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Metabolic Syndrome
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1. Dyslipidaemia, hypercoagulability and the metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 9.503

The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. This syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and is a common early abnormality in the development of type 2 diabetes. The pathogenesis of the syndrome has multiple origins. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle coupled with genetic factors interact to produce the syndrome. Here, we consider two components of the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia and hypercoagulability ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;4(3):175-83.

2. Inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 9.224

Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic abnormalities associated with increased cardiovascular and mortality risks. Glucocorticoid excess has been linked to the development of metabolic syndrome. Intracellular glucocorticoid levels are regulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1), a key enzyme that converts inert cortisone to active cortisol. To counter the unfavorable metabolic effects of glucocorticoids in certain tissues, 11beta-HSD-1 inhibitors are being investigated for their potential in the treatment of insulin resistance and other aspects of metabolic ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Apr;7(4):319-23.

3. Hypercortisolemic depression is associated with the metabolic syndrome in late-life.
Match Strength: 8.995

INTRODUCTION: Depression has been hypothesized to be associated with metabolic abnormalities which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Such a link could be due to increased HPA-axis activity. This study investigates the cross-sectional relationship between depression, urinary cortisol and metabolic syndrome in an older population. METHODS: Data are from 867 participants of the InChianti Study, aged 65 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D scale; cortisol levels were determined in 24-h urine samples. Metabolic syndrome was defined as three or more ... Read More »
» Published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 Feb;32(2):151-9. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

4. Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis.
Match Strength: 8.720

PURPOSE: The use of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome has led to inconsistent results on the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A MEDLINE search (1966-April 2005) was conducted to identify prospective studies that examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. Information on sample size, participant characteristics, metabolic syndrome definition, follow-up duration, and endpoint assessment ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Med. 2006 Oct;119(10):812-9.

5. Hepatitis C, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory markers: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES III].
Match Strength: 8.519

Studies have shown that hepatitis C (HCV) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) possibly due to insulin resistance and inflammation. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for DM2. Our objectives were to assess the relationship between HCV and metabolic syndrome and inflammatory markers. We used data from The Third National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES-III). We excluded pregnant women, subjects with diabetes, those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and those diagnosed with concomitant infection. We analyzed the data controlling for demographic variables, ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Mar;75(3):320-6. Epub 2006 Aug 17.

6. Lack of association between the IL-10 gene polymorphisms and features of the metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 8.475

BACKGROUNDS: Insulin resistance plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Inflammation is the leading cause of insulin resistance, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) is one of the anti-inflammatory cytokines. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between the IL-10 polymorphisms and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: One thousand two hundred two unrelated subjects residing in southern Taiwan were retrospectively recruited from a community-based health screening program. Two hundred sixty subjects were defined as the metabolic syndrome (3-5 risk ... Read More »
» Published in J Investig Med. 2011 Feb;59(2):267-71.

7. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke: An 11-year prospective cohort in Taiwan community.
Match Strength: 8.447

OBJECTIVE: Patterns of metabolic syndrome among populations in the Asia-Pacific region remain unknown. This study sought to establish the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Taiwan and the risk of cardiovascular disease imparted by this syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort of 3602 individuals aged 35 years and above from one Taiwan community in 1990-1991 was followed up for a median of 9.0 years (inter-quartile range: 7.9-10.0 years). Women had a higher prevalence rates of age-standardized metabolic syndrome than men (28.9% versus 16.6%) by original NCEP-ATP III criteria, and the rates ... Read More »
» Published in Atherosclerosis. 2006 Sep 13;

8. Serum adiponectin, interleukin-10 levels and inflammatory markers in the metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 8.358

We examined the association between interleukin-10 (IL-10), adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Furthermore, the association of these anti-/pro-inflammatory cytokine levels with the metabolic syndrome was investigated. The study subjects were composed of 312 Korean individuals without diabetes. Serum adiponectin level was associated with hsCRP (r=-0.21, P<0.001), IL-6 (r=-0.13, P<0.05) and IL-10 (r=-0.22, P<0.001) levels. Subjects without the metabolic syndrome showed higher adiponectin (17.03 microg/ml versus ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Feb;75(2):235-40. Epub 2006 Jul 26.

9. Metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 8.206

The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Med Sci. 2006 Feb;60(2):72-81.

10. Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome: the evidence.
Match Strength: 8.019

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet has long been related to a lower cardiovascular disease risk; however, more recent evidences also indicate that it has a favourable effect on adiposity and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Review of the available literature in relation to Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Several components of Mediterranean diet patterns have been inversely related with body mass index. They are considered to be modulators of insulin resistance, can exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, improve atherogenic dyslipidemia or attenuate the inflammatory burden ... Read More »
» Published in Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9A):1607-17.

11. Inflammatory components of adipose tissue as target for treatment of metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 8.009

Obesity is an independent risk factor in the etiology of various metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this chapter, we discuss obesity-induced inflammation as a potential link with obesity-related metabolic syndrome, and discuss how obesity-related inflammatory components such as immune cells, and cytokines/chemokines and adipocy-tokines, provoke obesity-related pathologies. In particular, we focus on the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory food factors/phytochemicals may be useful for inhibiting the initiation and development of obesity ... Read More »
» Published in Forum Nutr. 2009;61:95-103. Epub 2009 Apr 7.

12. A polygenic model of the metabolic syndrome with reduced circulating and intra-adipose glucocorticoid action.
Match Strength: 7.893

Despite major advances in understanding monogenic causes of morbid obesity, the complex genetic and environmental etiology of idiopathic metabolic syndrome remains poorly understood. One hypothesis suggests that similarities between the metabolic disease of plasma glucocorticoid excess (Cushing's syndrome) and idiopathic metabolic syndrome results from increased glucocorticoid reamplification within adipose tissue by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1). Indeed, 11beta-HSD-1 is now a major therapeutic target. Because much supporting evidence for a role of adipose 11beta ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54(12):3371-8.

13. Impact of weight loss on cortisol secretion in obese men with and without metabolic syndrome features.
Match Strength: 7.861

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Disturbances in cortisol metabolism have been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss induced by an energy-restricted diet on postprandial cortisol secretion in obese men with and without metabolic syndrome features. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve obese men (BMI: 32.5-36.2 kg/m2), six without and six with at least three markers of metabolic syndrome, and six lean men (BMI: 22.2-24.9 kg/m2) participated. Plasma cortisol was measured at fasting and at 30 min intervals for 3h after standard ... Read More »
» Published in Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Jan;16(1):28-34. Epub 2005 Jun 28.

14. Metabolic syndrome in women with chronic pain.
Match Strength: 7.828

Fibromyalgia is a prevalent syndrome characterized by chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia. Patients with fibromyalgia commonly have an elevated body mass index and are physically inactive, 2 major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Yet little is known about the relationship between chronic pain conditions and metabolic disturbances. Our study evaluated the risk for, and neuroendocrine correlates of, metabolic syndrome in this patient population. Women with fibromyalgia (n = 109) were compared with control healthy women (n = 46), all recruited from the community. Metabolic syndrome was ... Read More »
» Published in Metabolism. 2007 Jan;56(1):87-93.

15. Associations between bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: A review.
Match Strength: 7.771

OBJECTIVES: To examine the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome and to discuss whether the consequences of metabolic syndrome underlie a substantive portion of the premature morbidity and mortality observed in persons with bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search, citing articles from 1966 onward, supplemented by a review of bibliographies, was conducted to identify relevant studies. Bipolar disorder, mood disorder, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular illness, and obesity were used as keywords. Criteria used to select studies ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;67(7):1034-41.

16. Kidney disease and the metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 7.736

The epidemic of metabolic syndrome contributes to the rapid growth of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hyper-hemodynamics, impaired pressure natriuresis, excess excretory load, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and prothrombotic status individually and interdependently initiate renal injury in metabolic syndrome. The prevention and treatment of kidney disease require a multifactorial approach. Weight loss through diet control and exercise can reverse many pathophysiologic processes. Pharmacologic intervention includes insulin sensitizers, tight glycemic and ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Med Sci. 2005 Dec;330(6):319-25.

17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism improves vasodilation during hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 7.686

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation due to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. We assessed the effects of TNF-alpha neutralization by infliximab on vascular reactivity during hyperinsulinemia in obesity-related metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Vascular responses to intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were assessed in patients with metabolic syndrome, before and after administration of infliximab. RESULTS: Patients had blunted vasodilator responses to ACh and ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul;31(7):1439-41. Epub 2008 Apr 4.

18. Potential health benefits of Indian spices in the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome: a review.
Match Strength: 7.555

Spices used in Indian cooking have a long history of use as medicines to prevent and treat diseases. Many studies have confirmed that spices can be useful medicines, but the major challenge is now to provide scientific evidence and plausible mechanisms for their therapeutic responses. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of Indian spices to treat multiple symptoms of the metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, altered lipid profile and hypertension. The metabolic syndrome is prevalent and has become an important financial burden to the healthcare system in ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Dec;46(6):467-81.

19. Adipokine dysregulation, adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic syndrome.
Match Strength: 7.505

Obesity plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Adipokines may link obesity to its co-morbidities. Most adipokines with pro-inflammatory properties are overproduced with increasing adiposity, while some adipokines with anti-inflammatory or insulin-sensitizing properties, like adiponectin are decreased. This dysregulation of adipokine production may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. Besides considering adipokines, this review will also highlight the cellular key players and molecular mechanisms involved in adipose inflammation. ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010 Jan 15;314(1):1-16. Epub 2009 Aug 12.

20. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.
Match Strength: 7.483

The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone ... Read More »
» Published in Physiol Genomics. 2005 Apr 14;21(2):243-52. Epub 2005 Feb 22.

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* All information on is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.

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