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How Magnesium Helps Improve Diabetes, Hypertension, Heart Disease, Mental or Brain Problems & Other Degenerative Conditions


Magnesium is the fourth of our seven most important anti-inflammatory diet supplements, which are: (1) Fish Oil (contains EPA and DHA), (2) Borage Seed Oil (contains GLA), (3) Green Tea (contains EGCG), (4) Magnesium, (5) Fiber (soluble and insoluble types), (6) Ginger (contains gingerol) and (7) Turmeric (yellow curry powder, contains curcumin). Each of these supplements is needed by most Americans to correct serious deficiencies in their diet, to lower chronic inflammation, or to simply improve and maintain health.

Magnesium has been shown to be a very common deficiency by many published studies. Some report that as many as 80% of modern Americans are lacking optimum levels of magnesium to maintain excellent health. This deficiency is associated with many inflammatory and insulin resistant conditions and major diseases. (4) They include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, migraine and cluster headaches, and many more. Magnesium is especially important for glucose metabolism. It is involved in over 300 different chemical processes in the human body.

For decades, scientists have searched for the hidden link between diabetes mellitus, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood clotting factors (high fibrinogen). Many researchers now believe that magnesium plays a central role in uniting many of these associated insulin resistant diseases. Supplements of magnesium are recommended for diabetics, hypertensives, and most people who have metabolic syndrome x.

WEIGHT LOSS DIETERS AND MAGNESIUM
If you are already deficient in magnesium and go on a calorie restricted diet, you are very likely to become even more deficient in magnesium, which can make your insulin resistance much worse, which will increase your glucose and average insulin levels throughout the day. This will make it very, very difficult to lose weight. Dieters are strongly recommended to consider supplementing with magnesium. (17)

How Much Magnesium Should You Take per Day? Our review of the research supports suggested supplementation of magnesium, totaling about 400mg in divided doses, 200mg morning and 200mg evening. If you want to take only one pill, take at least 200mg before bedtime. This supplementary dose should be taken in addition to eating high magnesium foods, such as more vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. Bigger people, people who perform stressful exercise more than average, or people who are supplementing calcium for bone loss, or diabetics and other people with high levels of inflammation, should consider a larger 600mg daily dose - 300mg in the morning and 300mg in the evening.

Which Kind of Magnesium? The best forms are called "chelated", meaning that they have been processed to help them absorb better. Chelated magnesium may absorb 10-12 times more efficiently than the oxide forms. If your label does not say "chelated" or mention a work like "aspartate", "citrate", "maleate" and so on, don't buy it. Buy a Magnesium that is more "bio-available" such as a chelated, citrate, maleate, aspartate, or other kinds ending in "...ate". We recommend Country Life Chelated Magnesium, 250mg, 180 Capsules, $13.93. Other good brands are from Now Foods, Carlson, Vitamin Power, Bluebonnet, Kal, Albion, Solgar, Twin Labs, and Vitamin Shoppe - all available at Amazon.com. They are proven to be absorbed much more completely by the body than the common oxide type product. Magnesium oxide may only get about 4% of the element into your system. The chelated citrate or maleate type products often get up to 50% or more of the product into your tissues where it is needed.

Safety Issues -- Taking the recommended supplements above should not be a problem for most people. However, very high levels of magnesium can cause diarrhea and general gastrointestinal distress, as well as interfere with calcium absorption and bone metabolism. Extremely high levels of magnesium (much higher than the recommended dosages above) may interfere with normal heart functioning and should be avoided. Since research reports no advantages to higher doses of magnesium than the 600mg daily dose, you should not take more than this, unless specifically instructed by a health care professional.

As always, we suggest you inform your doctor or health professional before adding any supplement to your diet. You may want to print this page to take to your medical professional, in case they are not familiar with current research on magnesium.

MAJOR RESEARCH SUPPORTS DIETARY MAGNESIUM

In February of 2005, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston published a major study of 11,686 middle-aged and older U.S. female health professionals. The women were followed for many years, beginning in 1993. The purpose of their research was to examine whether and to what extent magnesium intake is related to systemic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. They reported: "In conclusion, we found that magnesium intake was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of CRP and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. These data support the potential benefits in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and CVD by vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts that are rich in magnesium, although future large clinical trials to confirm the efficacy of magnesium supplements are clearly warranted." The amount of magnesium studied ranged from around 250mg/day to about 420mg/day. The highest consumption was associated with better health. In other words, the more magnesium these women consumed, the less inflammation and metabolic syndrome they suffered from. Read their full report supporting increased magnesium in the diet.

Other studies have reported that deficient magnesium intake is related to many diseases, including:

  • Insulin Resistance (5,6)
  • Type 2 Diabetes, NIDDM or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (7,8)
  • Cardiovascular Diseases; or Hardening of the Arteries, Atherosclerosis, or Heart Disease (9,10)
  • Hypertension, or High Blood Pressure (11,12)

Increased levels of magnesium in your diet is associated with improvement in many aspects of your health, including these important measures of health status:

  • Improvement in Blood Sugar Control -- Glucose and Insulin Control or Glycemic Homeostasis (13,14)
  • Improvement in Cholesterol -- Better Lipid Metabolism; or Normalized Management of FFA Free Fatty Acids, Lower Total Cholesterol, Increased HDL, Lower LDL and Lower Triglycerides as well as other markers of Dyslipidemia (15,16)
  • Improvement of the ability of your heart and artery muscles to contract, or squeeze and circulate your blood - Improvements in Vascular or Myocardial Contractility (17,18)
  • Improvement in Heart Rhythm -- Providing Anti-arrhythmic Effects(17,19)
  • Reduced Stickiness or Clotting Tendencies -- Anticoagulant or Anti-platelet Effects (17,19,20)
  • Improved Circulation Due to Relaxation or Expansion of the Veins, Capillaries and Arteries -- Reduces in Hypertension Due to Increased Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation (17,18)
  • Improved Markers of Systemic Inflammation - chronic, low-level sub-clinical inflammatory cytokines are reduced when magnesium deficiency is prevented or corrected (4)

Magnesium - Latest Peer Reviewed Journal Citations:

January, 2011 - Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Published in Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02422.x. Written by Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Biomedical Research Unit, Mexican Social Security Institute, Durango, Mexico The Research Group on Diabetes and Chronic Illnesses, Durango, Mexico.

Eur J Clin Invest 2011 ABSTRACT: Background Given that role of magnesium in insulin secretion is uncertain, our objective was to determine whether oral supplementation with magnesium chloride (MgCl(2) ) improves the ability of beta-cells to compensate for variations in insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals with significant hypomagnesaemia. Materials and methods Eligible individuals were non-diabetic, normo-tensive men and non-diabetic, normo-tensive, non-pregnant women with serum magnesium levels =0.70 mM/L; they were enrolled in a randomized double-blind clinical trial to receive either 50 mL of 5% MgCl(2) solution or 50 mL of inactive solution daily for 3 months. The primary trial end point was a change in the AUC of the hyperbolic model of beta-cell function (HMbCF) derived from the fasting state. Individuals, caregivers and personnel who assessed the outcomes were all blinded to the group assignments. Results A total of 54 and 52 individuals were assigned to the MgCl(2) and placebo groups, respectively; five individuals in the MgCl(2) group and four in the placebo group dropped out. There were no serious adverse events or side effects because of MgCl(2) or placebo. At the beginning of the study, the AUC of the HMbCF was similar in both groups (AUC = 7.591 and 7.895 cm(2) ); at the end of follow-up, the curve of the MgCl(2) group showed a hyperbolic distribution (AUC = 18.855 cm(2) ), whereas in the placebo group, there were no changes (AUC = 7.631 cm(2) ). Conclusions MgCl(2) 2.5 g daily improves the ability of beta-cells to compensate for variations in insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals with significant hypomagnesaemia.

March, 2011 - Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Published in Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Mar;13(3):281-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x Written by Mooren FC, Kruger K, Volker K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus A.

The incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome correlates with the availability of magnesium (Mg). We studied the effect of oral Mg supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in normomagnesemic, overweight, insulin resistant, non-diabetic subjects. Subjects were tested for eligibility using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and subsequently randomized to receive either Mg-aspartate-hydrochloride (n = 27) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 months. As trial endpoints, several indices of insulin sensitivity, plasma glucose, serum insulin, blood pressure and lipid profile were determined. Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile did not show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimization of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes.
November, 2010 - Compared ability of garlic (Allium sativum) extract or a-tocopherol + magnesium association to reduce metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Published in Phytother Res. 2010 Nov 17. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3344 Written by Hfaiedh N, Murat JC, Elfeki A. Laboratoire d'Ecophysiologie Animale, Faculte des Sciences, 3018 Sfax, Tunisie and Departement de Biologie, Faculte des Sciences, Gafsa, Tunisie. najlaharrathi@yahoo.fr.
Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of (1) a garlic (Allium sativum) aqueous extract or (2) a combination of a-tocopherol and magnesium were investigated comparatively in alloxan-diabetic rats. Garlic extract (1?mL of extract corresponding to 300?mg fresh garlic/kg) or a-tocopherol (100?mg/kg) + MgCl(2) (200?mg/kg body weight) were i.p. injected to rats, once a day for 4 weeks. Lipid peroxidation levels and the activities of superoxide-dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were then measured in liver and pancreas. Under our experimental conditions, garlic extract or a-tocopherol + Mg were found to (1) significantly reduce the plasma levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride and (2) lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and transaminase activities in blood of diabetic animals. In addition, treatment with garlic extract or a-tocopherol + magnesium appeared to exert an antioxidative activity demonstrated (1) by the increase of catalase, superoxide-dismutase and glutathione-peroxidase activities in liver and pancreas, and (2) a lowering of lipid peroxidation level in these organs. In conclusion, both garlic extract and a-tocopherol + magnesium association were found to alleviate diabetes-associated metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in rats. The full report is Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

December, 2010 - Low serum magnesium concentrations predict increase in left ventricular mass over 5 years independently of common cardiovascular risk factors. Published in Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec;213(2):563-9. Epub 2010 Sep 22 Written by Klinik und Poliklinik fur Innere Medizin B, Universitatsklinikum der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat Greifswald, Friedrich-Loffler Str. 23 a, 17487 Greifswald, Germany. ThorstenReffelmann@web.de. Reffelmann T, Dorr M, Ittermann T, Schwahn C, Volzke H, Ruppert J, Robinson D, Felix SB.

OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a significant predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. Experimental studies suggest a pathophysiological role of magnesium (Mg(2+)) in the development of arterial hypertension and LVH. METHODS: In subjects with complete echocardiographic data from the population-based longitudinal "Study of Health in Pomerania" (n=1 348), the difference in left ventricular mass (LVM) over 5 years (echocardiography) was analyzed in relationship to serum Mg(2+) at baseline. RESULTS: Mg(2+) at baseline (0.790 +/- 0.003 mmol/l, mean +/- SEM) inversely correlated with the difference in LVM over 5 years (p<0.0001, females: p<0.002, males: p<0.024). In the lowest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)<=0.73 mmol/l), LVM (187.4 +/- 3.1 g at baseline) increased by 14.9 +/- 1.2 g, while in the highest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)>=0.85 mmol/l) LVM (186.7 +/- 3.4 g at baseline) decreased by -0.5 +/- 2.8 g (p<0.0001 between quintiles). By multivariable analysis including several cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive treatment, serum Mg(2+) was associated with the increase in LVM at a statistically high significant level (p<0.0001). LVM after 5 years was significantly higher in subjects within the lower Mg(2+)-quintiles. This association remained highly significant after adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: Hypomagnesemia is one of the strongest predictors of gain in LVM over the following 5 years.
December, 2010 - Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes. Written by Kim DJ, Xun P, Liu K, Loria C, Yokota K, Jacobs DR Jr, He K. Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Published in Diabetes Care. 2010 Dec;33(12):2604-10. Epub 2010 Aug 31.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term associations of magnesium intake with incidence of diabetes, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance among young American adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,497 Americans, aged 18-30 years, who had no diabetes at baseline, were prospectively examined for incident diabetes based on quintiles of magnesium intake. We also investigated the associations between magnesium intake and inflammatory markers, i.e., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).RESULTS: During the 20-year follow-up, 330 incident cases of diabetes were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of magnesium intake was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.32-0.86; P(trend) < 0.01) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Consistently, magnesium intake was significantly inversely associated with hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and HOMA-IR, and serum magnesium levels were inversely correlated with hs-CRP and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium intake was inversely longitudinally associated with incidence of diabetes in young American adults. This inverse association may be explained, at least in part, by the inverse correlations of magnesium intake with systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.

June, 2007 - Magnesium and C-reactive protein in heart failure: an anti-inflammatory effect of magnesium administration? Published in Eur J Nutr. 2007 Jun;46(4):230-7. Epub 2007 May 3.

"BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between serum magnesium (Mg) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in heart failure (HF). AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the relationship, if any, between serum Mg and CRP in HF patients and, concomitantly, to test a hypothesis that Mg supplementation might affect serum CRP levels. METHODS: Serum Mg and CRP were evaluated in 68 patients with chronic systolic HF leading to hospital admission and 65 patients requiring hospitalization for other causes. Following 5 weeks, serum Mg, CRP and intracellular Mg were reevaluated in 17 HF patients after administration of oral Mg citrate 300 mg/day (group A), and 18 untreated HF patients (group B). In order to obtain Gaussian distribution, logarithmic transformation of CRP was performed. RESULTS: Inverse correlation was found between serum Mg and log CRP (r = -0.28, P = 0.002). Compared to controls, patients with HF demonstrated higher baseline CRP levels, independent of coexisting conditions, and lower serum Mg values. Following Mg treatment, log CRP decreased from 1.4 +/- 0.4 to 0.8 +/- 0.3 in group A (P < 0.001). No significant changes in log CRP were demonstrable in group B. Serum Mg (mmol/l) rose significantly in group A (0.74 +/- 0.04-0.88 +/- 0.08, P < 0.001), and to a lesser extent in group B (0.82 +/- 0.08-0.88 +/- 0.08, P = 0.04). Intracellular Mg significantly increased only in Mg-treated group A (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Oral Mg supplementation to HF patients significantly attenuates blood levels of CRP, a biomarker of inflammation. Targeting the inflammatory cascade by Mg administration might prove a useful tool for improving the prognosis in HF."

April 5, 2006 - "Hypomagnesemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome", Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006 Apr 5; [Epub ahead of print]

"BACKGROUND: Although hypomagnesemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, there is not a previous description concerning their potential interaction; thus, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypomagnesemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress. (snip) CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of inflammation and oxidative stress is related and increases the risk for MetS, whereas serum magnesium levels and MetS are independently associated."

March 14, 2006 - "Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment", Medical Hypotheses, 2006 Mar 14; [Epub ahead of print]

"Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use. Related and accompanying mental illnesses in these case histories including traumatic brain injury, headache, suicidal ideation, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, postpartum depression, cocaine, alcohol and tobacco abuse, hypersensitivity to calcium, short-term memory loss and IQ loss were also benefited. Dietary deficiencies of magnesium, coupled with excess calcium and stress may cause many cases of other related symptoms including agitation, anxiety, irritability, confusion, asthenia, sleeplessness, headache, delirium, hallucinations and hyper-excitability, with each of these having been previously documented. The possibility that magnesium deficiency is the cause of most major depression and related mental health problems including IQ loss and addiction is enormously important to public health and is recommended for immediate further study. Fortifying refined grain and drinking water with biologically available magnesium to pre-twentieth century levels is recommended."

March 11, 2006 - "Magnesium deficiency is associated with periodontal disease", British Dental Journal, March 11, 2006, 200(5):263

January 14, 2006 - "Oral magnesium administration prevents thermal hyperalgesia induced by diabetes in rats", Diabetes Research in Clinical Practice, January 14, 2006

"Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. It has been shown that hyperglycemia may contribute to its development but the exact pathophysiology underlying this complication is not fully understood. Since oral magnesium supplementation can normalize hyperglycemia induced by diabetes in rats, this study was designed to examine the effect of oral magnesium administration on thermal hyperalgesia in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. ... At the end of the 8 weeks, thermal pain threshold was assessed by tail flick test and magnesium and glucose plasma levels were measured in all groups. RESULT: A significant decrease (p<0.001) in thermal pain threshold and plasma magnesium levels and an increase in plasma glucose levels (p<0.001) were seen in diabetic rats 8 weeks after diabetes induction. After 8 weeks of oral magnesium, thermal hyperalgesia was normalized and plasma magnesium and glucose levels were restored towards normal. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that oral magnesium administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia, magnesium deficiency and hyperglycemia and in diabetic rats."

November, 2005 - "Potassium and magnesium depletions in congestive heart failure--pathophysiology, consequences and replenishment", Clinical Calcium, November, 2005, 15(11):123-33

"Congestive heart failure (CHF) is becoming more frequent worldwide. Both potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies are common and can be associated with risk factors and complications of heart failure (HF). The major causes of K and Mg depletions are the effects of compensatory neuroendocrine mechanisms (activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathoadrenergic systems), digoxin therapy, and administration of thiazide or loop diuretic therapy in CHF. Particular attention should be paid to K and Mg restoration in CHF, because of the consequences of both deficiencies (increased arrhythmic risk, vasoconstriction), and the co-supplementation of both ions is necessary in order to achieve K repletion. Mg and K should be employed as first-line therapy in digitalis intoxication and drug-related arrhythmias, and should be considered an important adjuvant therapy in diuretic treated patients with CHF. Another possibility to restore normal K and Mg status is usage of a K, Mg sparing diuretics."

November, 2005 - "Metabolic syndrome and magnesium", Clin Calcium. November, 2005, 15(11):97-104

"With westernization of lifestyle in Japanese people, dietary intake of Mg by grain, barley, seaweed, vegetable, and nuts has been remarkably diminished. Resultantly, Japanese people might develop hypomagnesemia easily. Likewise, upon drastic change of Japanese lifestyle, metabolic syndrome has been increasing a bigger problem of Japanese health in recent days, probably resulting from various causes, such as increasing intake of animal fat, exercise insufficiency, and accumulation of various stresses. People with metabolic syndrome are often complicated with obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia, and thus be susceptible to cardiovascular events. Hypomagnesemia may cause an increase of vascular tonus by intracellular magnesium depletion, resulting in an increase of blood pressure. Furthermore, it might cause impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia, and finally leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the importance of magnesium intake for the maintenance of health should be increasingly recognized."

September, 2005 - "Effectiveness of oral magnesium in a patient with ventricular tachycardia due to hypomagnesemia", Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, September, 2005, 10(3):205-8

"A 12-year-old girl with occasional symptoms of chest discomfort was diagnosed with ventricular tachycardia on cardiac evaluation. No evidence of organic heart disease was apparent, but a laboratory evaluation revealed hypomagnesemia. Ventricular tachycardia disappeared after treatment with 200 mg/day of oral magnesium hydroxide, and no further chest discomfort was reported. In addition to routine cardiac evaluation for arrhythmia, serum magnesium levels should be checked in patients with suspected idiopathic benign ventricular tachycardia. Treatment with oral magnesium is a physiologic therapy and should be considered for patients with ventricular tachycardia due to hypomagnesemia."

August 15, 2005 - "A potential link between magnesium intake and diabetes in Indigenous Australians", The Medical Journal of Ausralia, 2005; 183 (4): 219-220

"Diabetes in Indigenous Australians occurs at a younger age and at almost four times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes among Indigenous people is 16% in remote areas and 9% in non-remote areas, with the actual prevalence estimated to be between 20% and 25%, and possibly higher than 30% in some remote areas.1 The cause for this disparity in diabetes incidence is multifactorial, and recent evidence suggests that nutrition - particularly magnesium intake - may play a role."

February, 2005 - Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba. Published in Clin Calcium. 2005 Feb;15(2):181-6.

"Magnesium deficit and other electrolyte abnormalities is a frequent disorder in patients with congestive heart failure. Overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, long-term administration of diuretics, digoxin, poor oral intake and impaired absorption contribute to these electrolytes abnormalities. Hypomagnesaemia and depletion of intracellular magnesium stores have been held responsible for a variety of cardiovascular and other functional abnormalities, including various arrhythmias, impairment of cardiac contractility, and vasoconstriction. Because sudden death is prevalent in congestive heart failure, a causal relationship between arrhythmias and magnesium deficiency has been proposed. Reportedly, administration of magnesium can suppress ventricular arrhythmias;however, it remains to be elucidated whether administration of magnesium prevents sudden death and improves prognosis of the patients with congestive heart failure. Nevertheless, since magnesium depletion may be prevalent in congestive heart failure and magnesium has anti-arrhythmic and beneficial cardiovascular effects, magnesium should be supplemented to the patients suspected to have its deficiency."

June, 2004 - "Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial", Diabetes Metab. 2004 Jun;30(3):253-8

"OBJECTIVE: Although hypomagnesemia reduces insulin sensitivity, benefits of magnesium supplementation to non-diabetic insulin resistant subjects has not been established. Our purpose was to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation with magnesium chloride (MgCl2) 2.5 g daily modify insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects. (snip) CONCLUSIONS: Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in hypomagnesemic non-diabetic subjects. Clinical implications of this finding have to be established."

March, 2002 - "Low dietary magnesium increases supraventricular ectopy", Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Mar;75(3):550-4

"BACKGROUND: Magnesium has been suggested to be beneficial in counteracting all phases of the processes that lead to ischemic heart disease, including terminal events such as arrhythmia and sudden death. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that an intake of magnesium considerably below the recommended dietary allowance can produce chemical and physiologic evidence of depletion. (snip) CONCLUSIONS: The magnesium requirement was defined with the use of biochemical and electrophysiologic criteria. The recommended dietary allowance of 320 mg/d seems correct; 130 mg is too little. Persons who live in soft water areas, who use diuretics, or who are predisposed to magnesium loss or ectopic beats may require more dietary magnesium than would others."

May, 1998 - "The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes", Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):682-6. [PDF Doc]

"OBJECTIVE: Hypomagnesemia occurs in 25-38% of patients with type 2 diabetes. Several studies have suggested an association between magnesium (Mg) depletion and insulin resistance and/or reduction of insulin secretion in these cases. Our purpose was to evaluate if Mg supplementation (as magnesium oxide [MgO]) would improve metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. (snip) CONCLUSIONS: Mg depletion is common in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with neuropathy or coronary disease. More prolonged use of Mg in doses that are higher than usual is needed to establish its routine or selective administration in patients with type 2 diabetes to improve control or prevent chronic complications."


References
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  2. "Identification of a fatty acid {Delta}6-desaturase deficiency in human skin fibroblasts", Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 42, 501-508, April, 2001.
  3. "Suspected faulty essential fatty acid metabolism in Sjogren-Larsson syndrome", Pediatric Research, Vol 16, 45-49, 1982.
  4. "Magnesium Intake, C-Reactive Protein, and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older U.S. Women", Diabetes Care 28:1438-1444, 2005, a publication of The American Diabetes Association.
  5. "The association between magnesium intake and fasting insulin concentration in healthy middle-aged women", Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 22, No. 6, 533-538, 2003.
  6. "Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women", Diabetes Care 27:59-65, 2004.
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  10. "Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men", Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23:63-70, 2004.
  11. "Prospective study of nutritional factors, blood pressure, and hypertension among US women", Hypertension, 27:1065-1072, 1996.
  12. "A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men", Circulation, 86:1475-1484, 1992.
  13. "Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxan synthesis", Hypertension, 21:1024-1029, 1993.
  14. "Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance: results in Pima Indians and Caucasians", Journal of Clinical and Endocrinological Metabolism, 80:1382-1385, 1995.
  15. "Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxan synthesis", Hypertension, 21:1024-1029, 1993.
  16. "Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance: results in Pima Indians and Caucasians", Journal of Clinical and Endocrinological Metabolism, 80:1382-1385, 1995.
  17. "Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic syndrome X", Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 24:39-52, 2003.
  18. "Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis of hypertension", Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 24:107-136, 2003.
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* All information on Level1Diet.com is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.



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Replace omega-6 vegetable oils with omega-9 olive oil... Eat oily fish like tuna, sardines, anchovy, salmon, herring... Beans, lentils, peas add fiber... Nine or more 3-ounce servings of fruits or vegetables per day...