Excessive Fruit Juice Makes Children Shorter
& Leads to Childhood Obesity and Personality Problems
Such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Drinking fruit juice in either the 100% fresh squeezed form or the reconstituted or sweetened form is fast replacing the practice of drinking milk or water in many countries, especially in the United States and Europe.
Mothers are feeding their young children fruit juices instead of milk at earlier ages. Thinking that fruit juice is healthy, many young mothers are stopping recommended breast feeding prematurely and substituting breast-feeding practices with bottles of fruit juice. Further, older children are independently choosing to drink larger and larger amounts of fruit juices than ever before. Responding to decades of extensive advertising from the fruit juice industry, adults are replacing milk, water, soft drinks and colas with fruit juices -- in both their own and their childrens' daily diets.
Drinking Sweet Fruit Juices Tends to
Replace More Nutritious Foods
Several scientific studies, reported below, now reveal that daily consumption of 12 or more ounces of fruit juice is associated with reduced stature in young children, as well as obesity and certain behavior disorders. In older people, consumption of fruit juice tends to replace more nutritive drinks such as milk and even some foods and vegetables. Interestingly, this apparently results in people sometimes being both under nourished and obese.
Consumption of high sugar foods and juices is now understood to contribute to the development of certain behavior disorders in children, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is probably related to the fact that sugary sweet foods and drinks tend to replace vital nutrients in the diet like essential fatty acids, vitamins and important minerals that are found in more nutritious foods. Some studies are now reporting that supplementation of the diet of ADHD affected children with essential fatty acids and vitamins can reverse or improve their behavior disorder symptoms.
CONFLICTING REPORTS -- It is interesting to note that several studies have found that sugar consumption among children eating an otherwise normal diet does not affect their behavior. This appears to be under very strickly controlled conditions where the addition of sugar to the diet is not permitted to reduce the nutrients from other foods. Supervised children in some studies were compelled to eat a normal, healthy diet, and then were given added sugars and sweets. Under these conditions, these children did not show any higher incidence of personality disorders. So it may be, if you can get your child to eat a normal meal containing all the needed variety in vegetables and meats, milk, whole grains, etc., they may eat significants of sugary treats without causing mental or behavior problems. These studies are not reporting actual "ad libidum" or free eating patterns of uncontrolled children. Most children and even adults will lower their consumption of nutrient-dense foods when eating high-sugar foods. Therefore, it is important to understand that the effect of adding sugars and concentrated sweet drinks like fruit juices and sugar soft drinks into the diet is almost always to DECREASE the consumption of healthier high fiber foods like vegetables and whole fruits, and lean meats or fish, as well as foods containing essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 fats from seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables and certains beans and legumes). Also, even among those few children who somehow are able to maintain an otherwise normal diet while consuming additional sugar treats, they will have a tendency to become obese and develop metabolic disease in the long term. Witness the current epidemic of childhood obesity. For that reason, adding excess sugars into an otherwise normal diet for children is strongly discouraged. This is true even for so-called "healthy fruit juices" in excessive daily doses above a few ounces.
Simultaneous Obesity and Undernourishment...
How Can That Be?
How can people who are under nourished become obese? This evidently can happen simply by the high sugar content of fruit juices, especially the artificially sweetened or re-constituted kind, replacing the higher fiber, higher nutritional content foods such as solid fruits and vegetables. Eating or snacking on juices also tends to reduce the other-than-juice caloric intake, by satisfying the hunger feelings that would otherwise lead to the consumption of more healthy meals containing a balance of proteins, complex carbohydrates and fats.
Thus high daily fruit juice and sweetened reconstituted juices consumption will lead to excess adiposity or obesity, as well as a wasting or degeneration of muscles and internal organ tissues which are dependent upon a ready daily supply of other-that-sugar nutrients such as proteins and fats from non-juice sources. When juice replace other food calories, the result is deficiencies in many minerals, needed or essential fatty acids such as omega-3 and omega-6 fats from seeds, nuts, fish, and many leafy vegetables.
The body lacking these nutrients undergoes a wasting process, where the muscles and nerves become smaller and less functional. Internal cellular processes that are dependent on EPA and DHA, various minerals and so on, cannot proceed normally. As a result, the consumer of excess dietary sugars in the form of juices begins to suffer from many metabolic conditions.
While the current state of knowledge about the exact nature and extent of these processes is still in development, the basic outline of overall trends is fairly clear: Excess consumption of fruit juices leads to obesity and metabolic disease, especially in children. Further, it appears to lead to or worsen other conditions which may be occurring independently of the juice consumption. When consumed between meals, sweet juices tend to reduce hunger for more healthy foods, leading to malnourishment and obesity at the same time.
Avoid All Sweetened or Reconstituted Juices
& Limit the !00% Juices to Less Than 12 Ounces per Day
Health conscious people, and especially parents of young children should be aware of the need to limit their consumption of fruit juices to less than 12 ounces of juice per day, or even less if possible. Furthermore, consumption of artificially sweetened juices that are merely flavored with fruit extracts should be avoided entirely and eliminated from a healthy diet. When possible these juices should be substituted with milk, or water, or healthy herbal teas. And, in all cases, juices should NEVER be substituted for solid foods or taken as between-meal snacks.
Recent Scientific Research About Fruit Juice
(2006) "Correlates of beverage intake in adolescent girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study."
Authored by Striegel-Moore RH, Thompson D, Affenito SG, Franko DL, Obarzanek E, Barton BA, Schreiber GB, Daniels SR, Schmidt M, Crawford PB.
Department of Psychology, Wesleyan University, 207 High Street, Middletown, CT 06459-0408, USA. email@example.com Published in J Pediatr. 2006 Feb;148(2):183-7.
OBJECTIVES: To examine longitudinal changes in consumption of 6 types of beverages (milk, diet and regular soda, fruit juice, fruit-flavored drinks, and coffee/tea) in girls and determine the relationship between beverage intake, body mass index (BMI), and nutrient intake. STUDY DESIGN: Three-day food diaries were included from black (1210) and white (1161) girls who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Diaries were recorded during annual visits beginning at ages 9 or 10 years until age 19 years. Mixed models estimated the association of (1) visit and race with average daily consumption of beverages and (2) beverage intake with BMI and average daily intake of total calories, sucrose, fructose, total sugars, and calcium. RESULTS: For girls of both races, milk consumption decreased and soda consumption increased with time. Changes in beverage intake with time varied by race for all beverages except fruit juice. For all beverage categories, consumption was associated with caloric intake. Of all beverages, increasing soda consumption predicted the greatest increase of BMI and the lowest increase in calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Public health efforts are needed to help adolescents gain access to and choose healthful beverages and decrease intake of beverages of minimal nutritional value.
(2006) "Predictors of weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Study 1."
Authored by Bes-Rastrollo M, Sanchez-Villegas A, Gomez-Gracia E, Martinez JA, Pajares RM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Departments of Preventive Medicine and Public Health and Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. (firstname.lastname@example.org) Published in Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):362-70; quiz 394-5.
BACKGROUND: High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with weight gain and obesity in the United States. This trend may also be affecting populations with different eating patterns who increasingly are adopting typical US dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether the consumption of sweetened drinks and other food items increased the likelihood of weight gain in a Mediterranean population. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort analysis of 7194 men and women with a mean age of 41 y who were followed-up for a median of 28.5 mo with mailed questionnaires. Dietary exposure was assessed with a previously validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During follow-up, we observed that 49.5% of the participants increased their weight (x weight gain: 0.64 kg; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.73 kg). In the participants who had gained > or =3 kg in the 5 y before baseline, the adjusted odds ratio of subsequent weight gain for the fifth quintile compared with the first quintile of sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.1; P for trend = 0.02). This association was absent in the participants who had not gained weight in the 5-y period before baseline. The consumption of hamburgers, pizza, and sausages (as a proxy for fast-food consumption) was also independently associated with weight gain (adjusted odds ratio for the fifth compared with the first quintile = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4; P for trend = 0.05). We also found a significant, but weaker, association between weight gain and both red meat and sweetened fruit juice consumption. CONCLUSION: In a Mediterranean cohort, particularly in the participants who had already gained weight, an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and of hamburgers, pizza, and sausages was associated with a higher risk of additional subsequent weight gain.
(2006) "Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)."
Authored by Joshi K, Lad S, Kale M, Patwardhan B, Mahadik SP, Patni B, Chaudhary A, Bhave S, Pandit A. Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra, India. (Kalpana@unipune.ernet.in) Published in Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Jan;74(1):17-21. Epub 2005 Nov 28.
Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Few intervention studies with LCPUFA supplementation have reported inconsistent and marginal results. This pilot study evaluates the effect of alpha linolenic acid (ALA)-rich nutritional supplementation in the form of flax oil and antioxidant emulsion on blood fatty acids composition and behavior in children with ADHD. Post-supplementation levels of RBC membrane fatty acids were significantly higher than pretreatment levels as well as the levels in control. There was significant improvement in the symptoms of ADHD reflected by reduction in total hyperactivity scores of ADHD children derived from ADHD rating scale.
(2005) "Controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of fruit juice consumption on the evolution of infants with acute diarrhea."
Authored by Valois S, Costa-Ribeiro H Jr, Mattos A, Ribeiro TC, Mendes CM, Lifshitz F. Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Professor Edgar Santos, Universidade Federal Da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. email@example.com Published in Nutr J. 2005 Aug 9;4:23.
In order to assess the effects of juice feedings during acute diarrhea a double-blind, randomized study was performed in 90 children, mean age of 10 +/- 4.28 months. Thirty patients with acute diarrhea were fed twice-daily 15 ml/kg of Apple Juice (AJ), 30 received White Grape Juice (WGJ), and 30 were given colored and flavored water (WA) as part of their age appropriate dietary intake. The duration and severity of diarrhea were the main endpoint variables of the study performed in a metabolic unit. The patients were similar among the 3 groups, had diarrhea for 50-64 hours prior to admission, and were dehydrated when admitted to the unit for study. Half of the patients in each group were well nourished and the others had mild to moderate degrees of malnutrition. Rotavirus infection was the agent causing the illness in 63% of the patients. The infants fed juice ingested 14-17% more calories than those given WA, (those receiving AJ and WGJ ingested 95 and 98 Calories/Kg/d respectively) whereas those receiving WA consumed 81 cal/kg/d). The increased energy intake was not at the expense of other foods or milk formula. The mean body weight gain was greater among patients receiving WGJ (+ 50.7 gm) as compared with the patients in the AJ group (+ 18.3 gm) or the patients fed WA (- 0.7 gm) (p = 0.08). The duration of the illness was longer in the infants fed juice as compared with those given WA (p = 0.006), the mean +/- SD duration in hours was 49.4 +/- 32.6, 47.5 +/- 38.9 and 26.5 +/- 27.4 in patients fed AJ, WGJ and WA respectively. All patients improved while ingesting juice and none of them developed persistent diarrhea; most recovered within 50 hours of the beginning of treatment and less than one fourth had diarrhea longer than 96 hours in the unit. The fecal losses were also increased among the juice fed patients (p = 0.001); the mean +/- SD fecal excretion in g/kg/h was 3.94 +/- 2.35, 3.59 +/- 2.35, and 2.19 +/- 1.63 in AJ, WGJ and WA respectively. The stool output was highest during the first day of treatment among all the patients, though those fed AJ had the highest volume of fecal losses and those who received WA had the lowest stool excretion. After the first day of treatment the differences in fecal excretion were not significant. The ability to tolerate carbohydrates during the illness and immediately after recovery was similar among the 3 groups of patients. Intake of juices with different fructose/glucose ratios and osmolarities resulted in more fecal losses and more prolonged diarrhea as compared with water feedings, but the patients given juice ingested more calories and gained more weight, particularly among those being fed the juice with equimolar concentrations of fructose and glucose.
(2005) "Dietary sources of nutrients among rural Native American and white children."
Authored by Stroehla BC, Malcoe LH, Velie EM.
CODA, Inc, Durham, NC, USA. Published in J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Dec;105(12):1908-16.
OBJECTIVE: To identify important food sources of energy, fiber, and major macro- and micro-nutrients among rural Native American and white children. DESIGN: In a 1997 cross-sectional study, food frequency questionnaire data were collected during in-person interviews with caregivers of young children. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Participants included a representative sample of 329 rural Native American and non-Hispanic white children aged 1 through 6 years living in northeastern Oklahoma. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: The percentage that each of 85 food items contributed to the population intake of 10 dietary constituents was calculated for the total sample and by age and race/ethnicity. Percentages are presented in descending rank order for foods providing at least 2% of the total sample intake. Z scores were used to assess age and racial/ethnic differences in food sources. RESULTS: Primary energy sources among study children were milk, cheese, white breads, salty snacks, non-diet soft drinks, hot dogs, candy, and sweetened fruit drinks. Diets showed poor food variety. With few exceptions (eg, milk, cheese, 100% orange juice, ready-to-eat cereals, peanuts/peanut butter, and dried beans), top sources of most dietary constituents were low-nutrient-dense high-fat foods and refined carbohydrates. Solid fruits and vegetables contributed minimally to nutrient and fiber intake. There were few differences in food sources by age or race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among rural Native American and white children in northeastern Oklahoma, food sources of nutrients appear less healthful than found in national samples. Sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and refined carbohydrates are displacing more nutrient-dense alternatives, increasing children's risk for childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and adult chronic disease.
(2005) "Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2004."
Authored by Kann L, Grunbaum J, McKenna ML, Wechsler H, Galuska DA.
Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Published in J Sch Health. 2005 Dec;75(10):370-4.
School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school, the principal and lead health education teacher were sent questionnaires to be self-administered and returned to the state or local agency conducting the survey. In 2004, a total of 27 states and 11 large urban school districts obtained weighted data from their survey of principals. The findings in this report indicate that the majority of secondary schools in 27 states and 11 large urban school districts allow students to purchase snack foods or beverages from vending machines or at the school store, canteen, or snack bar. The types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase varied across states and large urban school districts. Overall, fruits or vegetables were less likely to be available for purchase than the other types of foods or beverages. Bottled water and soft drinks, sports drinks, or fruit drinks that are not 100% juice were most likely to be available for purchase.
(2003) "Failure to Thrive"
Authored by SCOTT D. KRUGMAN, M.D., Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, Maryland, and HOWARD DUBOWITZ, M.D., M.S., University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Published in American Family Physician� Vol. 68/No. 5 (September 1, 2003)
CONCLUSION: Limit fruit juice to 8 to 16 oz per day. Fruit juice is an important contributor to poor growth by providing relatively empty carbohydrate calories and diminishing a child's appetite for nutritious meals, leading to decreased caloric intake.
Failure to thrive is a condition commonly seen by primary care physicians. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are important for preventing malnutrition and developmental sequelae. Medical and social factors often contribute to failure to thrive. Either extreme of parental attention (neglect or hyper-vigilance) can lead to failure to thrive. About 25 percent of normal infants will shift to a lower growth percentile in the first two years of life and then follow that percentile; this should not be diagnosed as failure to thrive. Infants with Down syndrome, intrauterine growth retardation, or premature birth follow different growth patterns than normal infants. Many infants with failure to thrive are not identified unless careful attention is paid to plotting growth parameters at routine checkups. A thorough history is the best guide to establishing the etiology of the failure to thrive and directing further evaluation and management. All children with failure to thrive need additional calories for catch-up growth (typically 150 percent of the caloric requirement for their expected, not actual, weight). Few need laboratory evaluation. Hospitalization is rarely required and is indicated only for severe failure to thrive and for those whose safety is a concern. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended when failure to thrive persists despite intervention or when it is severe. (Am Fam Physician 2003; 68:879-84,886. Copyright� 2003 American Academy of Family Physicians.)
(2003) "Nutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected but important aspect."
Authored by Schnoll R, Burshteyn D, Cea-Aravena J. Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11210-2889, USA. (firstname.lastname@example.org) Published in Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):63-75.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is multidetermined and complex, requiring a multifaceted treatment approach. Nutritional management is one aspect that has been relatively neglected to date. Nutritional factors such as food additives, refined sugars, food sensitivities/allergies, and fatty acid deficiencies have all been linked to ADHD. There is increasing evidence that many children with behavioral problems are sensitive to one or more food components that can negatively impact their behavior. Individual response is an important factor for determining the proper approach in treating children with ADHD. In general, diet modification plays a major role in the management of ADHD and should be considered as part of the treatment protocol.
(2001) "Infant feeding practices of low-income rural mothers."
Authored by Barton SJ. University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, and Clinical Nurse Researcher, University of Kentucky Children's Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. (email@example.com) Published in MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2001 Mar-Apr;26(2):93-7.
PURPOSE: To examine infant feeding practices at 1 to 2 months of age and at 4 to 6 months in a rural population of infants at risk for failure to thrive. DESIGN: A descriptive/exploratory study with 52 mothers who were interviewed twice during the infant's first 6 months of life. Mothers were recruited from health care facilities in rural southeastern Kentucky. Mothers participated in two structured interviews about feeding practices conducted in health care clinics or in the home. RESULTS: At birth 52% of mothers chose to use formula, 41.2% chose breastfeeding, and 8% were both breastfeeding and formula feeding. By 1 month, 71% of mothers were formula feeding and only 29% were breastfeeding. At 4 to 6 months postpartum 80% of mothers were formula feeding and 20% were breastfeeding. Mothers with more children, higher family income, and more education were more likely to breastfeed. Almost all mothers began solid foods before the infant was 4 months old. Infants were fed table foods including mashed potatoes and gravy, and beverages such as apple juice, fruit juices, and soda. Mothers relied on health professionals for support for feeding decisions at the first interview; however, they relied more on the grandmother for support at the time of the second interview. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Breastfeeding mothers need additional support to continue breastfeeding beyond the first month. Mothers and grandmothers need education to discourage the practice of early introduction of inappropriate solid foods, including the practice of thickening bottles of formula with cereal. Nutrition teaching should be provided to mothers and grandmothers including how to select high nutrient, lower fat-weaning foods, and limiting infant intake of high-calorie drinks.
(1999) "Children's growth parameters vary by type of fruit juice consumed."
Authored by Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Nichols MJ, Jenkins P. Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA. Published in J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Aug;18(4):346-52.
BACKGROUND: Excessive fruit juice consumption in young children has been associated with nonorganic failure to thrive and short stature in some children and with obesity in others. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in a sample of healthy young children, whether the associations between fruit juice intakes and growth parameters differ by the type of fruit juice consumed. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: General primary care health center in upstate New York. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixteen two-year-old children and one hundred seven five-year-old children, who were scheduled for a nonacute visit, and their primary care-takers or parents were recruited over a two-year period. METHODS: For 163 children (73% of total), 14 days of dietary records were available. The dietary records were entered and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System (NDS). Type of fruit juice was classified according to Nutrition Coordinating Center food codes. Height was measured using a Harpenden Stadiometer. Weight was measured using a standard balance beam scale. RESULTS: The children consumed, on average, 5.5 fluid oz/day of fruit juices, which were classified by the NDS software as 35% apple juice, 31% orange juice, 25% grape juice and 9% other types and/or mixtures of fruit juice. Children with higher fruit juice intakes had lower total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intakes. Child height was inversely related to apple juice intake (p=0.007) and grape juice intake (p=0.02), after adjustment for child age, gender and energy intake (excluding fruit juice) and maternal height. Apple juice intake was correlated with child body mass index (p<0.05) and ponderal index (p<0.005), after adjustment for the above covariates. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoprotein(a) levels were not related to intakes of any of the fruit juices examined. The children's ratios of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were correlated with grape juice intakes, while HDL-cholesterol levels were inversely related to grape juice intakes. There were no significant relationships between fruit juice intake and measures of anemia (hematocrit or mean corpuscular volume). CONCLUSIONS: The previously reported associations between short stature and high intakes of fruit juice were observed for intakes of both apple juice and grape juice. The associations between high fruit juice intakes and obesity were observed with apple juice intakes only. Because most of the fruit juice mixtures were classified as single fruit juices, the findings, especially those with grape juice, need to be cautiously interpreted. High intakes of fruit juice, however, appear to be associated with growth extremes in young children. Thus, it would seem prudent for parents and caretakers to moderate the fruit juice intakes of their young children.
(1997) "Excess fruit juice consumption by preschool-aged children is associated with short stature and obesity."
Authored by Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Baker SL. Mary Imogene Bassett Research Institute, Cooperstown, NY 13326, USA. Published in Pediatrics. 1997 Jan;99(1):15-22.
BACKGROUND: In a referral population of young children, excessive fruit juice consumption has been reported to be a contributing factor in nonorganic failure to thrive. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in a population-based sample of healthy children, fruit juice consumption and its effects on growth parameters during early childhood. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: General primary care health center in upstate New York. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixteen 2-year-old children and one hundred seven 5-year-old children, who were scheduled for a nonacute visit, and their primary care taker/parent were recruited over a 2-year period. MEASUREMENTS: For 168 children (ninety-four 2-year-old children and seventy-four 5-year-old children), mean dietary intake was calculated from 7 days of written dietary records, entered, and analyzed using the Minnesota Nutrition Data System. Height was measured using a Harpenden Stadiometer. Weight was measured using a standard balance beam scale. RESULTS: The 2-year-old and 5-year-old children consumed, on average, 5.9 and 5.0 fl oz/day of fruit juice and 9.8 and 11.0 fl oz/day of milk, respectively. Nineteen children (11%) consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of juice. Forty-two percent of children consuming > or = 12 fl oz/day of juice had short stature (height less than 20th sex-specific percentile for age) vs 14% of children drinking less than 12 fl oz/day of juice. Obesity was more common among children drinking > or = 12 fl oz/day of juice compared with those drinking less juice: 53% vs 32% had a body mass index > or = 75th age- and sex-specific percentile; 32% vs 9% had a body mass index > or = 90th age- and sex-specific percentile; and 32% vs 5% had a ponderal index > or = 90th age-specific percentile. After adjustment for maternal height, child age, child sex, and child age-sex interaction, children consuming > or = 12 fl oz/day of juice, compared with those drinking less than 12 fl oz/day of juice, were shorter (86.5 vs 89.3 cm and 106.5 vs 111.2 cm for the 2-year-old and 5-year-old children, respectively) and more overweight (body mass index = 17.2 vs 16.3 kg/m2 and ponderal index = 18.4 vs 16.8 kg/m3). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice by young children was associated with short stature and with obesity. Parents and care takers should limit young children's consumption of fruit juice to less than 12 fl oz/day.
(1996) "Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review."
Authored by Dennison BA. Mary Imogene Bassett Research Institute, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, New York. Published in J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Oct;15(5 Suppl):4S-11S.
The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In other children, excessive fruit juice consumption has been associated with an increased caloric intake and obesity. This paper reviews the role of fruit juice in the diets of infants and children and outlines areas for future research. Recommendations regarding fruit juice consumption based on current data are also given.
* All information on Level1Diet.com is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.
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