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Infection Inflammation
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 << Prev 20  Showing 1 to 20 of 1,263 Matches Next 20 >>

1. Hepatitis C infection in dialysis patients: a link to poor clinical outcome?
Match Strength: 4.027

Among the 350,000 maintenance dialysis patients in the USA, the mortality rate is high (20-23% per year) as is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (5-15%). An additional same number of dialysis patients in the USA may be infected with HCV but have undetectable HCV antibodies. Almost half of all deaths in dialysis patients, including HCV-infected patients, are due to cardiovascular disease. Since over two-thirds of dialysis patients die within 5 years of initiating dialysis and because markers of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS), rather than traditional ... Read More »
» Published in Int Urol Nephrol. 2007;39(1):247-59. Epub 2006 Sep 29.

2. Cutting edge: the acquisition of TLR tolerance during malaria infection impacts T cell activation.
Match Strength: 4.005

An effective immune response to infection requires control of pathogen growth while minimizing inflammation-associated pathology. During malaria infection, this balance is particularly important. Murine malaria is characterized by early production of proinflammatory cytokines, which declines in the face of continuing parasitemia. The mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses. As malaria infection progresses, DCs become refractory to TLR-mediated IL-12 and ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2005 May 15;174(10):5921-5.

3. Role of Fas/FasL in regulation of inflammation in vaginal tissue during HSV-2 infection.
Match Strength: 3.989

To assess the role of Fas in lesion development during genital HSV-2 infection, we used a well-established HSV-2 murine model applied to MRL-Fas(lpr)/J (Fas-/-) and C3-Fasl(gld)/J (FasL-/-) C57BL6 mice. In vitro infection of murine keratinocytes and epithelial cells was used to clarify molecular details of HSV-2 infection. Despite upregulation of Fas and FasL, HSV-2-infected keratinocytes and epithelial cells showed a moderate level of apoptosis due to upregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2, Akt kinase and NF-?B. Inflammatory lesions within the HSV-2-infected epithelium of ... Read More »
» Published in Cell Death Dis. 2011 Mar 17;2:e132.

4. Increased intracranial pressure due to chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Match Strength: 3.984

Central nervous system involvement in Epstein-Barr virus infection usually presents as meningitis, encephalitis, or encephalomyelitis, mostly in the acute form of the disease. In chronic active infection, the clinical situation may also resemble acute infection as well findings of chronic inflammation such as calcification. This report presents an 8-year-old female with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and encephalitis complicated by increased intracranial pressure who was managed with repeated lumbar punctures and medical treatment including anti-edema and antiviral therapies ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Nov;35(5):352-5.

5. Respiratory epithelial cells in innate immunity to influenza virus infection.
Match Strength: 3.925

Infection by influenza virus leads to respiratory failure characterized by acute lung injury associated with alveolar edema, necrotizing bronchiolitis, and excessive bleeding. Severe reactions to infection that lead to hospitalizations and/or death are frequently attributed to an exuberant host response, with excessive inflammation and damage to the epithelial cells that mediate respiratory gas exchange. The respiratory mucosa serves as a physical and chemical barrier to infection, producing mucus and surfactants, anti-viral mediators, and inflammatory cytokines. The airway epithelial cell ... Read More »
» Published in Cell Tissue Res. 2011 Jan;343(1):13-21. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

6. Infectious arthritis: clinical features, laboratory findings and treatment.
Match Strength: 3.908

An infection of native joints leads generally to suppurative arthritis, which may be of one joint (monarticular) or several joints (oligoarticular). Bacteria that produce symptoms in multiple joints during bacteraemia, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may also induce inflammation in the neighbouring tendon sheaths. Viral infections frequently involve multiple joints and produce inflammation without suppuration. Chronic granulomatous monarticular arthritis may occur because of infection with either mycobacteria or fungi, which must be differentiated from other causes of chronic monarticular ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Apr;12(4):309-14.

7. Ureaplasma infection and neonatal lung disease.
Match Strength: 3.900

Infection with the ureaplasmas may occur in utero or perinatally in prematurely born infants. For some infants, infection with these organisms triggers a vigorous pro-inflammatory response in the lungs and increases the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). At present, there is insufficient evidence from clinical trials to determine whether antibiotic treatment of Ureaplasma has any influence on the development of BPD and its comorbidities. Future investigation in the context of well-designed, adequately powered controlled clinical trials should focus on determining whether ... Read More »
» Published in Semin Perinatol. 2007 Feb;31(1):2-9.

8. Nodavirus encephalopathy in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): inflammation, nitric oxide production and effect of anti-inflammatory compounds.
Match Strength: 3.886

Nodaviruses are the etiological agents of one of the most serious viral diseases affecting marine fish aquaculture. Nodavirus infection produces an abnormal swimming behaviour and causes encephalopathy and retinopathy associated to important mortalities. The expression of TNF-alpha, IRF-1 and Mx was increased in turbot after nodavirus infection. A significant increase in the production of nitrogen radicals was also observed in experimentally infected turbot. Several anti-inflammatory compounds (the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, cortisone, dexamethasone, prednisolone and aminoguanidine) were ... Read More »
» Published in Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010 Feb;28(2):281-8. Epub 2009 Nov 11.

9. Concentrations of gastric mucosal cytokines in children with food allergy and Helicobacter pylori infection.
Match Strength: 3.875

AIM: To measure the concentrations of chosen cytokines in the antrum mucosa depending on the kind of harmful pathogenic factors and to compare the concentrations with the values of controls without allergy and coexisting Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. METHODS: The patients (97 children) were divided into three groups according to the data obtained from the case history, to the main cause of the disease and to the dominant clinical symptoms. Group I: children with food allergy (Fa); group II: children infected with H pylori; group III (control group): children with functional ... Read More »
» Published in World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov 21;11(43):6751-6.

10. Effector T cells control lung inflammation during acute influenza virus infection by producing IL-10.
Match Strength: 3.869

Activated antigen-specific T cells produce a variety of effector molecules for clearing infection but also contribute to inflammation and tissue injury. Here we report an anti-inflammatory property of antiviral CD8+ and CD4+ effector T cells (T(eff) cells) in the infected periphery during acute virus infection. We find that, during acute influenza infection, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is produced in the infected lungs in large amounts--exclusively by infiltrating virus-specific T(eff) cells, with CD8+ T(eff) cells contributing a larger fraction of the IL-10 produced. These T(eff) cells in the ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Med. 2009 Mar;15(3):277-84. Epub 2009 Feb 22.

11. Heme oxygenase-1 is an anti-inflammatory host factor that promotes murine plasmodium liver infection.
Match Strength: 3.837

The clinically silent Plasmodium liver stage is an obligatory step in the establishment of malaria infection and disease. We report here that expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) is upregulated in the liver following infection by Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites. HO-1 overexpression in the liver leads to a proportional increase in parasite liver load, and treatment of mice with carbon monoxide and with biliverdin, each an enzymatic product of HO-1, also increases parasite liver load. Conversely, mice lacking Hmox1 completely resolve the infection. In the ... Read More »
» Published in Cell Host Microbe. 2008 May 15;3(5):331-8.

12. Citrobacter rodentium infection causes iNOS-independent intestinal epithelial dysfunction in mice.
Match Strength: 3.833

Attaching-effacing bacteria are major causes of infectious diarrhea in humans worldwide. Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching-effacing enteric pathogen that causes transmissible murine colonic mucosal hyperplasia. We characterized colonic inflammation and ion transport at 3, 7, 10, 30, and 60 d after infection of C57Bl/6 mice with C. rodentium. Macroscopic damage score was significantly increased 7 and 10 d after infection. Colonic wall thickness was increased at 7, 10, 30, and 60 d. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly increased at 3, 7, and 10 d and returned to control levels by ... Read More »
» Published in Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;84(12):1301-12.

13. Labeling of antibiotics for infection diagnosis.
Match Strength: 3.822

The high impact of infection on daily clinical practice has promoted research into better and more accurate diagnostic and therapeutic METHODS: Localizing inflammation/infection with nuclear medicine techniques began over 40 years ago. Today, (67)Ga-scintigraphy, (99m)Tc-nanocolloid, (111)In and (99m)Tc in vitro labeled leukocytes, and monoclonal antigranulocyte antibodies are widely available for this purpose. While these methods are useful for localizing inflammation, they cannot always differentiate septic from aseptic processes. The ideal properties of an agent for diagnosing infection ... Read More »
» Published in Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006 Jun;50(2):147-52.

14. The interface between stroke and infectious disease: infectious diseases leading to stroke and infections complicating stroke.
Match Strength: 3.797

It is well established that several infectious diseases can directly lead to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke during their course. It appears possible that common viral and bacterial infections can increase the susceptibility to stroke by promoting atherosclerosis, inflammation, and local thrombosis. Stroke commonly leads to disruption of protective mechanisms against infection and induces a cascade of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive reactions, which greatly increases the risk of infection. The social and economic costs of post-stroke infections and their impact on stroke morbidity and ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009 Jan;9(1):28-34.

15. Case report: severe gastrointestinal inflammation and persistent HHV-6B infection in a paediatric cancer patient.
Match Strength: 3.794

Lymphotropic herpesviruses such as human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) have enhanced pathogenicity in some immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and HIV-infected patients. The clinical relevance of HHV-6 infections in cancer patients undergoing conventional cytotoxic therapy is undetermined, however. Here we report on a 10-month-old boy with an anaplastic astrocytoma, who acquired an HHV-6 variant B infection during chemotherapy. HHV-6B infection caused or triggered severe gastrointestinal inflammation with intractable diarrhoea and failure to thrive over several months. The ... Read More »
» Published in Herpes. 2007 Sep;14(2):41-4.

16. Macrophage activation and human immunodeficiency virus infection: HIV replication directs macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype while previous activation modulates macrophage susceptibility to infection and viral production.
Match Strength: 3.779

Macrophages are pivotal for the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, but whether their role in HIV infection is protective or deleterious remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli on macrophage sensitivity to two different aspects of HIV infection: their susceptibility to infection stricto sensu, which we measured by endpoint titration method, and their ability to support virus spread, which we measured by using an RT activity assay in infection kinetics. We show a partially protective role for pro-inflammatory agents as well ... Read More »
» Published in Virology. 2006 May 25;349(1):112-20. Epub 2006 Mar 29.

17. Aging, imbalanced inflammation and viral infection.
Match Strength: 3.768

Older people experience enhanced susceptibility to viral infections and subsequent superimposed bacterial infections. Based on both experimental and clinical studies, this susceptibility is thought to be due to declining immune responses. However, our work indicates that older people may succumb to viral infection due to exaggerated immune responses as aged mice produce higher serum levels of the inflammatory mediator IL-17 than younger mice upon herpes viral infection. These age-elevated IL-17 responses induce a lethal immune pathology during viral infection. Early during the course of ... Read More »
» Published in Virulence. 2010 Jul-Aug;1(4):295-8.

18. Helicobacter pylori infection in children: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment outcome.
Match Strength: 3.767

The clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori infection in children remains largely unknown. The rate of acquisition at different ages has not been ascertained using reliable tests on gastric biopsies. We determined prospectively the prevalence of H. pylori infection in children and its association with gastroduodenal disease. We evaluated 240 children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for H. pylori infection by rapid urease test, culture, ureA PCR and histopathology. Group I constituted 58 children with upper abdominal pain (UAP) and group II (controls) of 182 children without ... Read More »
» Published in Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Mar;100(3):227-33. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

19. Increased bacterial burden and infection: the story of NERDS and STONES.
Match Strength: 3.766

PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to provide practitioners with an overview of wound infection/inflammation and bacterial balance and to offer a guide to assessment and treatment of chronic wounds. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses who assess and treat wound infections. OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss factors associated with infection of the chronic wound, including the concept of bacterial balance and burden. 2. Identify signs of infection in the chronic ... Read More »
» Published in Adv Skin Wound Care. 2006 Oct;19(8):447-61; quiz 461-3.

20. What's new in CF airway inflammation: an update.
Match Strength: 3.749

Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a characteristic feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and present in most patients with pulmonary manifestations of the disease. Here we discuss the ongoing controversy whether the CFTR mutation itself causes a pro-inflammatory milieu in the airways or whether inflammation is always secondary to infection. Since the presence of inflammation has been shown to be a risk factor for subsequent lung function decline, noninvasive tests to monitor airway inflammation are urgently needed. Induced sputum is currently being assessed as a clinical and research ... Read More »
» Published in Paediatr Respir Rev. 2006;7 Suppl 1:S70-2. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

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