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Persistent Low-level Inflammation
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1. Phenotype-Specific Treatment of Difficult Asthma in Children
Match Strength: 8.665

Most children with asthma can be treated successfully with low-to-moderate doses of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-2 agonist. Those that fail to respond are a heterogeneous group. We propose that the nature and type of any steroid-resistant inflammation, the extent of any persistent airflow limitation and the extent of bronchial hyper-reactivity should be determined separately to allow a rational treatment approach to these children, rather than the haphazard advice of many current guidelines. Reasons for persistent difficult asthma include persistent eosinophilic inflammation, ... Read More »
» Published in Paediatr Respir Rev. 2004 Jun;5(2):116-23.

2. T Cell and Eosinophil Activation in Mild and Moderate Atopic and Nonatopic Children's Asthma in Remission
Match Strength: 8.646

BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the pathogenesis of asthma is associated with products of activated T cells and eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether ongoing inflammation persists in children with different phenotypes of asthma despite the disease in remission. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 68 children with atopic or nonatopic asthma in remission and from 15 healthy children. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-2 and IL-4 were examined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total and specific immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) ... Read More »
» Published in Allergy. 2006 Jan;61(1):43-8.

3. Analgesia induced by perineural clonidine is enhanced in persistent neuritis.
Match Strength: 8.388

Alpha 2-adrenoceptors are concentrated near sites of peripheral nerve injury or inflammation, primarily on immune cells, and their activation reduces inflammation and hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli. These results were obtained during acute inflammation, but the efficacy of alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation in persistent inflammation has not been tested. Here, we show that perineural injection of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, reduces hypersensitivity in persistent sciatic neuritis with an onset more rapid than acute neuritis. Perineural clonidine reduces microglial activation ... Read More »
» Published in Neuroreport. 2007 Jan 8;18(1):67-71.

4. Nitrites in induced sputum as a simple and cheap non-invasive marker of airway inflammation for asthmatic schoolchildren.
Match Strength: 7.890

To determine if there are differences in the nitric oxide metabolites (nitrites) in sputum of patients with persistent asthma and healthy schoolchildren, we performed a case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in Arequipa, Perú. Nitrites in induced sputum samples were measured using the Griess assay in 30 persistent asthmatics (mean age of 10.1 yr) and 30 controls (mean age of 11.9 yr). The mean +/- s.d. of nitrites among asthmatics was significantly higher than the controls (16.30 +/- 8.6 vs. 10.25 +/- 4.68 nmol/ml, respectively, p = 0.001). Moreover, the nitrite level in the sputum in ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007 Dec 21

5. Eosinophil count and eosinophil cationic protein concentration of induced sputum in the diagnosis and assessment of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.
Match Strength: 7.879

Measurement of eosinophil percentages and ECP concentration in induced sputum may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the variability of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma (BA). To evaluate the usefulness of sputum eosinophil counts and ECP concentrations in the diagnosis of BA, we measured these parameters in 68 patients with respiratory complaints. In addition, we followed-up 14 BA patients with variable airflow limitation for 45.4 +/- 10.4 days. The BA group (n = 41) showed a higher percentage of sputum eosinophilia (24.5 +/- 7.6 vs. 2.2 +/- 2.9%, p < 0.001) and a higher level ... Read More »
» Published in Allergy Asthma Proc. 1998 Mar-Apr;19(2):61-7.

6. Airway inflammation in mild intermittent and in persistent asthma.
Match Strength: 7.774

The severity of asthma can be graded from mild intermittent to severe persistent. Airway inflammation is a feature of persistent asthma. We compared several markers of inflammation in mucosal biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) from 12 healthy control subjects, 24 patients with intermittent asthma, and 18 patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Epithelial shedding, eosinophil (EG2-positive cells), and activated T-cell (UCHL1) counts in biopsies, and ECP levels in BAL fluids were significantly increased in patients with intermittent asthma by comparison with control ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Feb;157(2):403-9.

7. Minimal persistent inflammation, an emerging concept in the nature and treatment of allergic rhinitis: the possible role of leukotrienes
Match Strength: 7.762

OBJECTIVE: To review the emerging concept of minimal persistent inflammation in allergic rhinitis and its implications for therapy. DATA SOURCES: Relevant clinical studies in the English language were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION: Material was taken from academic/scholarly journals. RESULTS: Accumulating evidence suggests that allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease instead of a disease of acute symptoms. An approach to the therapy for allergic rhinitis should consider that even when symptoms are absent, a minimal level of persistent inflammation may persist. To prevent unexpected ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Aug;91(2):131-40.

8. Serum C1q Levels As a Prognostic Guide To Articular Erosions in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Match Strength: 7.742

C1q was measured serially by single radial immunodiffusion in 54 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients over a period of more than 5 years, and values were correlated with laboratory, radiographic, and clinical findings. The number of joints with erosion (NJE) was determined retrospectively from radiographs of patients who had RA of greater than 7 years duration. In patients with clinically "burned out" RA, C1q levels were not statistically different from those of healthy adults. During the period of active disease, each patient's C1q level remained very constant, irrespective of erythrocyte ... Read More »
» Published in Arthritis Rheum. 1984 Aug;27(8):883-7.

9. Electroacupuncture Suppresses Spinal Expression of Neurokinin-1 Receptors Induced by Persistent Inflammation in Rats
Match Strength: 7.700

It has been demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) significantly suppresses behavioral hyperalgesia in a rat model of persistent inflammatory pain and that neurokinin-1 (NK-1)/substance P (SP) receptors play important roles in nociception and hyperalgesia at the spinal cord level. The present study investigated spinal NK-1 receptor involvement in EA-produced suppression of hyperalgesia in a rat model of persistent inflammatory pain. The results showed that hind paw inflammation induced a significant increase of NK-1 receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn and that this effect was ... Read More »
» Published in Neurosci Lett. 2005 Aug 26;384(3):339-43.

10. Clinically Masked Increases in Bronchial Inflammation in Guideline-Treated Persistent Asthma
Match Strength: 7.587

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines generally recommend a combination of inhaled corticosteroids and a Beta(2)-agonist for persistent asthma. The adjustment of anti-inflammatory therapy in persistent asthma is advised to be guided mainly by the presence of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinically masked increases in bronchial inflammation occur in guideline-treated, persistent asthma following allergen exposure. METHODS: After a 4-week steroid-run-in period (fluticasone 250mug twice daily) 48 allergic patients with persistent asthma underwent a bronchial challenge with a single dose ... Read More »
» Published in Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Nov 17; [Epub ahead of print]

11. Progesterone attenuates persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia in female rats: involvement of spinal NMDA receptor mechanisms
Match Strength: 7.505

The relationship between endogenous gonadal steroid levels and persistent or chronic pain is poorly understood. These studies used an inflammation model to examine the role of the gonadal steroid, progesterone, in the development of persistent pain and hyperalgesia in lactating ovary-intact and ovariectomized rats. The results indicate that constant high plasma levels of progesterone attenuate inflammatory hyperalgesia by a mechanism involving inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation at the spinal cord level. Since the pattern of high progesterone in lactating rats mimics the ... Read More »
» Published in Brain Res. 2000 May 26;865(2):272-7.

12. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor mRNAs in glucocorticoid-resistant nasal polyps.
Match Strength: 7.430

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most effective group of medications available to treat inflammation. Although most patients with inflammation respond to GC, a small group of patients exhibit persistent GC-resistance with prolonged inflammation. Previously, it was proposed that the GC-resistance is caused by low amount of human GC receptor (hGRalpha) and/or excessive presence of a GC receptor isoform, hGRbeta that was generated from alternative splicing of the hGR message. We have tested this hypothesis by investigating correlation between the expression pattern of hGR mRNAs in patients with ... Read More »
» Published in Exp Mol Med. 2006 Oct 31;38(5):466-73.

13. Heterogeneity of airway inflammation in persistent asthma : evidence of neutrophilic inflammation and increased sputum interleukin-8
Match Strength: 7.426

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify the characteristics of airway inflammation in persistent asthma and to examine the role of neutrophilic inflammation in noneosinophilic persistent asthma. METHODS: Nonsmoking adults (n = 56) with persistent asthma and healthy control subjects (n = 8) underwent hypertonic saline solution challenge and sputum induction. Selected sputum portions were dispersed with dithiothreitol and assayed for total cell count, cellular differential, supernatant eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase, and interleukin (IL)-8. RESULTS: We identified two distinct ... Read More »
» Published in Chest. 2001 May;119(5):1329-36. Comment in: Chest. 2001 May;119(5):1299-300.

14. Peripheral involvement of PKA and PKC in subcutaneous bee venom-induced persistent nociception, mechanical hyperalgesia, and inflammation in rats.
Match Strength: 7.410

The roles of central protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC) in various pain states have intensively been investigated during the past decade. The aim of the present study was to investigate the peripheral involvement of PKA and PKC in persistent nociceptive response, evoked pain behaviors, and inflammation induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of bee venom (BV, 0.2mg/50mul) in rats. The effects of intraplantar injection of H-89 (a PKA inhibitor, 5-100mug/50mul) and chelerythrine chloride (a PKC inhibitor, 5-100mug/50mul) on BV-elicited persistent nociception (nociceptive flinching reflex), ... Read More »
» Published in Pain. 2007 May 31;

15. Chronic infection, inflammation, and epithelial ovarian cancer
Match Strength: 7.326

At the present time, the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer is poorly understood. It has recently been recognized that certain chronic infectious agents may contribute to carcinogenesis by inducing a state of persistent inflammation. Since the female upper genital tract is a frequent site of chronic infections, we propose various strategies that may be useful for determining the potential role of chronic infection and persistent inflammation in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd ... Read More »
» Published in Med Hypotheses. 2001 Oct;57(4):426-8.

16. TNF-alpha involves in altered prefrontal synaptic transmission in mice with persistent inflammatory pain.
Match Strength: 7.292

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in the development of persistent pain. Its expression increases both spinally and supraspinally after peripheral inflammation. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Prefrontal synaptic transmission is potentiated in mice with chronic pain through an enhancement of presynaptic transmitter release. However, it is not known if TNF-alpha expression is altered in the ACC in response to persistent pain and if synaptic transmission within this region is modulated by ... Read More »
» Published in Neurosci Lett. 2006 Dec 29;

17. Hepatitis B and C coinfections and persistent hepatitis B infections: clinical outcome and liver pathology after transplantation.
Match Strength: 7.274

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are common complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), but the liver pathology and clinical outcomes of HBV infection with HCV coinfection have not been thoroughly examined. In this study, we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HBV and HCV in pre- and post-OLT sera of 38 patients and correlated the findings with clinical outcome and liver pathology. Of 13 patients who were HBV and HCV negative before OLT, 9 acquired HBV infection, and 4 developed acquired HBV and HCV coinfections after OLT. Persistent ... Read More »
» Published in Hepatology. 1996 Mar;23(3):396-404.

18. An Ongoing Surveillance Study of Persistent Crying and Hypotonic-Hyporesponsive Episodes Following Routine Dtp Immunization: A Preliminary Report
Match Strength: 7.252

Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and persistent crying are specific complications of pertussis immunization. Hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia, and leukocytosis have been noted after pertussis vaccine administration in a murine model. Five children with hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and 6 children with persistent crying following DTP immunization were studied. The children were found to have leukocytosis acutely, similar to findings reported in children following routine DTP immunization. No abnormalities were noted in plasma insulin or serum glucose. Five of 6 children with persistent ... Read More »
» Published in Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1988;13 Suppl:133-6.

19. Minimal persistent inflammation is present at mucosal level in patients with asymptomatic rhinitis and mite allergy.
Match Strength: 7.239

The natural exposure to house dust mites causes sensitization in genetically susceptible patients. Persistent exposure of sensitized patients causes chronic inflammation, and consequently, hyperreactivity, thus promoting the development of clinical features. Recently, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/CD54 expression on epithelial cells triggered by allergen has been demonstrated and related to the inflammation caused by the allergic reaction. Therefore we evaluated the possible presence of inflammation (i.e., inflammatory cell infiltrate and ICAM-1/CD54 expression on epithelium) at ... Read More »
» Published in J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995 Dec;96(6 Pt 1):971-9.

20. Metalloproteinase-9 is increased after toluene diisocyanate exposure in the induced sputum from patients with toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma
Match Strength: 7.237

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Persistent asthma symptoms are associated with airway inflammation and remodeling, which may be mediated through metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). The aim of this study was to evaluate MMPs and TIMP involvement in toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Induced sputum was collected in eight newly diagnosed TDI-induced asthma subjects (group I) before and 7 h after the TDI and placebo challenges and in 12 subjects with TDI-induced occupational asthma diagnosed 5 years previously with persistent asthma ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Jan;33(1):113-8.

21. Changes in bone density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a two-year follow-up study
Match Strength: 7.149

The objectives of the study were to determine the 2 year rate of bone changes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and, whether bone loss is related to physical impairment, systemic inflammation. and therapy. Consecutive outpatients fulfilling the modified New York criteria for AS were included. Baseline assessment included age, disease duration, treatment, clinical, radiologic and laboratory data. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined every 6 months. Persistent systemic inflammation was defined as mean ESR > or = 28 mm/h or mean CRP > or = ... Read More »
» Published in Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(7):605-9.

22. Uterine clearance and resistance to persistent endometritis in the mare
Match Strength: 7.095

The objective of this article is to review the role of uterine defense mechanisms in natural resistance to chronic or persistent endometritis. A breakdown of uterine physical clearance mechanisms is currently believed to play a major role in susceptibility to persistent endometritis. Mares with increased susceptibility to persistent endometritis have impaired myometrial contractility in response to an acute inflammation, resulting in an accumulation of fluid and inflammatory products within the uterine lumen. The origin of this defect remains unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that ... Read More »
» Published in Theriogenology. 1999 Aug;52(3):461-71.

23. The Prognostic Impact of Fluctuating Levels of C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian Haemodialysis Patients: A Prospective Study
Match Strength: 7.088

BACKGROUND: A single elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) value predicts mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients, but the relative importance of repeated vs occasional positive systemic inflammatory response findings is not known. METHODS: To assess the influence on survival of occasional inflammation, CRP, serum albumin (S-Alb) and fibrinogen were analysed bimonthly in 180 HD patients (54% male, 49+/-14 years). Clinically significant inflammation was defined as CRP >5.1 mg/l, based on the receiver operating characteristics curve for CRP as predictor of death. Based on four consecutive ... Read More »
» Published in Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004 Nov;19(11):2803-9. Comment In: Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005 Mar;20(3):658-9; author reply 659-60.

24. Management of suboptimal cytologic smears. Persistent inflammatory smears.
Match Strength: 7.042

In this study, cytologic smears from 161 women presenting with persistent inflammation were reviewed and the cytologic diagnoses compared with the colposcopic and biopsy findings. When colposcopy was performed and information was available for evaluation (102 cases), 62.7% (64 cases) had abnormal colposcopic findings requiring treatment. The similar figure for biopsy was 76.2% (64 of 84 cases). Of significance was the proportion of major advanced abnormalities requiring immediate treatment. Colposcopy and biopsy, respectively, revealed 7.9% and 19.1% of cases with high grade squamous ... Read More »
» Published in Acta Cytol. 1994 Jul-Aug;38(4):531-6. Comment in: Acta Cytol. 1998 Nov-Dec;42(6):1481.

25. Precordial ST segment depression in patients with Q wave inferior myocardial infarction: role of infarction-associated pericarditis
Match Strength: 7.002

To examine the diagnostic significance of precordial ST segment depression in Q wave inferior myocardial infarction, 157 consecutive patients were examined carefully by means of auscultation, ECG, and two-dimensional echocardiography. Precordial ST segment depression was transient (lasting < 72 hours from the onset of myocardial infarction) in 63 patients and persistent (> or = 72 hours) in 40. Twenty-eight patients with persistent, 19 patients with transient, and 14 patients without precordial ST segment depression had advanced asynergy (akinesia or dyskinesia) in the posterior segments, ... Read More »
» Published in Am Heart J. 1993 Mar;125(3):672-5.

26. Persistent Post-Enteritis Diarrhoea
Match Strength: 6.992

Clinical, biochemical, and gastroenterological data have been examined im 48 patients in two age groups, one under 12 months of age, the other between 12 and 30 months with persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea. In these patients, the illness consisted of chronic diarrhoea which followed acute enteritis. It brought about a mild malabsorption syndrome with impairment of growth, particularly in infants under one year of age. Chronic inflammation with mucosal damage due to alteration of the intestinal microflora by inappropriate diets and therapy seemed to be the cause of persistent diarrhoea in ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Pediatr. 1977 Nov 4;126(4):225-36.

27. Mechanisms of persistent airway inflammation in asthma. A role for T cells and T-cell products.
Match Strength: 6.984

The role of T cells in human allergic inflammation is just beginning to be understood. However, the data presented indicate how the T cell may be a pivotal cell to direct features of allergic inflammation in asthma, how the T cell may be able to transfer hyperresponsiveness, which is a feature of bronchial asthma, what some of the genetic factors are that may determine this process, and how an important precipitant of asthma, viral respiratory infections, may participate in this process. Its cells are isolated from patients with asthma and studied for their ability to generate proinflammatory ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Jul;152(1):388-93.

28. Persistent Viral Infection of the Thyroid Gland: Alteration of Thyroid Function in the Absence of Tissue Injury
Match Strength: 6.953

The possible role of viruses as the cause of some thyroid disorders was evaluated in three strains of mice neonatally infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. We report the first definitive evidence that viruses can persist in the thyroid gland, particularly thyroid epithelial cells in which thyroglobulin is synthesized. Concomitant with the infection of these cells was a significant reduction in the level of thyroglobulin mRNA and circulating thyroid hormones. Another virus that causes persistent infection but does not replicate in the thyroid gland failed to alter serum levels of ... Read More »
» Published in Endocrinology. 1988 Feb;122(2):567-75.

29. TMJ inflammation increases Fos expression in the nucleus raphe magnus induced by subsequent formalin injection of the masseter or hindpaw of rats.
Match Strength: 6.927

The study was designed to examine the effect of persistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation on neuronal activation in the descending pain modulatory system in response to noxious stimulus. Formalin was injected into the left masseter muscle or hindpaw of rats 10 days after injection of the left TMJ with saline or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The results showed that 10-day persistent TMJ inflammation (induced by CFA) alone did not induce a significant increase in Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI) neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) or locus coeruleus (LC), but that ... Read More »
» Published in Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2006 Aug;83(2):43-52.

30. Elevated serum 8-oxo-dG in hemodialysis patients: a marker of systemic inflammation?
Match Strength: 6.897

Does inflammation, as assessed by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) tightly associate with increased serum levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8- oxo-dG)? Increased oxidative stress and inflammation have both been highlighted among several nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the main cause of mortality in ESRD patients. In contrast to oxidative stress effects on proteins and lipids, DNA base damage has not been well demonstrated in ESRD. Two groups of hemodialysis patients were studied, one ... Read More »
» Published in Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Nov-Dec;8(11-12):2169-73.

31. Ongoing enterovirus-induced myocarditis is associated with persistent heart muscle infection: quantitative analysis of virus replication, tissue damage, and inflammation
Match Strength: 6.891

Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in different immunocompetent mouse strains was used as a model to investigate interrelationships between virus replication and development of chronic enteroviral heart disease. Using in situ hybridization to detect enteroviral RNA, we show that heart muscle infection is not only detected in acute myocarditis but is also detected during the chronic phase of the disease. Coxsackievirus B3 could evade immunological surveillance in a host-dependent fashion, thus inducing a persistent infection of the myocardium in association with ongoing inflammation. ... Read More »
» Published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 1;89(1):314-8.

32. Antigen-induced airway inflammation in the Brown Norway rat results in airway smooth muscle hyperplasia
Match Strength: 6.886

Asthma is characterized by chronic airways inflammation, airway wall remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). An increase in airway smooth muscle has been proposed to explain a major part of AHR in asthma. We have used unbiased stereological methods to determine whether airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and AHR occurred in sensitized, antigen-challenged Brown Norway (BN) rats. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized BN rats chronically exposed to OA aerosol displayed airway inflammation and a modest level of AHR to intravenously administered ACh 24 h after the last antigen challenge. However, these ... Read More »
» Published in J Appl Physiol. 2002 Nov;93(5):1833-40.

33. Acute changes in bronchoconstriction influences exhaled nitric oxide level
Match Strength: 6.864

In previous studies the exhaled nitric oxide (NO) level of asthma patients was investigated only in association with bronchial inflammation, and whether the degree of bronchoconstriction itself influences the exhaled NO level has never been investigated. We therefore evaluated the effect of inhalation of a bronchoconstrictor (methacholine) or a bronchodilator (salbutamol) on the exhaled NO level of healthy volunteers and asthma patients. The exhaled NO level of the healthy volunteers decreased after methacholine inhalation. The exhaled NO level of patients with mild or moderate persistent ... Read More »
» Published in Jpn J Physiol. 2001 Apr;51(2):151-7.

34. Oral Vitamin C Administration Reduces Early Recurrence Rates After Electrical Cardioversion of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation and Attenuates Associated Inflammation
Match Strength: 6.846

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oxidative stress have been recently implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefit of vitamin C on the early recurrence rates and on inflammatory indices after successful cardioversion of persistent AF, as well as to investigate the time course of changes in these indices post-cardioversion. METHODS: We prospectively studied 44 consecutive patients after successful electrical cardioversion of persistent AF. All patients received standard treatment and were randomised in one to one fashion to ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 10;102(2):321-6. Comment In: Int J Cardiol. 2005 Oct 10;104(3):361-2.

35. Oral caliber-persistent artery. Unusual presentations of unusual lesions
Match Strength: 6.836

Two cases of oral caliber-persistent artery are reported. Both cases were different from the five previously reported oral examples of this unusual entity. One case is the first reported instance of a caliber-persistent artery not associated with spontaneous hemorrhage, inflammation, or ulceration. The clinical importance of this entity to the patient and the treating practitioner is stressed ... Read More »
» Published in Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992 Nov;74(5):631-3.

36. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) in Persistent Pain
Match Strength: 6.833

Mechanisms that underlie persistent (i.e., chronic) pain are different from those that underlie acute pain. Recent findings seem to indicate that superoxide (SO) is a mediator of persistent pain that accompanies inflammation. Other reactive oxygen species (ROS) might also participate in persistent pain. Wang and colleagues, in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, found that SO contributes to hyperalgesic responses that can be ameliorated by the addition of a compound that mimics the enzymatic function of superoxide dismutase (SOD). SO can also combine with nitric oxide to ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Interv. 2004 Oct;4(5):248-50.

37. Association Between Neutrophilic and Eosinophilic Inflammation in Patients With Severe Persistent Asthma
Match Strength: 6.826

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are generally recognized as effector cells in asthma. Recently, neutrophils have been suggested to contribute to the development of chronic severe asthma. The mechanisms by which neutrophils contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma remain to be elucidated; however, neutrophils may affect either accumulation or functional status of eosinophils via the generation of inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether neutrophilic inflammation is associated with eosinophilic inflammation in severe asthma. METHODS: Following the inhalation of ... Read More »
» Published in Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005;137 Suppl 1:7-11. Epub 2005 Jun 2.

38. A new murine model of persistent lung eosinophilic inflammation.
Match Strength: 6.823

We summarize here the main characteristics of a novel model of pulmonary hypersensitivity. Mice were immunized with a subcutaneous implant of a fragment of heat solidified chicken egg white and 14 days later challenged with ovalbumin given either by aerosol or by intratracheal instillation. This procedure induces a persistent eosinophilic lung inflammation, a marked bone marrow eosinophilia, and Th2-type isotypic profile with histopathological findings that resemble human asthma. Further, this model is simple to perform, reproducible in different strains of mice, does not require adjuvants nor ... Read More »
» Published in Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1997;92 Suppl 2:215-8.

39. Association Between Nasal and Bronchial Symptoms in Subjects With Persistent Allergic Rhinitis
Match Strength: 6.800

BACKGROUND: The association between nasal and bronchial symptoms, and the course of bronchial responsiveness and airway inflammation in house dust mite sensitive persistent rhinitis over a prolonged time period has not been thoroughly explored. OBJECTIVE: To determine if nasal symptoms were associated with bronchial symptoms in persistent rhinitic subjects, and to assess their bronchial responsiveness and airway inflammation in comparison to nonrhinitic, nonatopic controls. The additional impact of pollen sensitivity on the lower airways in rhinitic subjects was also addressed. METHODS: ... Read More »
» Published in Allergy. 2004 Mar;59(3):320-6.

40. Spinal cord substance P receptor immunoreactivity increases in both inflammatory and nerve injury models of persistent pain.
Match Strength: 6.774

Numerous studies have implicated the primary afferent derived neuropeptide, substance P, which exerts its effects via the neurokinin-1/substance P receptor, in the transmission of nociceptive messages at the level of the spinal cord. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that the substance P receptor is concentrated in neurons of lamina I of the superficial dorsal horn. Since alterations in the number and distribution of the receptor may underlie persistent pain conditions, we have used immunocytochemistry to study the distribution of the receptor in two very different rat models of ... Read More »
» Published in Neuroscience. 1996 Jan;70(1):201-9.

41. Comparison of experimental gingivitis with persistent gingivitis: differences in clinical parameters and cytokine concentrations.
Match Strength: 6.771

Background and Objective: Experimental gingivitis has been studied extensively as a well-controlled laboratory model of gingivitis. It is unclear, however, how experimental gingivitis compares with persistent plaque and gingivitis in more naturalistic settings. The present study compares both conditions in a randomized controlled design. Material and Methods: Twenty-six students suffering from plaque and gingivitis were randomly assigned to either a persistent gingivitis or an experimental gingivitis condition. Subjects with persistent gingivitis continued their habitual (i.e. insufficient) ... Read More »
» Published in J Periodontal Res. 2007 Aug;42(4):318-24.

42. Persistent Reduction of Spinal Inflammation as Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis After 2 Yrs of Treatment With the Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Agent Infliximab
Match Strength: 6.737

OBJECTIVES: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) benefit from anti-TNF therapy both on a clinical basis and as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is not known whether spinal inflammation remains suppressed over time. Our objective was to assess spinal inflammation by MRI in AS patients after 2 yr of continuous infliximab treatment. METHODS: Twenty patients with active AS were examined by MRI at baseline, after 3 months (end of placebo-controlled-phase) and after 2 yr of continuous infliximab therapy (5 mg/kg/6 weeks). T1 pre- and post-gadolinium (T1/gadolinium ... Read More »
» Published in Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005 Dec;44(12):1525-30. Epub 2005 Aug 9.

43. Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the amygdala modulates pain perception.
Match Strength: 6.721

The amygdala has been proposed to serve as a neural center for the modulation of pain perception. Numerous anatomical and behavioral studies demonstrate that exogenous manipulations of the amygdala (i.e., lesions, drug infusions) modulate behavioral responses to acute noxious stimuli; however, little is known about the endogenous molecular changes in the amygdala that contribute to alterations in nociceptive processing during persistent noxious stimuli that resemble pathological pain conditions. In the present study, we demonstrate that endogenous molecular changes in the amygdala play a ... Read More »
» Published in J Neurosci. 2007 Feb 14;27(7):1543-51.

44. Non-peptide antagonists for kinin B1 receptors: new insights into their therapeutic potential for the management of inflammation and pain.
Match Strength: 6.707

Kinin B1 and B2 receptors are central to the aetiology of pain and inflammation. Constitutive B2 receptors are commonly associated with the acute phase of inflammation and nociception, whereas the inducible B1 receptors are mostly linked to the chronic or persistent phase (or both). Therefore, selective, orally active kinin B1 receptor antagonists could be potentially therapeutic. B1 receptor antagonists have long been exclusively peptides, but recently a few non-peptide representatives have been identified. The clinical potential of these non-peptide molecules has not yet been evaluated, but ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec;27(12):646-51. Epub 2006 Oct 20.

45. Inflammatory markers according to types of atrial fibrillation.
Match Strength: 6.690

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing evidence linking inflammation to some cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. Similarly, there is emerging data to support the association between inflammation and atrial fibrillation (AF). We also investigated the role of systemic inflammation in different categories of AF. METHODS: Eighty five consecutive patients with AF were enrolled in this study. AF was categorized as new onset, chronic (persistent and permanent) and lone. Age- and sex-matched 30 healthy people consisted of control group. Serum level of high ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Cardiol. 2007 Jan 18;

46. Persistent Systemic Inflammation in Unstable Angina Is Largely Unrelated to the Atherothrombotic Burden
Match Strength: 6.688

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between systemic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis in two distinct clinical models of atherothrombosis. BACKGROUND: Persistent unstable angina (UA) is commonly associated with coronary thrombosis and persistent systemic inflammation. METHODS: We assessed circulating markers of activation of the thrombotic and fibrinolytic cascades and systemic soluble and cellular markers of inflammation on admission in 40 patients with persisting UA (Braunwald class IIIB; group 1) and 30 patients with Leriche-Fontaine stage IIB-III ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jan 18;45(2):238-43. Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jan 18;45(2):244-5.

47. Aminoguanidine reduces apoptosis of circulating V Beta 8.2 T lymphocytes in Lewis rats with actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Association with persistent inflammation of the central nervous system and lack of recovery
Match Strength: 6.656

Aminoguanidine therapy delayed the onset of actively induced EAE in Lewis rats, but recovery was impaired in most animals. In the central nervous system this was correlated with persistent inflammation and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In the periphery of aminoguanidine-treated animals, T lymphocytes showed increased proliferation against myelin basic protein, and the percentage of Vbeta 8.2(+) T lymphocytes undergoing early apoptosis was markedly decreased, although it was unchanged in Vbeta 8.2(+) T cells isolated from the spinal cord. These results suggest that the prolonged ... Read More »
» Published in J Neuroimmunol. 2000 Oct 2;110(1-2):140-50.

48. A peritoneal dialysis patient with fatal culture-negative peritonitis
Match Strength: 6.608

Culture-negative peritoneal inflammation accounts for between 5 and 20% of cases of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Diagnostic yields may be enhanced considerably by reculturing dialysate effluents using appropriate collection methods and optimal laboratory techniques (including prolonged low-temperature and anaerobic incubations). In patients with persistent culture-negative peritonitis, consideration should be given to the possibilities of unusual or fastidious microorganisms (especially fungi and mycobacteria) and non-infective causes (especially drug reactions, malignancy, ... Read More »
» Published in Nephrology (Carlton). 2003 Feb;8(1):49-55.

49. Persistent Fos protein expression after orofacial deep or cutaneous tissue inflammation in rats: implications for persistent orofacial pain
Match Strength: 6.587

This study was designed to systematically examine the effects of persistent orofacial tissue injury on prolonged neuronal activation in the trigeminal nociceptive pathways by directly comparing the effects of orofacial deep vs. cutaneous tissue inflammation on brainstem Fos protein expression, a marker of neuronal activation. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected unilaterally into the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or perioral (PO) skin to produce inflammation in deep or cutaneous tissues, respectively. Rats were perfused 2 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, or 10 days following CFA injection ... Read More »
» Published in J Comp Neurol. 1999 Sep 20;412(2):276-91.

50. Factors associated with persistent airflow limitation in severe asthma
Match Strength: 6.587

Persistent airflow limitation can develop in nonsmoking patients with asthma. However, the prevalence and risk factors for airways obstruction with incomplete reversibility in asthma are unknown. We assessed the prevalence of persistent airflow limitation (defined as postbronchodilator FEV(1) or FEV(1)/VC < 75% predicted) in 132 nonsmoking outpatients with severe asthma visiting chest physicians in general hospitals in The Netherlands. They had used inhaled corticosteroids (> or = 1,600 microg/d) and/or daily oral prednisone and long-acting bronchodilators for > 1 yr. In addition, we examined ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Sep 1;164(5):744-8.

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