(-5)-10(-1) g/100 ml) concentration-dependently scavenged superoxide anions in vitro. Tea catechin (100, ... Read More »
» Published in Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Nov;29(11):2206-13.

40. Inhibitory effects of catechin gallates on o-methyltranslation of protocatechuic acid in rat liver cytosolic preparations and cultured hepatocytes.
Match Strength: 8.780

Flavonoids including tea catechins and gallic acid esters were characterized for their ability to inhibit o-methyltranslation of protocatechuic acid (PCA) to form vanillic acid (VA) in rat liver cytosolic preparations and cultured hepatocytes. Flavonols and flavones exhibited different behaviors in inhibiting the formation of VA between the cell-free enzymatic preparations and the intact cells. The underlying mechanism of the inhibitory effects of flavonols and flavones on PCA o-methylation in cultured hepatocytes may not be due to the inhibition of the enzyme activity of catechol o-methyl ... Read More »
» Published in Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Aug;28(8):1509-13.

41. Epigallocatechin Gallate Attenuates Adhesion and Migration of Cd8+ T Cells by Binding to Cd11b
Match Strength: 8.767

BACKGROUND: Although green tea polyphenol catechin has been reported to have antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the precise mechanisms of its effect on the immune system have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of catechin. For this purpose, we studied the effect of 2 kinds of catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate, on peripheral blood CD8+ T cells, which play the key role in immune responses. METHODS: Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD8+ T cells were ... Read More »
» Published in J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Jun;113(6):1211-7.

42. Synergistic Effect Between Catechin and Ciprofloxacin on Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis Rat Model
Match Strength: 8.625

BACKGROUND: Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in adult men. Antibiotic therapy is the gold standard of treatment. However, long-term therapy resulted in many side-effects and bacterial resistance. Because of these reasons, we need new treatment modality that could replace traditional antibiotic therapy. Catechin, an extract of green tea, has antimicrobial effect against various bacteria and synergy effect to antibiotics. We evaluate the synergistic effects of catechin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model. METHODS: An experimental CBP model was ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Urol. 2005 Apr;12(4):383-9.

43. Green tea catechin improves microsomal phospholipase A2 activity and the arachidonic acid cascade system in the kidney of diabetic rats.
Match Strength: 8.497

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on the microsomal phospholipase A2 activity and arachidonic acid cascade in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were assigned randomly to one normal and three streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. The diabetic groups were the DM-0C group (n = 10), fed a catechin-free diet, the DM-0.25C group (n = 10), fed a 0.25 g catechin per 100 g diet, and the DM-0.5C group (n = 10), fed a 0.5 g catechin per 100 g diet. The kidney microsomal phospholipase A2 ... Read More »
» Published in Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(3):226-31.

44. Scavenging activity of "beta catechin" on reactive oxygen species generated by photosensitization of riboflavin.
Match Strength: 8.455

beta CATECHIN, a preparation containing green tea extract, ascorbic acid, sunflower seed extract, dunaliella carotene and natural vitamin E, has been designed as a model "universal antioxidant" that offers protection via its scavenging action on a wide range of free radicals, both water-soluble and fat-soluble. Reactive oxygen species like singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, are often generated in biological systems during photosensitized oxidation reactions. We report on the simultaneous effect of "beta CATECHIN" on active oxygen species generated during the photosensitized ... Read More »
» Published in Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1996 May;38(6):1163-70.

45. Phenolic Compounds of Barley Grain and Their Implication in Food Product Discoloration.
Match Strength: 8.438

Barley grains contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds that may play a major role in the discoloration of food products. Phenolic acid and proanthocyanidin (PA) composition of 11 barley genotypes were determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and their significance on food discoloration was evaluated. Abraded grains contained 146-410 &mgr;g/g of phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic) in hulled barley and 182-282 &mgr;g/g in hulless barley. Hulled PA-containing and PA-free genotypes had comparable phenolic acid ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9978-9984.

46. Interaction of flavonoids with bovine serum albumin: a fluorescence quenching study.
Match Strength: 8.407

The interaction between four flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation to provide a measure of the binding affinity between the flavonoids and BSA. The binding affinity was strongest for quercetin and ranked in the order quercetin > rutin > epicatechin = catechin. The pH in the range of 5-7.4 does not affect significantly (p < 0.05) the association of rutin, epicatechin, and catechin with BSA, but quercetin ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 12;53(1):158-63.

47. Epicatechin and catechin may prevent coffee berry disease by inhibition of appressorial melanization of Colletotrichum kahawae.
Match Strength: 8.385

Colletotrichum kahawae is the causal agent of coffee berry disease. Appressorial melanization is essential for the fungal penetration of plant cuticle. Epicatechin is abundant in green coffee berry pericarp. Inoculation of C. kahawae conidial suspension containing 1.2 mg epicatechin or catechin/ml did not affect conidial germination or appressorial formation but appressorial melanization was completely inhibited and infection by the treated conidia was less than 30% of the untreated control. Epicatechin and catechin may, therefore, prevent coffee berry disease by inhibition of the appressorial ... Read More »
» Published in Biotechnol Lett. 2006 Oct;28(20):1637-40. Epub 2006 Aug 3.

48. Effect of dietary catechin and vitamin E on aortic fatty streak accumulation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
Match Strength: 8.337

Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed for 16 weeks on a hypercholesterolemic diet containing, per kg, 150 g of lipids (90 g butterfat, 35 g vitamin E-stripped corn oil and 25 g fish oil), 2 g cholesterol and either 3 IU vitamin E (3 IU E), 3 IU vitamin E and 200 mg catechin hydrate (3 IU E-200 Cat) or 30 IU vitamin E (30 IU E). More fatty streaks, measured by Oil Red O staining, were deposited in aortas of hamsters fed 3 IU E than in those fed either 3 IU E-200 Cat or 30 IU E. Lipid staining increased with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in all animals. At the same ... Read More »
» Published in Atherosclerosis. 1998 Mar;137(1):29-36.

49. Catechin prevents tamoxifen-induced oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in mice.
Match Strength: 8.310

Natural antioxidants like catechin are now known to have a modulatory role on physiological functions and biotransformation reactions involved in the detoxification process, thereby affording protection from toxic metabolic actions of xenobiotics. Reactive oxygen intermediates have been demonstrated to play an etiological role in anticancer drug-induced toxicity. This study was performed to explore the modulatory and protective effect of catechin on the toxicity of an anticancer drug, tamoxifen (TAM) with special reference to protection against disruption of glutathione metabolizing and ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicology. 2006 Aug 15;225(2-3):109-18. Epub 2006 May 20.

50. Role of a surfactant in caustic alkali cleaning of polyethylene terephthalate surfaces fouled with organic substances.
Match Strength: 8.310

The role of polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (POELE), a nonionic surfactant, in removing bovine serum albumin (BSA) and catechin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles was quantitatively studied. Relatively large fractions of adsorbed BSA and catechin were removed from PET particles under weak alkaline conditions below pH 9, whereas cleaning with high concentrations of NaOH was not so effective, especially on the removal of BSA. This was attributed to the lower susceptibility of PET particles to water-based alkali (OH-) cleaning because of the lower degree of the polarity of PET surfaces. ... Read More »
» Published in Biocontrol Sci. 2006 Dec;11(4):167-74.

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