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Inflammatory Cytokines
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1. Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Match Strength: 3.483

Cytokines regulate a broad range of inflammatory processes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In rheumatoid joints, it is well known that an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine activities favours the induction of autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and thereby joint damage. However, it remains less clear how cytokines are organized within a hierarchical regulatory network, and therefore which cytokines may be the best targets for clinical intervention a priori. Here, we discuss the crucial effector function of cytokines in the immunological ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 Jun;7(6):429-42.

2. Regulation of autoimmune inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Match Strength: 3.443

The pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of autoimmune arthritis and many other disorders resulting from a dysregulated self-directed immune response. These cytokines influence the interplay among the cellular, immunological and biochemical mediators of inflammation at multiple levels. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory activity of these cytokines is generally perceived to be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta. However, increasing evidence is accumulating in support of the regulatory ... Read More »
» Published in Immunol Lett. 2008 Oct 30;120(1-2):1-5. Epub 2008 Aug 9.

3. Cytokines in Sj�gren's syndrome.
Match Strength: 3.375

Cytokines play a central role in the regulation of immunity and are often found to be deregulated in autoimmune diseases. Sj�gren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and loss of secretory function of the salivary and lachrymal glands. This review highlights the current knowledge of the expression and the function of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines both locally and systemically in Sj�gren's syndrome patients. In the salivary glands, saliva and serum of these patients, many pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. Concomitantly, most anti-inflammatory ... Read More »
» Published in Oral Dis. 2009 Nov;15(8):519-26. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

4. Keratinocytes as targets for interleukin-10-related cytokines: a putative role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
Match Strength: 3.368

Cytokines are key factors in the cross talk between the immune system and other systems including hepatic, nervous, cardiac and cutaneous systems, leading to an adaptive and integrated response of the organism to stress. They are also involved in the regulation of many processes, including hematopoiesis, the immune response and inflammation. IL-10 is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines. Five cytokines structurally related to IL-10 have been described and presently form this family of cytokines: IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 and IL-26. In contrast to IL-10, these cytokines ... Read More »
» Published in Eur Cytokine Netw. 2005 Dec;16(4):309-19.

5. Status of immune mediators in painful neuropathies.
Match Strength: 3.272

Peripheral neuropathies of identical etiology can be painful or painless. The reason for this difference in clinical presentation is as yet unknown; however, immune mediators, particularly cytokines, may play a role. Cytokines are proteins that are produced by immune and nonimmune cells and are categorized as pro- and anti-inflammatory. The role of cytokines in the induction and maintenance of pain has been well established in animal models. Proinflammatory cytokines are mostly algesic, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines have analgesic properties. Clinical research also gives evidence for the ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008 Jun;12(3):159-64.

6. Cytokines and anti-cytokines as therapeutics--an update.
Match Strength: 3.176

Cytokines which comprise of a family of proteins--interleukins, lymphokines, monokines, interferons, and chemokines, are important components of the immune system. They act in concert with specific cytokine inhibitors and soluble cytokine receptors to regulate the human immune response. Their physiologic role in inflammation and pathologic role in systemic inflammatory states are now well recognized. An imbalance in cytokine production or cytokine receptor expression and/or dysregulation of a cytokine process contributes to various pathological disorders. Research is progressing rapidly in the ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan 28;579(1-3):1-12. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

7. Cytokines as potential therapeutic targets for inflammatory skin diseases.
Match Strength: 3.159

A network of pro-inflammatory cytokines is a central feature in the pathophysiology of cutaneous inflammatory diseases. Thus, the delineation of precise roles for particular cytokines and the development of cytokine-directed therapeutics have become areas of intense investigation. While anti-TNF therapeutics have proven to be effective for the treatment of psoriasis, clinical investigations have now begun with other cytokine-directed therapies, such as those targeting IFN-g, IL-12p40, and IL-18. In addition to therapeutics that target cytokines directly, strategies that target cytokine ... Read More »
» Published in Eur Cytokine Netw. 2005 Jun;16(2):101-3.

8. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid cytokine expression in tuberculous meningitis patients with treatment.
Match Strength: 3.151

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is very high in developing areas of the world. Inflammation and cytokine patterns produced by T lymphocytes play an important role in susceptibility to infections. The inflammatory response and production of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with TBM are well documented. Conversely, little is known about the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the CSF of TBM patients. The goal of the present study was to estimate the level of proinflammatory cytokine and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in CSF samples ... Read More »
» Published in Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17(5):333-9. Epub 2010 Apr 17.

9. Differential effects of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines alone or in combinations on the metabolic profile of astrocytes.
Match Strength: 3.068

We have previously reported that the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) induce profound modifications of the metabolic profile of astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the effects of cytokines in astrocytes and to determine whether similar effects could also be observed in neurons. To do so, selected pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and interferon-?, in addition to the above-mentioned TNFa and IL-1ß) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-ß1 and interferon-ß) were applied to primary ... Read More »
» Published in J Neurochem. 2011 Feb;116(4):564-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07135.x. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

10. Importance of cytokines in murine allergic airway disease and human asthma.
Match Strength: 3.016

Asthma is a common, disabling inflammatory respiratory disease that has increased in frequency and severity in developed nations. We review studies of murine allergic airway disease (MAAD) and human asthma that evaluate the importance of Th2 cytokines, Th2 response-promoting cytokines, IL-17, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in MAAD and human asthma. We discuss murine studies that directly stimulate airways with specific cytokines or delete, inactivate, neutralize, or block specific cytokines or their receptors, as well as controversial issues including the roles of IL-5, IL ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2010 Feb 15;184(4):1663-74.

11. The influence of sex hormones on cytokines in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a review.
Match Strength: 2.977

The female predominance of multiple sclerosis (MS) has suggested that hormonal differences between the sexes must confer some protective effect on males or enhance the susceptibility of females to this disease. There has been evidence that gonadal hormones can modulate the immune response regulated by antigen presenting cells and T cells. These cells control the immune response by the production of interacting pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The first include the acute phase pro-inflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response as well as the T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokines, while the ... Read More »
» Published in Mult Scler. 2005 Jun;11(3):349-59.

12. Proinflammatory cytokines in breast cancer: mechanisms of action and potential targets for therapeutics.
Match Strength: 2.930

Inflammation within the tumor microenvironment correlates with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis in many types of cancer, including breast cancer. The cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) are critical mediators of the inflammatory response. Numerous studies have also linked these cytokines to breast cancer progression. As a result, the mechanisms by which these cytokines promote breast cancer have been recently explored using both in vitro and in vivo models. The results from these studies have led to speculation ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Drug Targets. 2010 Sep;11(9):1133-46.

13. Mechanism of cytokine modulation of epithelial tight junction barrier.
Match Strength: 2.922

Cytokines play a crucial role in the modulation of inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta?IL-1beta?, and interleukin-12 are essential in mediating the inflammatory response, while anti-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta are important in the attenuation or containment of inflammatory process. It is increasingly recognized that cytokines have an important physiological and pathological effect on intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier ... Read More »
» Published in Front Biosci. 2009 Jan 1;14:2765-78.

14. Proinflammatory cytokines and IL-10 in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer patients.
Match Strength: 2.918

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to describe the levels of circulating monocyte/macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta IL-6, and IL-8) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 15 healthy individuals, 20 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 12 with Crohn's disease (CD), and 15 with CRC (Dukes' stage B). Blood serum cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The patients with UC had significantly higher levels of the ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2009 Jul-Aug;57(4):291-4. Epub 2009 Jul 4.

15. MAPKs and their relevance to arthritis and inflammation.
Match Strength: 2.905

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which imbalances in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines promote the induction of autoimmunity, inflammation and joint destruction. The importance of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been underscored by the success of biologics that act to block the effects of cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6, in treating disease. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated as playing key regulatory roles in the production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and ... Read More »
» Published in Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Apr;47(4):409-14. Epub 2008 Jan 10.

16. Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapy for asthma.
Match Strength: 2.902

Cytokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma resolution may depend on the correction of dysregulated cytokine expression, which is a characteristic feature of this chronic inflammatory disease. It is, therefore, not surprising that attempts have been made to either block cytokines present at elevated levels or to substitute cytokines that are insufficiently expressed in asthma. In this article, the results of these studies are discussed, and the obtained insights regarding asthma pathogenesis and new treatment options are summarized ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2006 Mar;6(2):117-21.

17. Importance of the surface area ratio on cytokines production by human monocytes in vitro induced by various hydroxyapatite particles.
Match Strength: 2.894

A possible complication associated with the implantation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based prosthesis is the release of particles. Those particles can be phagocyted by monocytes that are among the first cells to colonize the inflammatory site. The activated monocytes produce inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, which cause osteoclasts activation. It has previously been demonstrated using a surface area ratio (ratio of the total surface of the given particles to the surface area of cells) of 1 to 1 that there was a correlation between the expression and production of cytokines induced by HA. ... Read More »
» Published in Biomaterials. 2005 May;26(15):2361-9.

18. The IL-12 family of cytokines in infection, inflammation and autoimmune disorders.
Match Strength: 2.887

Cytokines are critical coordinators of the immune response necessary for resolving bacterial and viral assaults on the immune system. In particular, the IL-12 family of cytokines are key players in the regulation of T cell responses. These responses are orchestrated by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells which produce the members of the IL-12 family of cytokines in response to infection. IL-27 and IL-23 are two cytokines that are related to IL-12; these cytokines share homology at the subunit, receptor, and signalling levels. IL-12 is composed of p35 and p40 subunits, which, when ... Read More »
» Published in Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009 Mar;8(1):40-52.

19. Cervical anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations among first-trimester pregnant smokers.
Match Strength: 2.879

OBJECTIVE: Anti-inflammatory cytokines play a role in the lower genital tract immune defense. We examined the impact of cigarette smoking in pregnancy on the detection of the 3 most important anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-4, -10, and -13) in the cervix. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fourteen gravid women from 4 to 16 weeks of gestation without bacterial vaginosis or sexually transmitted disease were queried regarding demographic factors and smoking. Concentrations of cytokines were determined with a multiplex assay for cervical swabs. RESULTS: There was a positive linear relationship ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Dec;193(6):1999-2003.

20. Plasma cytokines in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Match Strength: 2.873

BACKGROUND: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) studies from our laboratory and others have described cytokine abnormalities. Other studies reported no difference between CFS and controls. However, methodologies varied widely and few studies measured more than 4 or 5 cytokines. Multiplex technology permits the determination of cytokines for a large panel of cytokines simultaneously with high sensitivity and with only 30 ul of plasma per sample. No widely accepted laboratory test or marker is available for the diagnosis or prognosis of CFS. This study screened plasma factors to identify circulating ... Read More »
» Published in J Transl Med. 2009 Nov 12;7:96.

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