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Cardiovascular Disease
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Peer Reviewed Scientific Research Reports.


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1. Cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis: disease and treatment interactions and their implications on treatment decisions.
Match Strength: 6.088

Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Few randomized trials are available to guide risk assessment and intervention in these complex patients. This paper discusses traditional atherosclerotic and rheumatoid-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in these patients, reviews the effect of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors on rheumatoid arthritis activity, and describes the effect of rheumatoid arthritis treatment on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The authors reviewed the existing ... Read More »
» Published in J Miss State Med Assoc. 2010 Mar;51(3):75-80.

2. Cardiovascular disease in patients with spondyloarthropathies.
Match Strength: 6.023

Spondyloarthropathies are associated with a greater cardiovascular risk than expected based on the cardiac lesions known to occur in these diseases. The prevalence of several conventional risk factors is high in spondyloarthropathy patients, and chronic inflammation also contributes to premature plaque formation. In addition, susceptibility genes for spondyloarthropathies may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Finally, several drugs used to treat spondyloarthropathies may contribute to the occurrence of cardiovascular events. A careful evaluation of the ... Read More »
» Published in Joint Bone Spine. 2008 Jan;75(1):18-21. Epub 2007 Aug 14.

3. Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: state of the art?
Match Strength: 5.880

The cardiometabolic syndrome, associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in the industrialized world, is estimated to affect one in four adults. Although the mechanisms linking obesity and cardiovascular disease remain unclear, research continues to unravel the molecular pathways behind this pandemic. Adipose tissue has emerged as a metabolically active participant in mediating vascular complications, serving as an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting adipokines, which participate in diverse metabolic processes. Among these adipokines is adiponectin, which seems to possess ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Apr;292(4):H1655-63. Epub 2006 Dec 1.

4. Rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease: the role of systemic inflammation and evolving strategies of prevention.
Match Strength: 5.673

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease are increased in the context of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this review is to examine our evolving understanding of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis and to underscore the importance of tailored prevention of cardiovascular disease in this select population. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have highlighted the shared pathobiology of cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis, both of which represent inflammatory disorders. Several reports have also provided much-needed ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005 May;17(3):234-41.

5. Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis.
Match Strength: 5.622

PURPOSE: The use of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome has led to inconsistent results on the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A MEDLINE search (1966-April 2005) was conducted to identify prospective studies that examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. Information on sample size, participant characteristics, metabolic syndrome definition, follow-up duration, and endpoint assessment ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Med. 2006 Oct;119(10):812-9.

6. Aspirin and Diabetes Mellitus: revisiting an old player.
Match Strength: 5.537

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus confers an excess risk of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms involved in the development of the disease are an active field of research, and prompt the development of newer and safer therapeutics with implications for cardiovascular disease. Currently there is increasing awareness of the role of platelet dysfunction, low-grade chronic inflammation and thrombogenesis in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, T2DM, as well as type 1 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This new evolving knowledge has allowed a better understanding of the role of aspirin, ... Read More »
» Published in Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Feb;2(1):37-42.

7. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a comprehensive review.
Match Strength: 5.529

Aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease should be targeted to patients with a high cardiovascular risk. Physicians should assess the risks and benefits of aspirin therapy for primary prevention and incorporate patient preferences ... Read More »
» Published in Compr Ther. 2005 Fall;31(3):186-93.

8. Cardiovascular risk prevention in peripheral artery disease.
Match Strength: 5.229

Patients with peripheral arterial disease are at greatly elevated risk for stroke and myocardial infarction and are six times more likely to die from cardiovascular causes than those without the disease. The available evidence supports the provision of an antiplatelet agent, a statin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for cardiovascular protection in these patients. When used together, these approaches are expected to produce a cumulative relative risk reduction of approximately 80%. Given the high baseline risk of this population and the effectiveness of these interventions, a ... Read More »
» Published in J Vasc Surg. 2005 Jun;41(6):1070-3.

9. Psoriasis: an opportunity to identify cardiovascular risk.
Match Strength: 5.181

Psoriasis is highly prevalent and is associated with skin-associated complaints as well as arthritis, depression and a lower quality of life. Recently, it has been demonstrated that not only do patients with psoriasis have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but an increased risk of myocardial infarction, and for those with severe disease, increased mortality. Dermatologists and other health professionals need to be cognizant of this association and ensure that cardiovascular risk factors are evaluated and treated appropriately in those patients with psoriasis. We review ... Read More »
» Published in Br J Dermatol. 2009 Jan;160(1):1-7. Epub 2008 Oct 25.

10. Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.
Match Strength: 5.097

It is accepted that oxidative stress and inflammation play an integral role in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The xanthophyll carotenoid dietary supplement astaxanthin has demonstrated potential as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in models of cardiovascular disease. There have been at least eight clinical studies conducted in over 180 humans using astaxanthin to assess its safety, bioavailability and clinical aspects relevant to oxidative stress, inflammation or the cardiovascular system. There have been no ... Read More »
» Published in Future Cardiol. 2009 Jul;5(4):333-42.

11. Adiponectin and its gene variants as risk factors for insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Match Strength: 5.081

The increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance has attracted considerable interest due to their identification as risk factors for cardiovascular disease and, hence, targets for cardiovascular disease prevention. This review focuses on adiponectin, the most profusely secreted protein from adipose tissue, which itself is being increasingly recognised as an important and very active endocrine organ, secreting a wide range of biologically active substances known as adipokines or adipocytokines. Adiponectin has been demonstrated to have insulin sensitising effects, ... Read More »
» Published in Atherosclerosis. 2006 Oct;188(2):231-44. Epub 2006 Apr 3.

12. Adiponectin and chronic kidney disease.
Match Strength: 5.079

Enhanced chronic inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity are often present in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal patients. Adiponectin (ADP) is a hormone exclusively produced by adipocytes and possesses anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Despite the high prevalence of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, levels of ADP are increased among end-stage renal disease patients on hemo or peritoneal dialysis but also among patients with moderate renal failure or with the nephrotic ... Read More »
» Published in J Ren Nutr. 2007 Jan;17(1):9-12.

13. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: vascular alterations and possible clinical implications.
Match Strength: 5.063

Mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is higher than in the general population, which is due mainly to premature cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors cannot entirely explain the higher level of cardiovascular complications, and there is growing evidence that chronic inflammation is the main culprit. The aims of this review of the literature are to (i) summarize aspects of vascular alterations found in the cardiovascular system of RA patients and to relate them to the clinically relevant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and (ii) evaluate what ... Read More »
» Published in QJM. 2011 Jan;104(1):13-26. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

14. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of anti-TNF drugs.
Match Strength: 5.039

BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease which cannot be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors alone. Atherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory condition and inflammation experienced in RA may contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Thus, it should be hypothesized that treatment with antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-alpha), TNF-alpha being a pivotal component of the inflammatory cascade, may decrease concomitantly intra-articular inflammation and vessel inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The ... Read More »
» Published in Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 May;9(7):1121-8.

15. Pain, analgesics, and the cardiovascular system.
Match Strength: 5.021

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most used medications in the world. Ordinarily considered to be safe and effective when used according to labeling instructions, their safety for patients with cardiovascular disease is now being reassessed ... Read More »
» Published in Compr Ther. 2006 Winter;32(4):236-9.

16. Aspirin resistance, an emerging, often overlooked, factor in the management of patients with coronary artery disease.
Match Strength: 5.014

Aspirin is the most widely used medication in patients with cardiovascular disease. It has had a greater effect on patients with cardiovascular disease than any other drug. With the importance of aspirin now known for decades, it is recently becoming clearer that some patients do not derive as great a benefit from this "wonder drug" secondary to their resistance to its effects. Aspirin resistance, its prevalence, its identification, and how to overcome or avert it with other medications then becomes a central topic of discussion as important, if not more so, than the importance of aspirin ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Cardiol. 2006 Apr;29(4):144-8.

17. Anti-inflammatory strategies for homocysteine-related cardiovascular disease.
Match Strength: 4.996

Homocysteine may induce vascular damage for atherosclerosis. Vitamin/folate supplementation has been proposed to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk. Nevertheless, there is no randomized clinical trial clearly proving the efficacy of reducing the homocysteine as a means of lowering the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine induces oxidative stress leading to endothelial dysfunction. In addition, homocysteine-induced oxidative stress favors lipid peroxidation and induces production of inflammatory factors, thus accelerating atherosclerosis. In this paper, we reviewed the ... Read More »
» Published in Front Biosci. 2009 Jan 1;14:3836-45.

18. Olive oil and the cardiovascular system.
Match Strength: 4.994

Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet which is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. In spite of this, data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of olive oil consumption are beyond a mere reduction of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Here, we review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important ... Read More »
» Published in Pharmacol Res. 2007 Mar;55(3):175-86. Epub 2007 Jan 30.

19. Appropriate use of antiplatelets: is prescription in daily practice influenced by the global cardiovascular risk?
Match Strength: 4.979

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the appropriate prescription of antiplatelets according to patients' global cardiovascular risk level in everyday practice. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, general practitioners (GPs) identified a random sample of 10% of patients at cardiovascular risk among all subjects coming to the surgery and collected data on cardiovascular risk factors and history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). GPs were asked to do a physical examination and record the results of laboratory tests to define the global cardiovascular risk. The use of antiplatelet drugs in ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Sep;61(8):595-601. Epub 2005 Jul 15.

20. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Target for Therapy or Trouble?
Match Strength: 4.950

High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has come into clinical use as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition to a role as a marker of disease, CRP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. Specific small-molecule inhibitors of CRP have recently been developed with the intent of mitigating cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of CRP, both as a risk marker and a disease target are controversial for several reasons. Serum hs-CRP concentrations can be elevated on the basis of genetics, female gender, and non-Caucasian ... Read More »
» Published in Biomark Insights. 2007 Feb 7;1:77-80.

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* All information on Level1Diet.com is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.



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