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Osteoporosis
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1. Molecular genetic studies of gene identification for osteoporosis: a 2004 update.
Match Strength: 6.764

This review summarizes comprehensively the most important and representative molecular genetics studies of gene identification for osteoporosis published up to the end of December 2004. It is intended to constitute a sequential update of our previously published review covering the available data up to the end of 2002. Evidence from candidate gene association studies and genome-wide linkage studies in humans, as well as quantitative trait locus mapping animal models are reviewed separately. Studies of transgenic and knockout mice models relevant to osteoporosis are summarized. An important ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Oct;21(10):1511-35.

2. Medical management of patients over 80 years admitted to orthopedic surgery for low-energy fracture.
Match Strength: 6.405

OBJECTIVE: To develop a cost-effective strategy for improving osteoporosis management in patients admitted to an orthopedic surgery department for low-energy fractures. METHODS: From November 2003 to July 2004, all patients over 50 years admitted to the orthopedics department of the Caen Teaching Hospital (France) for low-energy fractures were identified and evaluated by rheumatology department physicians in the same hospital. RESULTS: During the study period, 313 patients were identified, 257 women (mean age, 79.5+/-10.2 years) and 56 men (mean age, 74.6+/-10.8 years), each with one fracture ... Read More »
» Published in Joint Bone Spine. 2006 Jul 21;

3. Genetic regulation of bone mass and susceptibility to osteoporosis.
Match Strength: 6.291

Osteoporosis is a common disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass and increased risk of fragility fractures. Twin and family studies have shown that the heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other determinants of fracture risk-such as ultrasound properties of bone, skeletal geometry, and bone turnover-is high, although heritability of fracture is modest. Many different genetic variants of modest effect size are likely to contribute to the regulation of these phenotypes by interacting with environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Linkage ... Read More »
» Published in Genes Dev. 2006 Sep 15;20(18):2492-506.

4. RANK ligand inhibition with denosumab for the management of osteoporosis.
Match Strength: 5.947

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is a cytokine member of the tumour necrosis factor family that is the principal final mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. It plays a major role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, as well bone loss associated with rheumatoid arthritis, metastatic cancer, multiple myeloma, aromatase inhibitor therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. Denosumab (AMG 162) is an investigational fully human monoclonal antibody with a high affinity and specificity for RANKL. By inhibiting the action of RANKL, denosumab reduces the ... Read More »
» Published in Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006 Oct;6(10):1041-50.

5. Review and evaluation of the Dutch guidelines for osteoporosis.
Match Strength: 5.669

RATIONALE: At the request of a Dutch governmental organization, a multidisciplinary group of osteoporosis experts in the Netherlands published in 2002 a guideline on case finding, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. These guidelines were evaluated for their validity and applicability. METHODS: Analysis by 5 external osteoporosis experts using the 'Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation' ('AGREE') instrument. RESULTS: The score for the 6 domains of AGREE was 88% for the scope and purpose domain, 76% for stakeholder involvement, 81% for rigour of development, 84% for ... Read More »
» Published in J Eval Clin Pract. 2006 Oct;12(5):539-48.

6. Conjugated linoleic acid protects against age-associated bone loss in C57BL/6 female mice.
Match Strength: 5.235

Osteoporosis is one of the major causes of morbidity in the elderly. Inflammation exerts a significant influence on bone turnover, inducing the chronic form of osteoporosis. Dietary nutrition has the capacity to modulate inflammatory response. Therefore, nutritional strategies and lifestyle changes may prevent age-related osteoporosis, thereby improving the quality of life of the elderly population. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Hence, this study was undertaken to examine the effect of CLA on bone mineral density (BMD) in ... Read More »
» Published in J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Sep 21;

7. Selective estrogen receptor modulators to prevent treatment-related osteoporosis.
Match Strength: 5.160

The intended therapeutic effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists is hypogonadism, which is a leading cause of osteoporosis in men. Consistent with this observation, GnRH agonists decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture risk in men with prostate cancer. GnRH agonists markedly decrease serum levels of both testosterone and estrogen. Estrogens play a central role in homeostasis of the normal male skeleton, and the available evidence suggests that estrogen deficiency rather than testosterone deficiency accounts for the adverse skeletal effects of GnRH agonists. The ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2005;7 Suppl 3:S30-5.

8. To treat or not to treat, that is the question: proceedings of the Quebec Symposium for the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Long-term Care Institutions, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, November 5, 2004.
Match Strength: 4.888

OBJECTIVES: Patients in long-term care institutions (LTCI) are especially at risk for osteoporotic fractures owing to their lack of mobility, poor nutrition, and limited sun exposure. Previous reports have shown that osteoporosis is underdiagnosed and undertreated in LTCI despite the high incidence of osteoporotic fractures in these settings. This document has been developed to assist clinicians practicing in LTCI with the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in their institutionalized patients. These proceedings offer an overview of the particular characteristics of patients at LTCI. ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2006 Sep;7(7):435-41. Epub 2006 Jul 7.

9. Fracture incidence and characterization in patients on osteoporosis treatment: the ICARO study.
Match Strength: 4.500

None of the available osteoporosis therapies have been shown to completely abolish the risk of fractures. In clinical practice, the outcome may be even poorer. In 880 patients prescribed with antiresorptives (alendronate, risedronate, and raloxifene) for >1 year, a fragility fracture was recorded in 8.9%/year of them. This incidence is considerably higher than that observed in randomized clinical trials, and it was significantly related to poor compliance and lack of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fracture is one of the most important public health ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Oct;21(10):1565-70.

10. Volumetric BMD and vascular calcification in middle-aged women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.
Match Strength: 4.161

The association of spine vBMD with AC and CAC was studied in a biracial cohort of 490 middle-aged women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Lower vBMD was related to high AC, but not to CAC, independent of age and shared risk factors between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. INTRODUCTION: This analysis studied the association of spine volumetric BMD (vBMD) with aortic (AC) and coronary artery (CAC) calcification in middle-aged women and evaluated whether such associations were independent of age and shared risk factors between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Dec;21(12):1839-46.

11. Effects of ibandronate on bone quality: Preclinical studies.
Match Strength: 4.118

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone microarchitecture resulting in bone fragility, which increases the risk of fracture. The clinical efficacy of bisphosphonates is evaluated through improvements in bone mineral density (BMD) and reductions in the risk for fracture. However, as bisphosphonates are administered long term, there is increasing interest in their effects on bone quality, which includes bone mass, strength and architecture. Ibandronate is a potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate with significant antifracture efficacy when ... Read More »
» Published in Bone. 2007 Feb;40(2):265-73. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

12. Hypothalamic regulation of cortical bone mass: opposing activity of Y2 receptor and leptin pathways.
Match Strength: 4.025

NeuropeptideY-, Y2 receptor (Y2)-, and leptin-deficient mice show similar anabolic action in cancellous bone but have not been assessed in cortical bone. Cortical bone mass is elevated in Y2(-/-) mice through greater osteoblast activity. In contrast, leptin deficiency results in reduced bone mass. We show opposing central regulation of cortical bone. INTRODUCTION: Treatment of osteoporosis is confounded by a lack of agents capable of stimulating the formation of bone by osteoblasts. Recently, the brain has been identified as a potent anabolic regulator of bone formation. Hypothalamic leptin or ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Oct;21(10):1600-7.

13. Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss.
Match Strength: 3.758

The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ... Read More »
» Published in Oncology (Williston Park). 2006 Aug;20(9):1029-39; discussion 1039-40, 1042, 1048.

14. Effects of strontium on bone strength, density, volume, and microarchitecture in laying hens.
Match Strength: 3.453

Strontium has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. Treatment of laying hens, which are susceptible to osteoporosis and bone fracture, with strontium increased DXA measurements of BMD and BMC and microCT measurements of bone volume and microarchitecture and improved the mechanical performance of whole bone, but had no effect on the estimated material properties of the bone tissue. INTRODUCTION: Strontium (Sr) has been reported to dissociate bone remodeling and have positive influences on bone formation. We supplemented the diet of laying hens, which are susceptible to osteoporosis ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Nov;21(11):1696-703.

15. Renal tubular acidosis type 2 with Fanconi's syndrome, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and secondary hyperaldosteronism in an adult consequent to vitamin D and calcium deficiency: effect of vitamin D and calcium citrate therapy.
Match Strength: 3.377

OBJECTIVE: To describe a unique example of renal tubular acidosis type 2 (RTA 2) in conjunction with Fanconi's syndrome and osteomalacia consequent to vitamin D and calcium deficiency in an adult without underlying gastrointestinal disease. METHODS: We review the clinical, hormonal, histomorphometric, and micro-computed tomographic findings and the response to therapy with vitamin D and calcium in our patient. RESULTS: On admission, a 33-year-old African American woman had the following laboratory findings: serum ionized calcium 3.8 mg/dL (0.95 mmol/L), venous pH 7.26, bicarbonate 20 mEq/L, ... Read More »
» Published in Endocr Pract. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5):559-67.

16. Quantifying the treatment effect explained by markers in the presence of measurement error.
Match Strength: 2.966

Surrogate markers or intermediate markers are important in identifying subjects with high risk of a serious disease or for monitoring disease progression of a subject on treatment. Quantifying the proportion of treatment effect (PTE) explained by markers has been studied extensively. Due to reasons such as biological variation, limited machine precision, etc. markers are generally measured with error. The estimated PTE ignoring the measurement error could be biased, which may lead to incorrect conclusions. In this article, we adjust for the measurement error using regression calibration to ... Read More »
» Published in Stat Med. 2006 Sep 15;

17. Pulsed electromagnetic fields accelerate apoptotic rate in osteoclasts.
Match Strength: 2.819

Selective control of cell function by applying specifically configured, low-energy, time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMF) has added a new, exciting dimension to biology and medicine. However, the mechanism involved is less clear. In our study, we investigated the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on induction of osteoclasts apoptosis. A statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in osteoclasts (48 hr after isolation) was found when exposed to 7.5 Hz PEMF with induced electric fields intensity of 3.0 muv/cm for 8 (105%, p < 0.001) and 16 hr (30%, p < 0.05). ... Read More »
» Published in Connect Tissue Res. 2006;47(4):222-8.

18. New advances in the treatment of hypogonadism in the aging male.
Match Strength: 2.699

The signs and symptoms of low testosterone in the aging male include erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, mood disturbances such as depression, loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, and increase in body fat. Many of these signs and symptoms were previously believed to be part of the normal aging process, and only recently has treatment of low testosterone in the aging male been shown to provide long-term physical and mental improvement. In the past, oral and injectable testosterone delivery methods had disadvantages that limited their use, but the introduction of transdermal testosterone ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 1:S34-40.

19. Relationship between moderate to severe kidney disease and hip fracture in the United States.
Match Strength: 2.675

People with ESRD are at a high risk for hip fracture. However, the effect of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hip fracture risk has not been well studied. As part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, information on both kidney function and history of hip fracture was obtained. This survey is a complex, multistage, probability sample of the US noninstitutionalized civilian population and was conducted between 1988 and 1994. A history of hip fracture was identified from the response to a questionnaire that was administered to all participants. There ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Nov;17(11):3223-32. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

20. Bone mineral density loss and recovery during 48 months in first-time users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.
Match Strength: 2.540

OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) during 48 months between first-time depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) users, during use and after discontinuation, to controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Academic community. PATIENT(S): Women 18-35 years, newly initiating depot MPA (n = 178) and controls (n = 145) not using hormonal contraception. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The BMD of the hip and spine, measured at 3-month intervals, by dual energy roentgen absorptiometry. RESULTS: Hip and spine BMD declined during 48 months of depot MPA use by 7.7% +/- 0.11% (mean +/- ... Read More »
» Published in Fertil Steril. 2006 Nov;86(5):1466-74. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

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