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Complex Carbohydrate
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1. Crystal structure of the galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from Mus musculus reveals the basic mechanism of carbohydrate recognition.
Match Strength: 7.321

The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding animal lectins with a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). They have a high affinity for small beta-galactosides, but binding specificity for complex glycoconjugates varies considerably within the family. The ligand recognition is essential for their proper function, and the structures of several galectins have suggested their mechanism of carbohydrate binding. Galectin-9 has two tandem CRDs with a short linker, and we report the crystal structures of mouse galectin-9 N-terminal CRD (NCRD) in the absence and the presence of ... Read More »
» Published in J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 24;281(47):35884-93. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

2. Carbohydrate recognition systems in autoimmunity.
Match Strength: 6.793

The immune system is a complex functional network of diverse cells and soluble molecules orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. Biological information, to run these intricate interactions, is not only stored in protein sequences but also in the structure of the glycan part of the glycoconjugates. The spatially accessible carbohydrate structures that contribute to the cell's glycome are decoded by versatile recognition systems in order to maintain the immune homeostasis of an organism. Microbial carbohydrate structures are recognized by pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) ... Read More »
» Published in Autoimmunity. 2006 Dec;39(8):691-704.

3. Carbohydrate-appended 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone complexes of the [M(CO)3]+ core (M = Re, 99mTc, 186Re).
Match Strength: 6.461

This work describes the use of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone ligands for binding the [M(CO)(3)](+) core (M = Re, Tc) in the context of preparing novel Tc(I) and Re(I) glucose conjugates. Five pyridinone ligands bearing pendent carbohydrate moieties, HL(1-5), were coordinated to the [M(CO)(3)](+) core on the macroscopic scale (M = Re) and on the tracer scale (M = (99m)Tc, (186)Re). On the macroscopic scale the complexes, ReL(1-5)(CO)(3)(H(2)O), were thoroughly characterized by mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. Characterization ... Read More »
» Published in Bioconjug Chem. 2006 Sep-Oct;17(5):1321-9.

4. Monitoring carbohydrate enzymatic reactions by quantitative in vitro microdialysis.
Match Strength: 5.858

On-line in vitro microdialysis (MD) sampling followed by HPLC separation and UV absorbance detection (HPLC-UV) was used to monitor carbohydrate enzyme systems. Fundamental parameters (i.e., K(m) and V(max)) of hydrolysis reactions of 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside, and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside were determined for a model enzyme, almond beta-glucosidase. Accurate quantitation was achieved via internal standard methodology and compared to spectrophotometric data and literature K(m) values, which were found to be 2.6+/-0.5 mM (MD), 2.7+/-0 ... Read More »
» Published in J Chromatogr A. 2006 Jun 16;1118(1):125-33. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

5. Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation.
Match Strength: 5.773

Novel complex hydrogel beads were prepared from two edible polymers: pectin, a carbohydrate from citrus fruits, and zein, a protein from corn. The pectin/zein complex hydrogels did not swell in physiological environments, but hydrolyzed in the presence of pectinases. An in vitro study showed the capacity of the hydrogels to endure protease attack and residence time variation. The physical and biological properties of the new hydrogels were attributed to molecular entanglement of the two polymers. The pectin networks were stabilized by the bound zein molecules. In turn, the pectin networks ... Read More »
» Published in Drug Deliv. 2006 Nov-Dec;13(6):417-23.

6. Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation.
Match Strength: 5.773

Novel complex hydrogel beads were prepared from two edible polymers: pectin, a carbohydrate from citrus fruits, and zein, a protein from corn. The pectin/zein complex hydrogels did not swell in physiological environments, but hydrolyzed in the presence of pectinases. An in vitro study showed the capacity of the hydrogels to endure protease attack and residence time variation. The physical and biological properties of the new hydrogels were attributed to molecular entanglement of the two polymers. The pectin networks were stabilized by the bound zein molecules. In turn, the pectin networks ... Read More »
» Published in Drug Deliv. 2006 Nov-Dec;13(6):417-23.

7. Affinity and kinetics of sialyl Lewis-X and core-2 based oligosaccharides binding to L- and P-selectin.
Match Strength: 5.249

Soluble oligosaccharide mimetics of natural selectin ligands act as competitive inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion in models of inflammation. We quantified the binding of simple oligosaccharides based on sialyl Lewis-X (sLe(X)) and complex molecules with the core-2 structure to L- and P-selectin, under both static and fluid flow conditions. Isolated human neutrophils were employed to mimic the physiological valency of selectins and selectin ligands. Surface plasmon resonance studies quantified binding kinetics. We observed the following: (i) The functional group at the anomeric position of ... Read More »
» Published in Biochemistry. 2005 Jul 12;44(27):9507-19.

8. C-type lectins on dendritic cells and their interaction with pathogen-derived and endogenous glycoconjugates.
Match Strength: 4.993

Human C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) characteristically bind glycosylated ligands in a Ca(2+)-dependent way via their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Their carbohydrate preference is dependent on the amino acid sequence in the CRD domain and on the ability and flexibility of the CRD domain to accommodate sugar moieties that are located at different distances from each other in the glycoconjugate. Although microbial and vertebrate cells are able to produce similar polysaccharide chains, the density of carbohydrates on microbes is much higher compared to vertebrate cells. Despite this ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2006 Aug;7(4):283-94.

9. Transglutaminase-independent binding of gliadin to intestinal brush border membrane and GM1 ganglioside.
Match Strength: 4.884

Anti-ganglioside antibodies have been described in celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, in conjunction with the presence of central and peripheral nervous system deficits. The observed antibody reactivity to gangliosides is postulated to be related to the anti-gliadin immune response, either through antigenic mimicry, or by formation of gliadin-ganglioside complexes and haptenization. We examined the possibility of the presence of ganglioside-like epitopes in gliadin, as well as the potential for complex formation between gliadin and GM1 ganglioside. Low levels of glycosylation were present ... Read More »
» Published in J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Aug;177(1-2):167-72.

10. Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D: structure, function and receptors.
Match Strength: 4.463

Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, are collagen-containing C-type (calcium dependent) lectins called collectins, which contribute significantly to surfactant homeostasis and pulmonary immunity. These highly versatile innate immune molecules are involved in a range of immune functions including viral neutralization, clearance of bacteria, fungi and apoptotic and necrotic cells, down regulation of allergic reaction and resolution of inflammation. Their basic structures include a triple-helical collagen region and a C-terminal homotrimeric lectin or carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). The ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Immunol. 2006 Mar;43(9):1293-315. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

11. Intramolecular interchain reactions in bidesmosidic glycosides, a new insight into carbohydrate rearrangements induced by electrospray ionisation.
Match Strength: 4.320

Glycoconjugates are a class of complex molecules that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and in some marine organisms. This class of compounds has a wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunoenhancing actions.1-3 Some of them also show various toxic activities such as cytotoxic, hemolytic, cardiotoxic, and teratogenic. Among these compounds, steroidal and triterpenoid saponins have long been known as components of widely used herbal drugs and pharmaceutical preparations; ginseng, Tribulus terrestris, ... Read More »
» Published in Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(3):286-96.

12. Mannose-binding lectin without the aid of its associated serine proteases alters lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine/chemokine secretion from human endothelial cells.
Match Strength: 4.201

Coupling between certain pathogen-associated molecular patterns and corresponding pattern recognition receptors of endothelial cells is important for the mediation of vascular inflammatory responses. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes certain carbohydrate structures of microbes and subsequently activates the complement system as well as facilitates the phagocytosis of targets. We investigated whether MBL can intervene in the interaction between bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endothelial cells to modulate subsequent inflammatory responses. In response to LPS, human umbilical vein ... Read More »
» Published in Immunology. 2007 Nov;122(3):335-42. Epub 2007 May 22.

13. Liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion during a short-term bout of resistance exercise suppresses myofibrillar protein degradation.
Match Strength: 4.094

A number of physiological events including the level of contractile activity, nutrient status, and hormonal action influence the magnitude of exercise-induced skeletal muscle growth. However, it is not the independent action of a single mechanism, but the complex interaction between events that enhance the long-term adaptations to resistance training. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the influence of liquid carbohydrate (CHO) and essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion during resistance exercise and modification of the immediate hormonal response on myofibrillar protein ... Read More »
» Published in Metabolism. 2006 May;55(5):570-7.

14. Indinavir alters regulators of protein anabolism and catabolism in skeletal muscle.
Match Strength: 3.907

The HIV protease inhibitor indinavir adversely impairs carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas its influence on protein metabolism under in vivo conditions remains unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that indinavir also decreases basal protein synthesis and impairs the anabolic response to insulin in skeletal muscle. Indinavir was infused intravenously for 4 h into conscious rats, at which time the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was increased. Indinavir decreased muscle protein synthesis by 30%, and this reduction was due to impaired translational efficiency ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;289(3):E382-90. Epub 2005 Apr 12.

15. A novel signal transduction system and feedback loop regulate fructan hydrolase gene expression in Streptococcus mutans.
Match Strength: 3.890

The fruA gene of Streptococcus mutans encodes for a secreted fructan hydrolase (fructanase), an established virulence determinant required for releasing D-fructose from levan- and inulin-type fructans. Expression of fruA is under the control of carbon catabolite repression and is induced by growth in fructans. In this report, we identified an operon in S. mutans UA159 encoding a two-component system flanked by two predicted carbohydrate-binding proteins that is absolutely required for the expression of fruA. All four genes were found to be required for optimal growth of S. mutans on inulin ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Microbiol. 2006 Oct;62(1):187-200.

16. Forced dissociation of selectin-ligand complexes using steered molecular dynamics simulation.
Match Strength: 3.564

Selectin-ligand interactions are crucial to such biological processes as inflammatory cascade or tumor metastasis. How transient formation and dissociation of selectin-ligand bonds in blood flow are coupled to molecular conformation at atomic level, however, has not been well understood. In this study, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations were used to elucidate the intramolecular and intermolecular conformational evolutions involved in forced dissociation of three selectin-ligand systems: the construct consisting of P-selectin lectin (Lec) and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Cell Biomech. 2005 Dec;2(4):161-77.

17. Anti-selectin therapy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Match Strength: 3.469

Leukocyte migration into the tissues represents a key process in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Data obtained in clinical trials have convincingly shown that inhibition of leukocyte migration into the target organs represents an effective therapeutic approach for diseases in which inflammation has a noxious effect. Leukocyte tethering and rolling are the earliest steps of leukocyte adhesion cascade in inflamed vessels. Selectins are type I transmembrane glycoproteins that bind sialylated carbohydrate structures in a calcium-dependent manner and are involved in the tethering and ... Read More »
» Published in Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2008 Jun;7(2):85-93.

18. Pathological consequences of VCP mutations on human striated muscle.
Match Strength: 3.341

Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP, p97) gene on chromosome 9p13-p12 cause a late-onset form of autosomal dominant inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). We report on the pathological consequences of three heterozygous VCP (R93C, R155H, R155C) mutations on human striated muscle. IBMPFD skeletal muscle pathology is characterized by degenerative changes and filamentous VCP- and ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic and nuclear protein aggregates. Furthermore, this is the first report demonstrating that mutant VCP leads to a ... Read More »
» Published in Brain. 2007 Feb;130(Pt 2):381-93. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

19. Structural basis for substrate binding and regioselective oxidation of monosaccharides at C3 by pyranose 2-oxidase.
Match Strength: 3.176

Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) participates in fungal lignin degradation by producing the H2O2 needed for lignin-degrading peroxidases. The enzyme oxidizes cellulose- and hemicellulose-derived aldopyranoses at C2 preferentially, but also on C3, to the corresponding ketoaldoses. To investigate the structural determinants of catalysis, covalent flavinylation, substrate binding, and regioselectivity, wild-type and mutant P2Ox enzymes were produced and characterized biochemically and structurally. Removal of the histidyl-FAD linkage resulted in a catalytically competent enzyme containing tightly, but ... Read More »
» Published in J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 17;281(46):35104-15. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

20. Influence of the labeling group on ionization and fragmentation of carbohydrates in mass spectrometry.
Match Strength: 2.855

The ionization and fragmentation behaviors of carbohydrate derivatives prepared by reaction with 2-aminobenzamide (AB), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and phenylhydrazine (PHN) were compared under identical mass spectrometric conditions. It has been shown that the intensities of signals in MS spectra depend on the kind of saccharides investigated and reducing end labels used. PMP sialyllactose, when ionized by ESI/MALDI, produced a mixture of [M + H]+, [M + Na]+, [M - H + 2Na]+ ions in the positive mode and [M - H]-, [M + Na - 2H]- ions in the negative mode. The AB and PHN derivatives ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2005 May;16(5):683-96.

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* All information on is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.

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