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Persistent Chronic Low-level Inflammation
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1. Chronic infection, inflammation, and epithelial ovarian cancer
Match Strength: 11.179

At the present time, the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer is poorly understood. It has recently been recognized that certain chronic infectious agents may contribute to carcinogenesis by inducing a state of persistent inflammation. Since the female upper genital tract is a frequent site of chronic infections, we propose various strategies that may be useful for determining the potential role of chronic infection and persistent inflammation in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd ... Read More »
» Published in Med Hypotheses. 2001 Oct;57(4):426-8.

2. Long-term follow-up of chronic hepatitis C in Japan
Match Strength: 10.308

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C which exhibits a varied natural course, is becoming a major problem worldwide. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated 161 patients with chronic hepatitis C by repeated liver biopsies. From initial biopsies, we diagnosed 56 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, 74 with chronic active hepatitis 2A, and 31 with chronic active hepatitis 2B. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, a progression from chronic hepatitis to liver cirrhosis was recognized among all stages, however the rate of progression to liver cirrhosis was less in chronic persistent ... Read More »
» Published in Hepatogastroenterology. 2002 Nov-Dec;49(48):1632-5.

3. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) in Persistent Pain
Match Strength: 9.890

Mechanisms that underlie persistent (i.e., chronic) pain are different from those that underlie acute pain. Recent findings seem to indicate that superoxide (SO) is a mediator of persistent pain that accompanies inflammation. Other reactive oxygen species (ROS) might also participate in persistent pain. Wang and colleagues, in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, found that SO contributes to hyperalgesic responses that can be ameliorated by the addition of a compound that mimics the enzymatic function of superoxide dismutase (SOD). SO can also combine with nitric oxide to ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Interv. 2004 Oct;4(5):248-50.

4. Impaired Antibody Synthesis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
Match Strength: 9.839

In vitro synthesis of the anti-HBc, anti-HBs and polyclonal IgG and IgM classes of antibodies were determined from supernatants of peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells cultured in the presence of pokeweed mitogen. Thirty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B and 10 healthy control subjects whose sera were positive for anti-HBs formed the study group. Twenty-four of 37 patients showed histologic evidence of chronic active hepatitis B while the remaining 13 patients had chronic persistent hepatitis B. Lymphocytes from chronic persistent hepatitis B, chronic active hepatitis B and healthy ... Read More »
» Published in Hepatology. 1986 Mar-Apr;6(2):180-5.

5. Progesterone attenuates persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia in female rats: involvement of spinal NMDA receptor mechanisms
Match Strength: 9.809

The relationship between endogenous gonadal steroid levels and persistent or chronic pain is poorly understood. These studies used an inflammation model to examine the role of the gonadal steroid, progesterone, in the development of persistent pain and hyperalgesia in lactating ovary-intact and ovariectomized rats. The results indicate that constant high plasma levels of progesterone attenuate inflammatory hyperalgesia by a mechanism involving inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation at the spinal cord level. Since the pattern of high progesterone in lactating rats mimics the ... Read More »
» Published in Brain Res. 2000 May 26;865(2):272-7.

6. Persistent Post-Enteritis Diarrhoea
Match Strength: 9.791

Clinical, biochemical, and gastroenterological data have been examined im 48 patients in two age groups, one under 12 months of age, the other between 12 and 30 months with persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea. In these patients, the illness consisted of chronic diarrhoea which followed acute enteritis. It brought about a mild malabsorption syndrome with impairment of growth, particularly in infants under one year of age. Chronic inflammation with mucosal damage due to alteration of the intestinal microflora by inappropriate diets and therapy seemed to be the cause of persistent diarrhoea in ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Pediatr. 1977 Nov 4;126(4):225-36.

7. Corticosteroid-Treated Chronic Active Hepatitis in Remission: Uncertain Prognosis of Chronic Persistent Hepatitis
Match Strength: 9.598

To assess the prognosis of patients with severe chronic hepatitis after histologic examination had shown an improvement to chronic persistent hepatitis, we followed 52 such patients regularly for 54 +/- 4 months after the cessation of corticosteroid therapy. In 24 patients, the condition deteriorated 7 +/- 1 months after therapy and required further treatment with prednisone. Histologic features of chronic active hepatitis, including bridging and multilobular necrosis, were documented in all 14 patients in whom biopsies were performed. In 20 of 24 patients, the disease responded to retreatment ... Read More »
» Published in N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 1;304(1):5-9.

8. Antigen-induced airway inflammation in the Brown Norway rat results in airway smooth muscle hyperplasia
Match Strength: 9.374

Asthma is characterized by chronic airways inflammation, airway wall remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). An increase in airway smooth muscle has been proposed to explain a major part of AHR in asthma. We have used unbiased stereological methods to determine whether airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and AHR occurred in sensitized, antigen-challenged Brown Norway (BN) rats. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized BN rats chronically exposed to OA aerosol displayed airway inflammation and a modest level of AHR to intravenously administered ACh 24 h after the last antigen challenge. However, these ... Read More »
» Published in J Appl Physiol. 2002 Nov;93(5):1833-40.

9. Gut inflammation in children with late onset pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis and evolution to adult spondyloarthropathy--a prospective study.
Match Strength: 9.372

Ileocolonoscopy with biopsy of the colon and terminal ileum was performed prospectively on 12 patients under age 16 with late onset juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Inflammatory gut lesions were seen in 9 of these 12 patients; 4 were of the acute type, 5 of the chronic type. Chronic gut inflammation was related to axial inflammatory complaints, inflammatory serum variables, thrombocytosis and sacroiliac radiological abnormalities. A 2nd ileocolonoscopy was performed on 5 of the 12 patients, and a 3rd ileocolonoscopy on 2 of these with persistent synovitis. Gut inflammation and joint ... Read More »
» Published in J Rheumatol. 1993 Sep;20(9):1567-72.

10. Serum and Sputum Neurotrophin Levels in Chronic Persistent Cough
Match Strength: 9.322

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophins (NTs) are a family of growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin3 (NT-3) that are involved in inflammation. Serum and induced sputum NT levels are increased in asthma and in cough because of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. Neurogenic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in individuals with normal chest radiography, but the role of NTs in this condition is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess if NT levels are elevated in the serum and airways in subjects with chronic ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 Jul;35(7):949-53.

11. Inflammatory markers according to types of atrial fibrillation.
Match Strength: 9.284

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing evidence linking inflammation to some cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. Similarly, there is emerging data to support the association between inflammation and atrial fibrillation (AF). We also investigated the role of systemic inflammation in different categories of AF. METHODS: Eighty five consecutive patients with AF were enrolled in this study. AF was categorized as new onset, chronic (persistent and permanent) and lone. Age- and sex-matched 30 healthy people consisted of control group. Serum level of high ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Cardiol. 2007 Jan 18;

12. Ongoing enterovirus-induced myocarditis is associated with persistent heart muscle infection: quantitative analysis of virus replication, tissue damage, and inflammation
Match Strength: 9.125

Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in different immunocompetent mouse strains was used as a model to investigate interrelationships between virus replication and development of chronic enteroviral heart disease. Using in situ hybridization to detect enteroviral RNA, we show that heart muscle infection is not only detected in acute myocarditis but is also detected during the chronic phase of the disease. Coxsackievirus B3 could evade immunological surveillance in a host-dependent fashion, thus inducing a persistent infection of the myocardium in association with ongoing inflammation. ... Read More »
» Published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 1;89(1):314-8.

13. Pathogenesis of chronic bacterial prostatitis in an animal model
Match Strength: 9.059

A reproducible rat model of chronic bacterial prostatitis was developed using a defined bacterial pathogen (Escherichia coli) to study the pathogenesis and persistence of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The progression of inflammation and its consequences from acute to chronic prostatitis were documented with microbiological, histological, ultrastructural and immunological data. Chronic bacterial prostatitis in this model was associated with sparse glycocalix-enclosed protected bacterial microcolonies within the prostatic acini and ducts which appeared to stimulate a persistent local and ... Read More »
» Published in Br J Urol. 1990 Jul;66(1):47-54.

14. Is There a Difference Between Chronic Airway Inflammation in Chronic Severe Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?
Match Strength: 8.880

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lack of a universally accepted definition of chronic severe asthma and the continuous changes in the classification of the severity of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the last 10 years make it difficult to compare the many studies available. The aim of the review is to compare studies on chronic severe asthma that have a control group of patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma and studies on stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that have an age-matched control group of smokers with normal lung function (with or without chronic bronchitis) ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;5(1):77-83.

15. Minimal persistent inflammation, an emerging concept in the nature and treatment of allergic rhinitis: the possible role of leukotrienes
Match Strength: 8.806

OBJECTIVE: To review the emerging concept of minimal persistent inflammation in allergic rhinitis and its implications for therapy. DATA SOURCES: Relevant clinical studies in the English language were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION: Material was taken from academic/scholarly journals. RESULTS: Accumulating evidence suggests that allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease instead of a disease of acute symptoms. An approach to the therapy for allergic rhinitis should consider that even when symptoms are absent, a minimal level of persistent inflammation may persist. To prevent unexpected ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Aug;91(2):131-40.

16. Histology in Chronic Hepatitis
Match Strength: 8.788

The subdivision of chronic hepatitis into chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH) and chronic active hepatitis (CAH) remains the basis for diagnosis, but requires modification and amplification. Mild CAH closely resembles CPH, and corticosteroids may suppress CAH to a picture of CPH. Sampling error may explain some examples of apparent transition from CPH to CAH. The lesion of CPH is non-specific, and other causes of portal inflammation must be excluded. Definition of CAH must incorporate bridging hepatic necrosis (BHN) which speeds development of cirrhosis. Portal/periportal inflammation and ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1980 Apr;9(2):182-4.

17. The Role of Leukocyte-Stromal Interactions in Chronic Inflammatory Joint Disease
Match Strength: 8.766

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating, chronic, persistent inflammatory disease that is characterised by painful and swollen joints. The aetiology of RA is unknown, however whereas past research has concentrated on the role of immune or inflammatory infiltrating cells in inflammation, it is becoming clear that stromal cells play a critical part in regulating the quality and duration of an inflammatory response. In this review we assess the role of fibroblasts within the inflamed synovium in modulating immune responses; in particular we examine the role of stromal cells in the switch from ... Read More »
» Published in Joint Bone Spine. 2005 Jan;72(1):10-6.

18. Interferon-alpha 2a increases serum concentration of hyaluronic acid and type III procollagen aminoterminal propeptide in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Match Strength: 8.674

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has become an important drug for the treatment of chronic viral liver diseases. However, the action of IFN-alpha remains unclear. We investigated whether human recombinant IFN-alpha modulates serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) and type III procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (P-III-NP) in 56 patients with chronic hepatitis-B under IFN-alpha therapy. IFN-alpha increased the HA serum level in 44 of 46 patients and, after cessation of treatment, HA serum levels returned to the pretherapy levels. The increase of HA serum level was higher in patients with ... Read More »
» Published in Dig Dis Sci. 1994 Sep;39(9):2007-13.

19. Sulfur-Dioxide-Induced Bronchitis in Dogs. Effects on Airway Responsiveness To Inhaled and Intravenously Administered Methacholine
Match Strength: 8.645

Chronic bronchitis was induced in 7 dogs of mixed breed by chronic exposure to SO2 gas. Within the first 2 to 4 wk of exposure, the dogs developed cough and mucous hypersecretion, chronic airway obstruction (increased pulmonary resistance), and persistent lung inflammation as demonstrated by an increase in the number of neutrophils recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Airway responsiveness to methacholine aerosol decreased 2- to 3-fold within 8 wk of SO2 exposure. In contrast, airway responsiveness to intravenous administration of methacholine did not change. The data suggest ... Read More »
» Published in Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Apr;135(4):840-7.

20. Fibroblasts regulate the switch from acute resolving to chronic persistent inflammation
Match Strength: 8.634

Fibroblasts are important sentinel cells in the immune system and, here, it is proposed that these cells play a critical role in the switch from acute inflammation to adaptive immunity and tissue repair. It is suggested that chronic inflammation occurs because of disordered fibroblast behaviour in which failure to switch off their inflammatory programme leads to the inappropriate survival and retention of leukocytes within inflamed tissue ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Immunol. 2001 Apr;22(4):199-204.

21. Chronic pain and medullary descending facilitation
Match Strength: 8.608

Chronic pain, whether the result of nerve trauma or persistent inflammation, is a debilitating condition that exerts a high social cost in terms of productivity, economic impact and quality of life. Currently available therapies yield limited success in treating such pain, suggesting the need for new insight into underlying mechanism(s). Here, we examine the likelihood that sustained activation of descending modulatory pathways that facilitate pain transmission could underlie some states of chronic pain. Such activation of descending facilitatory pathways might be the result of neuroplastic ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Neurosci. 2002 Jun;25(6):319-25.

22. Infection of class II-deficient mice by the DA strain of Theiler's virus.
Match Strength: 8.594

The DA strain of Theiler's virus causes, in susceptible strains of mice, a persistent infection of the white matter of the spinal cord accompanied by chronic inflammation and primary demyelination. In resistant strains, including all H-2b strains, mice clear the infection after 1 to 2 weeks. We inoculated RHAbetao/o mice, an H-2b strain which does not express class II molecules. We found that they are susceptible to persistent infection and that they develop foci of chronic inflammation with demyelination. However, these foci are smaller and contain fewer demyelinated axons than those observed ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 1996 Jul;70(7):4811-5.

23. Mechanisms of persistent airway inflammation in asthma. A role for T cells and T-cell products.
Match Strength: 8.523

The role of T cells in human allergic inflammation is just beginning to be understood. However, the data presented indicate how the T cell may be a pivotal cell to direct features of allergic inflammation in asthma, how the T cell may be able to transfer hyperresponsiveness, which is a feature of bronchial asthma, what some of the genetic factors are that may determine this process, and how an important precipitant of asthma, viral respiratory infections, may participate in this process. Its cells are isolated from patients with asthma and studied for their ability to generate proinflammatory ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Jul;152(1):388-93.

24. TNF-alpha involves in altered prefrontal synaptic transmission in mice with persistent inflammatory pain.
Match Strength: 8.505

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in the development of persistent pain. Its expression increases both spinally and supraspinally after peripheral inflammation. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Prefrontal synaptic transmission is potentiated in mice with chronic pain through an enhancement of presynaptic transmitter release. However, it is not known if TNF-alpha expression is altered in the ACC in response to persistent pain and if synaptic transmission within this region is modulated by ... Read More »
» Published in Neurosci Lett. 2006 Dec 29;

25. Inflammation and cancer: a failure of resolution?
Match Strength: 8.490

There are clear links between chronic inflammation and cancer; strong epidemiological and genetic evidence indicates that inflammation can drive tumour progression, and more-recent evidence indicates that the disruption of endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms in mice can lead to tumour development. The resolution of inflammation is an active coordinated process that requires the production of anti-inflammatory mediators, the termination of proinflammatory signalling pathways and the appropriate clearance or migration of inflammatory cells. Disruption of any of these processes can lead to ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Apr;28(4):162-5. Epub 2007 Feb 28.

26. The TNF-alpha 238A polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to persistent bone marrow dysplasia following chronic exposure to benzene.
Match Strength: 8.472

Chronic exposure to benzene can result in transient hematotoxicity (benzene poisoning, BP) or persistent bone marrow pathology including dysplasia and/or acute myeloid leukemia. We recently described a persistent bone marrow dysplasia with unique dysplastic and inflammatory features developing in individuals previously exposed to benzene (BID) [Irons RD, Lv L, Gross SA, Ye X, Bao L, Wang XQ, et al. Chronic exposure to benzene results in a unique form of dysplasia. Leuk Res 2005;29:1371-80]. In this study we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (-863 (C-->A), ... Read More »
» Published in Leuk Res. 2007 Mar 14;

27. A Model of Persistent Antigen-Induced Chronic Inflammation in the Rat Air Pouch
Match Strength: 8.452

Continuing antigen-induced inflammation was established in a subcutaneous air pouch in rats by recurrent local challenge. The animals were sensitized using bovine serum albumin in Freund's complete adjuvant and were challenged 14 days later by injection of the antigen in a solution containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose into the air pouch to produce allergic inflammation. A single antigenic challenge induced acute inflammation with a predominantly polymorph infiltration in the first 48 h. Later samples showed a low-grade mononuclear response which persisted for 4-5 days. Repeated challenge ... Read More »
» Published in Br J Exp Pathol. 1984 Apr;65(2):201-14.

28. Hepatitis B and C coinfections and persistent hepatitis B infections: clinical outcome and liver pathology after transplantation.
Match Strength: 8.410

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are common complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), but the liver pathology and clinical outcomes of HBV infection with HCV coinfection have not been thoroughly examined. In this study, we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HBV and HCV in pre- and post-OLT sera of 38 patients and correlated the findings with clinical outcome and liver pathology. Of 13 patients who were HBV and HCV negative before OLT, 9 acquired HBV infection, and 4 developed acquired HBV and HCV coinfections after OLT. Persistent ... Read More »
» Published in Hepatology. 1996 Mar;23(3):396-404.

29. Uterine clearance and resistance to persistent endometritis in the mare
Match Strength: 8.350

The objective of this article is to review the role of uterine defense mechanisms in natural resistance to chronic or persistent endometritis. A breakdown of uterine physical clearance mechanisms is currently believed to play a major role in susceptibility to persistent endometritis. Mares with increased susceptibility to persistent endometritis have impaired myometrial contractility in response to an acute inflammation, resulting in an accumulation of fluid and inflammatory products within the uterine lumen. The origin of this defect remains unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that ... Read More »
» Published in Theriogenology. 1999 Aug;52(3):461-71.

30. Complicating Systemic Amyloidosis in Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, Recessive Type
Match Strength: 8.340

An autopsy case of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, recessive type, complicated by systemic secondary amyloidosis is described. The patient had developed multiple bullous lesions and erosions from birth, followed by repeated infection. At autopsy, chronic persistent inflammation was observed in the skin and in various visceral organs, accompanied by systemic amyloidosis. By the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method, amyloid deposits stained positively for anti-AA-protein antiserum. In the present case, we concluded that the systemic amyloidosis was of the AA type, and developed secondarily ... Read More »
» Published in Pathology. 1988 Apr;20(2):184-7.

31. Detection of Chlamydophila Pneumoniae in the Bone Marrow of Two Patients With Unexplained Chronic Anaemia
Match Strength: 8.330

Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) is a common finding involving iron deficiency and signs of inflammation. Here, we report on two patients with ACD where a persistent infection with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (CP) was detected in bone marrow (BM) biopsies. Infection was suspected by routine cytology and confirmed by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including different primer sets and laboratories and sequencing of the PCR product. This is a first report of chlamydial presence in the BM of anaemic patients. The cases are presented because ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Haematol. 2005 Jan;74(1):77-83.

32. Repeated and persistent infection with Chlamydia and the development of chronic inflammation and disease.
Match Strength: 8.315

Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that mediates disease processes capable of inflicting permanent damage. Aggressive inflammatory responses to repeated infections, and to a persistent form of this intracellular bacterium, are thought to initiate the pathogenic events that lead to the debilitating sequelae of blinding trachoma and infertility ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Microbiol. 1994 Mar;2(3):94-8. Comment in: Trends Microbiol. 1994 Jul;2(7):257-9.

33. Advances in the understanding and treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Match Strength: 8.293

Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic skin disease of young children and is frequently associated with asthma and allergies. Th2-type cytokine secreting T cells expressing the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen play a central role in the induction of local IgE responses and recruitment of eosinophils in this disease. Chronic inflammation in atopic dermatitis likely involves a number of interdependent factors, including repeated or persistent exposure to allergens, which can lead to Th2-cell expansion. In addition, exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus acting as both ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Pediatr. 1997 Dec;9(6):577-81.

34. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma development associated with chronic hepatitis by anti-fas ligand antibody therapy
Match Strength: 8.268

A persistent immune response to hepatitis viruses is a well-recognized risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular and cellular basis for the procarcinogenic potential of the immune response is not well defined. Here, using a unique animal model of chronic hepatitis that induces hepatocellular carcinogenesis, we demonstrate that neutralization of the activity of Fas ligand prevented hepatocyte apoptosis, proliferation, liver inflammation, and the eventual development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The results indicate that Fas ligand is involved not only in direct hepatocyte ... Read More »
» Published in J Exp Med. 2002 Oct 21;196(8):1105-11.

35. Chronic Hepatitis in Patients with Hemophilia A: Histologic Studies in Patients with Intermittently Abnormal Liver Function Tests
Match Strength: 8.262

Recent studies in multiply transfused patients with hemophilia A and persistent liver function abnormalities have shown a high incidence of chronic active hepatitis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the severity of liver disease in multiply transfused patients with intermittent liver enzyme abnormalities. Fifteen patients with elevated enzymes on two or three out of four determinations at 6-mo intervals were studied. None had signs or symptoms of chronic liver disease. Thirteen had serologic evidence of prior exposure to the hepatitis B virus. Liver biopsy performed on these ... Read More »
» Published in Blood. 1982 Dec;60(6):1259-62.

36. Chronic allograft rejection: an update.
Match Strength: 8.260

The aetiology of chronic rejection is most likely multifactorial. The common feature in all organ allografts undergoing chronic rejection is persistent perivascular inflammation and a concentric generalised arteriosclerosis affecting all first and second order intramural arteries. A hypothesis is presented that low-grade damage to the endothelium induces the secretion of growth factors which, in turn, are responsible for smooth muscle cell replication and their influx into intima ... Read More »
» Published in Transplant Proc. 1994 Dec;26(6):3159-60.

37. Chronic allograft rejection: an update.
Match Strength: 8.260

The etiology of chronic rejection is most probably multifactorial. The common feature in all organ allografts undergoing chronic rejection is persistent perivascular inflammation and a concentric generalized arteriosclerosis affecting all first and second order intramural arteries. A hypothesis is presented that low-grade damage to endothelium induces the secretion of growth factors which, in turn, are responsible for smooth muscle cell replication and their influx into intima ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Transplant. 1994 Apr;8(2 Pt 2):160-1.

38. Minimal persistent inflammation is present at mucosal level in patients with asymptomatic rhinitis and mite allergy.
Match Strength: 8.246

The natural exposure to house dust mites causes sensitization in genetically susceptible patients. Persistent exposure of sensitized patients causes chronic inflammation, and consequently, hyperreactivity, thus promoting the development of clinical features. Recently, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/CD54 expression on epithelial cells triggered by allergen has been demonstrated and related to the inflammation caused by the allergic reaction. Therefore we evaluated the possible presence of inflammation (i.e., inflammatory cell infiltrate and ICAM-1/CD54 expression on epithelium) at ... Read More »
» Published in J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995 Dec;96(6 Pt 1):971-9.

39. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the liver of patients with chronic liver disease.
Match Strength: 8.175

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 is an important regulator of matrix metalloproteinase activity. To clarify the changes in TIMP-1 in diseased livers, we measured TIMP-1 concentrations in liver tissue samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The relationship between serum and liver levels of TIMP-1 was also examined in some patients. METHODS: The subjects were 68 patients who underwent liver biopsy. The liver TIMP-1 concentration was measured using an enzyme immunoassay after the extraction of TIMP-1 with 2 M guanidine. RESULTS: As compared with the ... Read More »
» Published in J Hepatol. 1997 Jun;26(6):1213-9.

40. Incidence and Immunochemical Features of Serum Cryoglobulin in Chronic Liver Disease
Match Strength: 8.173

Essential cryoglobulinaemia was detected in 44 out of 150 patients (29%) screened on the basis of histological confirmation of chronic inflammatory liver disease (chronic persistent or aggressive hepatitis, or cirrhosis). Cryoglobulinemia prevailed in the patients whose hepatic tissue showed more features of active inflammation; also, a female prevalence was observed. There were no correlations between cryoglobulinaemia and either HBsAg positivity or alcoholic liver disease. Mixed cryoglobulins made of heterogeneous immunoglobulins without monotypic components were mostly associated with ... Read More »
» Published in Gut. 1977 Mar;18(3):245-9.

41. Cytokine gene expression during the development of graft coronary artery disease in mice
Match Strength: 8.173

Immunologic injury to heart allografts is an initial and essential event in the pathogenesis of graft coronary artery disease (GAD). A variety of cytokines expressed in heart allografts modify both acute rejection and chronic inflammation, and could contribute to the development of GAD. The present study investigated the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and Fas ligand in chronically rejecting DBA/2-to-B 10.D2 mouse heart allografts at defined intervals of 7, 14, 28, or 70 days after transplantation by ... Read More »
» Published in Jpn Circ J. 1999 Oct;63(10):775-82.

42. Targeting stromal cells in chronic inflammation.
Match Strength: 8.147

Why chronic inflammatory reactions persist in specific sites, such as rheumatoid arthritis in the joints, remains a mystery. Current models of inflammation have concentrated upon the responses of lymphocytes such as B and T cells to specific antigens, and have attempted, often unsuccessfully, to address the causative agent. However recent studies have shown that stromal cells such as macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts play important roles in the switch that turns a spontaneously resolving acute inflammatory response within a tissue into chronic and persistent disease. Therapeutic ... Read More »
» Published in Discov Med. 2007 Feb;7(37):20-6.

43. Too much of a good thing: adenosine overload in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice
Match Strength: 8.133

Chronic lung diseases are associated with persistent lung inflammation and damage. The mechanisms that govern the chronic nature of these disorders are not known. Adenosine is a signaling nucleoside that is generated in hypoxic environments such as that found in the inflamed lung, which suggests that it might serve a regulatory role in chronic lung diseases. Support for this hypothesis comes from studies in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice where lung adenosine levels accumulate in association with increased lung inflammation and damage. Furthermore, lowering adenosine levels or antagonizing ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Feb;24(2):66-70.

44. Non-peptide antagonists for kinin B1 receptors: new insights into their therapeutic potential for the management of inflammation and pain.
Match Strength: 8.109

Kinin B1 and B2 receptors are central to the aetiology of pain and inflammation. Constitutive B2 receptors are commonly associated with the acute phase of inflammation and nociception, whereas the inducible B1 receptors are mostly linked to the chronic or persistent phase (or both). Therefore, selective, orally active kinin B1 receptor antagonists could be potentially therapeutic. B1 receptor antagonists have long been exclusively peptides, but recently a few non-peptide representatives have been identified. The clinical potential of these non-peptide molecules has not yet been evaluated, but ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec;27(12):646-51. Epub 2006 Oct 20.

45. Evidence of T-Helper Cell 2 Cytokine Regulation of Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion
Match Strength: 8.086

Cytokine and cellular patterns of effusions may reflect stages of middle ear inflammation. The local interplay between IL-2 and -4 is likely to play a crucial role in the switching of inflammation in the chronic stage. The T-helper cell 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4, -5 and -13 and the Th2/Th1 cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulate the cellular and molecular processes of chronic inflammation in the middle ear and therefore the chronic condition of otitis media with effusion (OME). Early identification of the cytokine and cellular patterns of effusions can be ... Read More »
» Published in Acta Otolaryngol. 2005 Oct;125(10):1043-50.

46. Mechanisms of Disease: Inflammation and the Origins of Cancer
Match Strength: 8.084

Many common cancers develop as a consequence of years of chronic inflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that the inflammation may result from persistent mucosal or epithelial cell colonization by microorganisms; including hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, which can cause hepatocellular cancer; human papilloma virus subtypes, which cause cervical cancer, and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which can cause gastric cancer. At present, the cause of other chronic inflammatory conditions associated with increased cancer risk, such as ulcerative colitis, is obscure. Particular ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2005 Feb;2(2):90-7; quiz 1 p following 113.

47. Infliximab in Chronic Ocular Inflammation
Match Strength: 8.065

OBJECTIVE: Infliximab is a chimeric antibody which binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF). It is effective in several chronic inflammatory conditions, including sarcoidosis. METHODS: We report our experience with infliximab in chronic ocular inflammation as part of a retrospective review of all patients treated for chronic inflammatory ocular conditions seen over a 2-year period at our institution. RESULTS: 14 patients with various underlying ocular conditions were treated during the previous two years including patients with sarcoidosis (7), Crohn's disease (2), birdshot choroiditis (2), ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jan;43(1):7-11.

48. Mast cells in the promotion and limitation of chronic inflammation.
Match Strength: 8.061

Observations of increased numbers of mast cells at sites of chronic inflammation have been reported for over a hundred years. Light and electron microscopic evidence of mast cell activation at such sites, taken together with the known functions of the diverse mediators, cytokines, and growth factors that can be secreted by appropriately activated mast cells, have suggested a wide range of possible functions for mast cells in promoting (or suppressing) many features of chronic inflammation. Similarly, these and other lines of evidence have implicated mast cells in a variety of adaptive or ... Read More »
» Published in Immunol Rev. 2007 Jun;217:304-28.

49. The evolution of spondyloarthropathies in relation to gut histology. III. Relation between gut and joint.
Match Strength: 8.028

OBJECTIVE: To study prospectively the clinical evolution of different forms of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) in relation to the evolution of gut histology in consecutive ileocolonoscopic biopsy specimens. METHODS: Ileocolonoscopy was performed in 49 patients with SpA (34 men, 15 women). They also underwent clinical, laboratory, and radiological examinations. Two to 9 years later, a 2nd and sometimes a 3rd or 4th ileocolonoscopy was performed, and the other examinations were repeated. RESULTS: At first ileocolonoscopy, 34 patients (69%) showed inflammatory gut lesions. At the 2nd ileocolonoscopy, ... Read More »
» Published in J Rheumatol. 1995 Dec;22(12):2279-84.

50. Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Male Homosexuals
Match Strength: 8.026

Ten cases of hepatitis B virus infection were identified among asymptomatic male homosexuals. These patients shared a number of characteristics: A subclinical origin and course of infection; Persistence of HGsAg for periods exceeding six to 25 months; Persistent GPT elevation of two to five times upper normal limit; Morphological changes in the liver with portal and parenchymal inflammation (chronic persistent hepatitis, six cases; non-specific reactive hepatitis, 2 cases; cirrhosis and acute hepatitis with signs of chronicity, one case each). HBeAg was found in six cases, anti-HBe in none. ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Pathol. 1979 Aug;32(8):783-5.

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