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H5n1 Avian Influenza
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1. A rationale for using steroids in the treatment of severe cases of H5N1 avian influenza.
Match Strength: 18.697

Acute hypercytokinaemia represents an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and is believed to be responsible for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure in severe cases of avian (H5N1) influenza. Although neuraminidase inhibitors are effective in treating avian influenza, especially if given within 48 h of infection, it is harder to prevent the resultant hypercytokinaemia from developing if the patient does not seek timely medical assistance. Steroids have been used for many decades in a wide variety of inflammatory conditions ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Microbiol. 2007 Jul;56(Pt 7):875-83.

2. Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in organs is associated with a higher severity of H5N1 influenza virus infection.
Match Strength: 17.937

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of disease severity caused by H5N1 influenza virus infection remain somewhat unclear. Studies have indicated that a high viral load and an associated hyper inflammatory immune response are influential during the onset of infection. This dysregulated inflammatory response with increased levels of free radicals, such as nitric oxide (NO), appears likely to contribute to disease severity. However, enzymes of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family such as the inducible form of NOS (iNOS) generate NO, which serves as a potent anti-viral molecule to combat infection in ... Read More »
» Published in PLoS One. 2011 Jan 19;6(1):e14561.

3. Increased survival after gemfibrozil treatment of severe mouse influenza.
Match Strength: 15.422

Gemfibrozil, an agent that inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines in addition to its clinically useful lipid-lowering activity, increased survival in BALB/c mice that were already ill from infection by influenza virus A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2). Gemfibrozil was administered intraperitoneally once daily from days 4 to 10 after intranasal exposure to the virus. Survival increased from 26% in vehicle-treated mice (n = 50) to 52% in mice given gemfibrozil at 60 mg/kg/day (n = 46) (P = 0.0026). If this principle translates to patients, a drug already approved for human use, albeit by a ... Read More »
» Published in Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Aug;51(8):2965-8. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

4. Lethal dissemination of H5N1 influenza virus is associated with dysregulation of inflammation and lipoxin signaling in a mouse model of infection.
Match Strength: 15.293

Periodic outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses and the current H1N1 pandemic highlight the need for a more detailed understanding of influenza virus pathogenesis. To investigate the host transcriptional response induced by pathogenic influenza viruses, we used a functional-genomics approach to compare gene expression profiles in lungs from 129S6/SvEv mice infected with either the fully reconstructed H1N1 1918 pandemic virus (1918) or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus Vietnam/1203/04 (VN/1203). Although the viruses reached similar titers in the lung and caused lethal ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2010 Aug;84(15):7613-24. Epub 2010 May 26.

5. A question of self-preservation: immunopathology in influenza virus infection.
Match Strength: 15.034

Influenza A viruses that circulate normally in the human population cause a debilitating, though generally transient, illness that is sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly. Severe complications arising from pandemic influenza or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses are often associated with rapid, massive inflammatory cell infiltration, acute respiratory distress, reactive hemophagocytosis and multiple organ involvement. Histological and pathological indicators strongly suggest a key role for an excessive host response in mediating at least some of this pathology. Here, we review ... Read More »
» Published in Immunol Cell Biol. 2007 Feb-Mar;85(2):85-92. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

6. Using Complementary and Alternative Medicines to Target the Host Response during Severe Influenza.
Match Strength: 13.777

It is now accepted that an overwhelming inflammatory response is the cause of human deaths from avian H5N1 influenza infection. With this in mind we sought to examine the literature for examples of complementary and alternative medicines that reduce inflammation, and to place the results of this search in the context of our own work in a mouse model of influenza disease, using a pharmaceutical agent with anti-inflammatory properties. Two Chinese herbs, Angelica sinensis (Dang Gui) and Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), have been recently shown to protect mice during lethal experimental sepsis via ... Read More »
» Published in Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print]

7. Bioterrorism with zoonotic disease: public health preparedness lessons from a multiagency exercise.
Match Strength: 12.457

Responding to agricultural bioterrorism with pathogenic agents that are communicable from animals to humans (zoonotic diseases) requires effective coordination of many organizations, both inside and outside of government. Action must be simultaneously taken to address public health concerns, respond to the agricultural dimensions of the event, and carry out the necessary law enforcement investigation. As part of a project focused on examining public health preparedness in Georgia, an exercise was carried out in July 2005 examining the intentional introduction of avian influenza (H5N1) in ... Read More »
» Published in Biosecur Bioterror. 2006;4(3):287-92.

8. Rapid pulmonary fibrosis induced by acute lung injury via a lipopolysaccharide three-hit regimen.
Match Strength: 8.891

Based on the common characteristic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and highly pathogenic avian influenza and the mechanism of inflammation and fibrosis, it is speculated that there should exist a fundamental pathological rule that severe acute lung injury (ALI)-induced rapid pulmonary fibrosis is caused by various etiological factors, such as SARS coronavirus, H5N1-virus, or other unknown factors, and also by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the most common etiological factor. The investigation employed intratracheally, and intraperitoneally and intratracheally applied LPS three-hit ... Read More »
» Published in Innate Immun. 2009 Jun;15(3):143-54.

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