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1. Psychoneuroimmune implications of type 2 diabetes.
Match Strength: 5.222

The idea that type 2 diabetes is associated with augmented innate immune function characterized by increased circulating levels of acute phase reactants and altered macrophage biology is fairly well established, even though the mechanisms involved in this complex interaction still are not entirely clear. To date, the majority of studies investigating innate immune function in type 2 diabetes are limited to the context of wound healing, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other commonly identified comorbidities. Several important recurring themes come out of these data. First, type 2 diabetes is ... Read More »
» Published in Neurol Clin. 2006 Aug;24(3):539-59.

2. Myasthenia gravis and diabetes mellitus: a 35-year retrospective study.
Match Strength: 5.197

BACKGROUND: The most common treatment of myasthenia gravis is high-dose prednisolone administration and thymectomy. A well-known adverse effect of prednisolone is hyperglycemia, however, to date there is no such detailed report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We treated 325 myasthenia gravis patients in a recent 35 years period, and found 11 patients with diabetes mellitus. We compared these 11 diabetic patients with previously-reported cases. RESULTS: These 11 patients did not have any antibody against beta-cells in the pancreas such as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody. In 10 of 11 patients ... Read More »
» Published in Intern Med. 2007;46(9):557-9. Epub 2007 May 1.

3. National survey of diabetes care in general practice.
Match Strength: 5.139

This survey was mounted to assess the extent and organisation of diabetes care in general practice in Ireland. It was a postal questionnaire surveying 25% of general practitioners, The response being 396 (70%). 355 (92%) report providing most care to a mean 65% of their type 2 patients, and 243 (64%) provide most care to 38% of their type 1 patients. The extent of structured care is less frequent with 43% maintaining a diabetes register, and 51% using a recall system. Access to multidisciplinary diabetes expertise in the community is low, particularly for dietetics (50%) and diabetes ... Read More »
» Published in Ir Med J. 2006 Apr;99(4):104-6.

4. Mortality and hospitalization in patients after amputation: a comparison between patients with and without diabetes.
Match Strength: 5.133

OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the risk of mortality and hospitalization between patients with and without diabetes following incident lower-extremity amputation (LEA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective data-linkage review of all incident amputations between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 1995. Patients were categorized according to their diabetes status. Follow-up for mortality was until 1 January 2005 and until 31 March 1996 for hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 390 major-incident LEAs performed during the study period, 119 (30.5%) were in patients with diabetes and 271 ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Care. 2006 Oct;29(10):2252-6.

5. IL6 gene promoter polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes: joint analysis of individual participants' data from 21 studies.
Match Strength: 4.961

Several lines of evidence indicate a causal role of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 in the development of type 2 diabetes in humans. Two common polymorphisms in the promoter of the IL-6 encoding gene IL6, -174G>C (rs1800795) and -573G>C (rs1800796), have been investigated for association with type 2 diabetes in numerous studies but with results that have been largely equivocal. To clarify the relationship between the two IL6 variants and type 2 diabetes, we analyzed individual data on >20,000 participants from 21 published and unpublished studies. Collected data represent eight ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes. 2006 Oct;55(10):2915-21.

6. High C-reactive protein and low paraoxonase1 in diabetes as risk factors for coronary heart disease.
Match Strength: 4.960

BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme located on HDL, which protects against the development of atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of the inflammatory response in CHD. We hypothesised that low PON1 and high CRP found in CHD may be important markers of CHD and the CRP:PON1 ratio may be an index of the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We have, therefore, compared the levels of PON1 and CRP between control subjects, those with no diabetes and CHD, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: PON1 activity was different between the ... Read More »
» Published in Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jun;186(2):396-401. Epub 2005 Sep 2.

7. Adequacy of glycemic control in hemodialysis patients with diabetes.
Match Strength: 4.862

OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure the prevalence of inadequate glycemic control in prevalent hemodialysis patients with diabetes and to examine independent predictors of inadequate glycemic control in these patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of prevalent hemodialysis patients with diabetes in southeastern Ontario (n = 100). Data were collected by chart review and interview. The outcome variable was inadequate glycemic control defined as HbA1c (A1C) >0.07. Other measured variables were diabetes type, diabetes duration, diabetes physician, blood glucose ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Care. 2006 Oct;29(10):2247-51.

8. Increased cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes in Dallas County.
Match Strength: 4.775

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the United States. We assess the prevalence of diabetes in Dallas County, quantify the association between diabetes and subclinical cardiovascular disease, and assess the use of evidence-based cardiovascular disease risk-modifying therapies. METHODS: This study uses data from 3392 participants aged 30 to 65 years from the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based, multiethnic sample of residents living in Dallas County, Texas. Three primary outcomes were examined: (1) diabetes prevalence, (2) adjusted odds ratios for detectable ... Read More »
» Published in Am Heart J. 2006 May;151(5):1087-93.

9. Evidence of nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy in US adults with undiagnosed diabetes.
Match Strength: 4.754

PURPOSE: Nearly one third of diabetes cases in the United States is undiagnosed, with mounting evidence that complications accrue even before clinical diagnosis. We wanted to determine whether persons with undiagnosed diabetes have signs of nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: We examined the prevalence of positive screening tests for nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy in adults aged > or = 40 years with undiagnosed diabetes using secondary analysis of survey and examination data from the population-based United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Fam Med. 2006 Sep-Oct;4(5):427-32.

10. Common reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes.
Match Strength: 4.722

OBJECTIVE: To determine reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of hospital discharges in the state of Georgia for the years 1998 through 2001 that contained either a primary or a coexisting diagnosis of diabetes. With use of the Clinical Classification Software of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the principal diagnoses among diabetes-related hospital discharges were organized into diagnostic categories. RESULTS: Diabetes was listed as a diagnosis in 14% of all Georgia hospital discharges of adult ... Read More »
» Published in Endocr Pract. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):363-70.

11. A review of thiazolidinediones and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with focus on cardiovascular complications.
Match Strength: 4.697

The rising incidence of obesity and insulin resistance to epidemic proportions has closely paralleled the surge in the prevalence of diabetes and outpaced therapeutic advances in diabetes prevention and treatment. Current evidence points to obesity induced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as the common denominators in the evolution of insulin resistance and diabetes. Of all the hypoglycemic agents in the pharmacological arsenal against diabetes, thiazolidinediones, in particular pioglitazone, as well as metformin appear to have additional effects in ameliorating oxidative stress and ... Read More »
» Published in Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):967-73.

12. Cortisol secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes: relationship with chronic complications.
Match Strength: 4.683

OBJECTIVE: The presence of an enhanced cortisol secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes is debated. In type 2 diabetic subjects, cortisol secretion was found to be associated with the complications and metabolic control of diabetes. We evaluated cortisol secretion in 170 type 2 diabetic subjects and in 71 sex-, age-, and BMI-matched nondiabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In all subjects, we evaluated ACTH at 8:00 a.m. in basal conditions and serum cortisol levels at 12:00 p.m. (F24) and at 9:00 a.m. after a 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test and 24-h urinary free ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Care. 2007 Jan;30(1):83-8.

13. Hemostatic markers of endothelial dysfunction and risk of incident type 2 diabetes: the Framingham Offspring Study.
Match Strength: 4.682

Endothelial dysfunction may precede development of type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of hemostatic markers of endothelial dysfunction, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen predicted incident diabetes independent of other diabetes risk factors. We followed 2,924 Framingham Offspring subjects (54% women, mean age 54 years) without diabetes at baseline (defined by treatment, fasting plasma glucose > or =7 or 2-h postchallenge glucose > or =11.1 mmol/l) over 7 years for new cases of diabetes (treatment or fasting ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes. 2006 Feb;55(2):530-7.

14. Reducing cardiovascular disease risk in patients with diabetes: a message from the National Diabetes Education Program.
Match Strength: 4.675

PURPOSE: To provide nurse practitioners (NPs) a review of current practice guidelines that help clinicians' efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and its major macrovascular complications. DATA SOURCES: This paper presents data from major evidence-based studies and clinical trials that define the scope of the problem, the rationale for risk reduction, and a patient-centered action plan for NPs to effectively manage cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: NPs are active partners with the National Diabetes Education Program and play a ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2006 Nov;18(11):524-33.

15. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention in diabetes.
Match Strength: 4.671

Aspirin is currently recommended by ADA (American Diabetes Association) for the diabetic patients over 40 years of age and without cardiovascular disease. This recommendation is at odds with drug approval for aspirin. The main explanation is the absence of appropriate trials assessing the usefulness of aspirin in such patients. Two assumptions, central to these guidelines are that diabetes is a coronary risk equivalent, and that aspirin benefit/risk ratio is similar in diabetic patients than in coronary disease patients. Unfortunately, vascular risk level is variable in diabetic patients. ... Read More »
» Published in Diabetes Metab. 2006 Sep;32 Spec No2:2S52-6.

16. Effect of aminoguanidine treatment on diabetes-induced changes in the myenteric plexus of rat ileum.
Match Strength: 4.650

The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of aminoguanidine (AG) to prevent diabetes-induced changes in nitric oxide synthase- (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- (VIP) and noradrenaline- (NA) containing nerves of the rat ileum using immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). AG was administered in the drinking water to control (1.8 g/l) and diabetic (0.9 g/l) rats over a period of 8 weeks. Diabetes caused a significant increase in the thickness of nNOS ... Read More »
» Published in Auton Neurosci. 2006 Sep 18;

17. Comparison of aspirin resistance in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Match Strength: 4.582

This study sought to determine the frequency of aspirin resistance in an ambulatory population of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Platelet aggregation was assessed during the routine clinical evaluation of 203 ambulatory patients with diabetes (T1D, n = 92; T2D, n = 111) who were recommended aspirin for primary or secondary cardiovascular protection. Consecutively received laboratory samples were evaluated using the Ultegra Rapid Platelet Function Assay-ASA. Resistance to aspirin was detected in 18.7% of diabetic aspirin users, with similar rates ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Cardiol. 2006 Feb 15;97(4):567-70. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

18. Clinical characteristics and diabetes associated autoantibodies in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus and asthma.
Match Strength: 4.581

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and asthma are mediated by opposite arms of the cellular immune system, namely T helper (Th)1 and Th2 CD4+ cells, respectively. It is not known whether their coexistence affects their clinical manifestations. METHODS: The number of asthma exacerbations, frequency of hypoglycemic events, HbA1c levels, diabetes associated autoantibody status and diabetes associated late complications were determined in three paired groups of patients (n = 11) matched by gender and age: DM1 and asthma, asthma only, and DM1 only. RESULTS: Patients with both diseases had a ... Read More »
» Published in J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;19(8):1001-6.

19. Diabetes induces rapid suppression of adaptive immunity followed by homeostatic T-cell proliferation.
Match Strength: 4.571

Surprisingly, the effect of acute diabetes on immunity has not been examined in detail. We, herein, show for the first time that untreated acute diabetes causes rapid lymphopenia followed by homeostatic T-cell proliferation. The diabetes-induced lymphopenia was associated with an immunosuppressed state that could be sufficiently strong to allow engraftment of fully allogeneic beta-cells or block rejection of islet transplants. In contrast, homeostatic proliferation and recovery of T-cell numbers were associated with islet rejection. Thus, the timing of islet transplant challenge in relation to ... Read More »
» Published in Scand J Immunol. 2007 Jan;65(1):22-31.

20. Differential effect of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.
Match Strength: 4.562

Earlier, we reported that oils rich in omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and omega-6 gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals. Here we report the results of our studies with pure saturated stearic acid (SA), monounsaturated oleic acid (OA) and omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male rats. Prior oral supplementation with AA prevented alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus, whereas both SA and OA were ineffective. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase ... Read More »
» Published in Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Mar;74(3):199-213. Epub 2006 Jan 18.

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* All information on is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.

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