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Cinnamon
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1. Cinnamon extract and polyphenols affect the expression of tristetraprolin, insulin receptor, and glucose transporter 4 in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Match Strength: 10.367

Cinnamon improves glucose and lipid profiles of people with type 2 diabetes. Water-soluble cinnamon extract (CE) and HPLC-purified cinnamon polyphenols (CP) with doubly linked procyanidin type-A polymers display insulin-like activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon on the protein and mRNA levels of insulin receptor (IR), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36) in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Immunoblotting showed that CP increased IRbeta levels and that both CE and CP increased GLUT4 and TTP levels in the adipocytes. Quantitative real ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Mar 15;459(2):214-22. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

2. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate.
Match Strength: 7.855

The aim of the present study was to compare antimicrobial effects of essential oils alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essential oils included cinnamon, tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifola), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Leptospermum morrisonii, arnica, eucalyptus, grapefruit, the essential oil mouthrinse Cool Mint Listerine and two of its components, menthol and thymol. Cinnamon exhibited the greatest antimicrobial potency (1.25-2.5 mg/ml). Manuka, L. morrisonii, tea-tree oils, ... Read More »
» Published in Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005 Aug;20(4):221-5.

3. Effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth and development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo.
Match Strength: 6.467

Plant essential oils (EOs) have been reported to have health benefit properties and their preventive and therapeutic use in animals is expected to increase in the future. We evaluated the influence of five essential oils obtained from plant species which are known to have positive antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects--sage EO from Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), oregano EO from Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), thyme EO from Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), clove EO from Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae) and cinnamon EO from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) on ... Read More »
» Published in Physiol Res. 2007;56(1):97-104. Epub 2006 Feb 23.

4. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, reduces microglial and astroglial inflammatory responses.
Match Strength: 5.373

Upon activation, microglia and astrocytes produce a number of proinflammatory molecules that participate in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders. This study explores the anti-inflammatory property of cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in microglia and astrocytes. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) and surface markers (CD11b, CD11c, and CD68) in mouse microglia. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid beta (Abeta)-, prion peptide-, double ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2009 Nov 1;183(9):5917-27. Epub 2009 Oct 7.

5. Apoptosis and age-dependant induction of nuclear and mitochondrial etheno-DNA adducts in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats: enhanced DNA damage by dietary curcumin upon copper accumulation.
Match Strength: 5.249

Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a model for human Wilson's disease, develop chronic hepatitis and liver tumors owing to accumulation of copper and induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO)-induced etheno-DNA adducts in nuclear- and mitochondrial-DNA along with apoptosis was measured in LEC rat liver. Levels of etheno-DNA adducts (1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine) increased with age reaching a peak at 8 and 12 weeks in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first demonstration that etheno-DNA adducts are also formed in mitochondrial DNA. ... Read More »
» Published in Carcinogenesis. 2005 Jul;26(7):1307-15. Epub 2005 Mar 24.

6. Study on the antiinflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum.
Match Strength: 4.247

The leaf essential oil from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 21 compounds were identified. The major constituents of leaf essential oil were the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (17.0%) and santolina triene (14.2%) and the sesquiterpenes spathulenol (15.7%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.2%). In the antiinflammatory activity assay, we demonstrated that the essential oil has a higher capacity to inhibit proIL-1beta protein expression induced by LPS-treated J774A.1 murine macrophage. At dosages of 60 microg/mL, essential oil ... Read More »
» Published in J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 7;53(18):7274-8.

7. Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs.
Match Strength: 3.786

In this study, chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil and anti-inflammatory activities from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the twig essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and they were found to be L-bornyl acetate (15.89%), caryophyllene oxide (12.98%), gamma-eudesmol (8.03%), beta-caryophyllene (6.60%), T-cadinol (5.49%), delta-cadinene (4.79%), trans-beta-elemenone (4.25%), cadalene (4.19%), and trans-cinnamaldehyde (4.07%). The effects of essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin ... Read More »
» Published in Bioresour Technol. 2008 Jun;99(9):3908-13. Epub 2007 Sep 10.

8. Suppression of age-related inflammatory NF-kappaB activation by cinnamaldehyde.
Match Strength: 3.630

Redox sensitive, pro-inflammatory nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key role in both inflammation and aging processes. In a redox state disrupted by oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory genes are upregulated by the activation of NF-kappaB through diverse kinases. Thus, the search and characterization of new substances that modulate NF-kappaB are of recent research interest. Cinnamaldehyde (CNA) is the major component of cinnamon bark oil, which has been widely used as a flavoring agent in foodstuffs such as beverages and ice cream. In the present study, CNA was examined for its ... Read More »
» Published in Biogerontology. 2007 Oct;8(5):545-54. Epub 2007 May 8.

9. Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals.
Match Strength: 3.393

Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from the spice turmeric (an essential component of curry powder), has been investigated most extensively as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Curcumin directly interacts with adipocytes, pancreatic cells, ... Read More »
» Published in Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:173-99.

10. Algorithm for complementary and alternative medicine practice and research in type 2 diabetes.
Match Strength: 3.251

OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to direct the prescription of nutritional and botanical medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes for both clinical and research purposes. METHODS: Available literature on nutritional and botanical medicines was reviewed and categorized as follows: antioxidant/anti-inflammatory; insulin sensitizer; and beta-cell protectant/insulin secretagogue. Literature describing laboratory assessment for glycemic control, insulin resistance, and beta-cell reserve was also reviewed and a clinical decision tree was developed. RESULTS: Clinical algorithms were created to ... Read More »
» Published in J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):159-75.

11. Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health.
Match Strength: 3.172

The highly processed, calorie-dense, nutrient-depleted diet favored in the current American culture frequently leads to exaggerated supraphysiological post-prandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids. This state, called post-prandial dysmetabolism, induces immediate oxidant stress, which increases in direct proportion to the increases in glucose and triglycerides after a meal. The transient increase in free radicals acutely triggers atherogenic changes including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Post-prandial dysmetabolism is an ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Jan 22;51(3):249-55.

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