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Prostate Cancer
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1. Optimizing prostate biopsy strategies for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 10.687

The importance of prostate biopsy in urologic practice has been magnified by the routine use of serum prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer screening. Given the potential impact of the procedure on both patient care and health care costs, an optimal strategy for accurate and judicious detection of early prostate cancer is imperative. Maintaining maximal sensitivity and negative predictive value are equally important to the patient. In this article, we review recent modifications in prostate biopsy indications and techniques that may allow for a systematic biopsy approach to the patient ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003 Summer;5(3):149-55.

2. Assays for complexed prostate-specific antigen and other advances in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 10.359

This review discusses advances in the area of serum and tissue markers for prostate cancer. A recently developed assay for complexed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been found to have better specificity than that afforded by assay of total PSA. Researchers in Austria have found that lowering the PSA cutoff point for a diagnosis of prostate cancer resulted in a significant increase in identifying men with cancer at a favorable pathologic stage. Difficulties in pathologic interpretation of tissue specimens can result in both under- and over-diagnosis of prostate cancer. When in doubt, ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 6:S10-6.

3. Imaging in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 9.770

The current diagnosis and management of prostate cancer is largely based on the use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathologic risk factors such as Gleason score and clinical stage. The use of serum PSA in clinical practice has resulted in significant stage migration and, as such, imaging modalities historically utilized to stage prostate cancer are no longer able to reliably identify the small amounts of prostate cancer most often found at presentation. Molecular imaging techniques have focused on improving sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection through knowledge of ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2004 Summer;6(3):101-13.

4. The potential for prostate cancer chemoprevention.
Match Strength: 9.714

The dramatic international variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates suggests that changeable environmental factors exert an influence. This has prompted a search for ways to prevent the disease. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors such as the carotenoid lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, and high intake of fat have roles in prostate cancer risk. Several studies show that impairment of androgen synthesis lowers the risk of prostate cancer. 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride have been shown to decrease prostate size by decreasing androgenic stimulation ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2002;4 Suppl 5:S11-7.

5. Complementary medicine, chemoprevention, and staging of prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 9.467

The 13th International Prostate Cancer Update was held in Vail, Colorado, in February 2003. This article provides an overview of the high points in the areas of complementary medicine, chemoprevention, and staging that were discussed at this meeting. M. Scott Lucia, MD, addressed the use of various hormonal agents, antiproliferative or differentiating agents, antiinflammatory agents, and antioxidants in patients with prostate cancer. Wael A. Sakr, MD, provided an overview of prognostic markers for this disease. Arturo Mendoza-Valdes, MD, explored the potential role of exercise for patients ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 6:S23-32.

6. Prostate cancer: serum and tissue markers.
Match Strength: 9.380

The detection of prostate cancer, its clinical staging, and the prediction of its prognosis remain topics of paramount importance in clinical management. The digital rectal exam, although once the "gold standard," has been largely supplanted by a variety of techniques including serum and tissue-based assays. This article reviews recent progress in the development of prostate-specific antigen assays with greater specificity; molecular markers for prostate cancer (DNA ploidy, nuclear morphometry, markers of proliferation, and cell adhesion molecules); the link between vitamin D deficiency and ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2001;3 Suppl 2:S11-9.

7. Prostate cancer pathology, screening, and epidemiology.
Match Strength: 9.247

Recent advances in the understanding of prostate cancer pathology, screening methods, and epidemiology were discussed at the 11th International Prostate Cancer Update. Regarding pathology, Dr. Gary Miller enumerated several factors that lead to the perception of prostate cancer as "unpredictable." These include the disease's multifocal nature, variable progression rates, and the uncertainty regarding the point at which carcinomas metastasize. Screening methods have been the subject of research by the Laval University Prostate Cancer Screening Program since 1988. Dr. Fernand Labrie presented ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2001;3 Suppl 2:S2-S10.

8. Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden).
Match Strength: 9.200

OBJECTIVE: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (n = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (n = 181). METHODS: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples. RESULTS: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The ... Read More »
» Published in Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Nov;17(9):1127-33.

9. Self-reported prostate cancer screening in Austria.
Match Strength: 9.105

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of self-reported participation and frequency of prostate cancer screening (digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA)) in Austrian men aged 40-79 years in the year 2005 is reported. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 500 men was asked whether they ever had heard of early detection of prostate cancer by DRE or PSA test and, if so, whether they had ever had a prostate cancer screening test during their life, and if so the number of tests and the type of physician. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Screen. 2006;13(3):148-51.

10. Risk factors for prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 9.051

The incidence of prostate cancer in the United States has recently undergone dramatic and unprecedented changes. Exposure to prostate-specific antigen testing has led to a steep increase in reported incidence. The data indicate that the strongest risk factors for prostate cancer are age and African American race/ethnicity. Family history is also an important risk factor for prostate cancer, although only a small proportion of cases will be due to high-penetrance genes such as those at the putative susceptibility loci (eg, ELAC2) recently identified through linkage analysis. International ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2002;4 Suppl 5:S3-S10.

11. Beyond prostate-specific antigen: new serologic biomarkers for improved diagnosis and management of prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 8.956

The use of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) measurement has dramatically improved the ability to detect prostate cancer at earlier stages. However, as the number of men presenting with advanced disease (and high tPSA levels) has decreased, and given the fact that tPSA is highly reflective of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the need has emerged for novel biomarkers specifically associated with prostate cancer in order to improve predictive models. Several new biomarkers have shown promise, and studies continue to investigate the role of these markers in the detection, staging, and prognosis ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2004 Spring;6(2):58-72.

12. The clinical potential of pretreatment serum testosterone level to improve the efficiency of prostate cancer screening.
Match Strength: 8.895

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of the pretreatment serum testosterone (T) level as a potential predictor of prostate cancer risk in screening for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 420 patients suspected of having prostate cancer who underwent prostate biopsy, and whose pretreatment T levels were recorded. We checked for association between the presence of prostate cancer and the following clinical factors: pretreatment serum T level, age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, digital rectal examination findings, ... Read More »
» Published in Eur Urol. 2007 Feb;51(2):375-80. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

13. Early diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer.
Match Strength: 8.806

The need for accurate methods of ascertaining the malignant potential of any given man's prostate cancer has never been greater than it is today. The presenters at the session of the 13th International Prostate Cancer Update addressing early diagnosis and staging of disease discussed combined-modality staging of disease; color Doppler imaging for detection of cancer; pelvic lymphadenectomy as a diagnostic tool; and a new, artificial intelligence-based model to predict survival. A summary of these presentations is provided here ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 6:S17-22.

14. Management of clinically localized prostate cancer: pathologic processing to robotic prostatectomy.
Match Strength: 8.781

Prostate cancer management has undergone significant changes in recent years. The existing modalities are being refined, and a better understanding of pathologic parameters is helping in decision making. Newer sources of energy can be used to kill cancer cells, and modern robots are lending a helping hand in surgical removal of prostate cancer. The 13th International Prostate Cancer Update meeting provided a unique opportunity to review these recent developments. Reviewed here are highlights of presentations addressing recent developments in the surgical management of prostate cancer. The ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 6:S33-9.

15. Androgen supplementation and prostate cancer risk: strategies for pretherapy assessment and monitoring.
Match Strength: 8.589

Since in men androgen levels decrease with age and result in symptoms of hypogonadism, the use of testosterone supplementation to treat symptoms resulting from hypogonadism is increasing. One potential complication of this treatment is the possibility of an increased risk of prostate cancer. Although most authorities agree that androgen is involved in the exacerbation of existing carcinoma of the prostate, the action of androgens on the carcinogenic process is not well understood. Attempts to demonstrate a correlation between hormone levels and prostate cancer have yielded inconsistent results ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 1:S29-33.

16. Immediate Treatment with Bicalutamide, 150 mg/d, Following Radiotherapy in Localized or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer.
Match Strength: 8.577

Previous studies and meta-analyses have made it clear that some subgroups of prostate cancer patients who have received radiotherapy should benefit from immediate adjuvant hormonal therapy. A cohort totaling 1370 patients who received radiotherapy for early nonmetastatic prostate cancer is currently enrolled in three ongoing, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating the role of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150 mg/d as adjuvant to standard care (the bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program). At preliminary analysis, conducted after a median follow-up of 3 years, adjuvant ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2004;6 Suppl 2:S29-36.

17. Prostate cancer: risk assessment and diagnostic approaches.
Match Strength: 8.532

The successful treatment of prostate cancer relies on detection of the disease at its earliest stages. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening has been a significant advance in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, identifying specific genetic alterations in a given family or patient will allow more appropriate screening for early disease. Mapping and identification of specific prostate cancer susceptibility genes is slowly becoming a reality. Other prostate cancer risks include a family history, race, and possibly serum markers such as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2001;3 Suppl 2:S31-8.

18. Current Clinical Applications of the In-capromab Pendetide Scan (ProstaScint(R) Scan, Cyt-356).
Match Strength: 8.517

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been extremely helpful in the detection of new or recurrent prostate cancer. However, localization of the recurrent tumor has been challenging with currently available radiographic modalities. The (111)In-capromab pendetide scan was developed to diagnose accurately and, more importantly, localize and stage a new or recurrent prostate cancer. Studies suggest that the (111)In-capromab pendetide scan can provide more accurate staging of clinically localized prostate cancer prior to staging lymphadenectomy or definitive therapy. It can also provide valuable ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2001 Fall;3(4):165-71.

19. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer: new horizons.
Match Strength: 8.451

The eighth session of the 13th International Prostate Cancer Update focused on the mechanisms of androgen-independent cancer growth and on new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Three possible mechanisms that might account for the development of hormone resistance are reviewed here. These are: changes in antigen receptor expression, changes in androgen receptor structure, and changes in androgen receptor function. Therapeutic approaches discussed include the endothelin receptor antagonist astrasentan; PS-341, a boronic acid dipeptide that is highly ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 6:S54-8.

20. Prostate cancer update: advanced disease.
Match Strength: 8.398

The presentations for the "Advanced Disease" section of the 13th International Prostate Cancer Update provided an overview of current and future directions in the management of men with recurrent prostate cancer after local therapy and those with metastatic disease. Definitions of biochemical failure after local therapy were reviewed. Treatment strategies that were discussed included salvage radiation, early/intermittent hormonal therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, the use of bisphosphonates, and gene therapy. Several possible molecular targets for prostate cancer treatment need further ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 6:S47-53.

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