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Breast Cancer
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1. Models of genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.
Match Strength: 10.419

One of the most important risk factors for breast cancer is family history of the disease, indicating that genetic factors are important determinants of breast cancer risk. A number of breast cancer susceptibility genes have been identified, the most important being BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, it is estimated that all the currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes accounts for less than 25% of the familial aggregation of breast cancer. In this paper, we review the evidence for other breast cancer susceptibility genes arising from twin studies, pedigree analysis and studies of phenotypes ... Read More »
» Published in Oncogene. 2006 Sep 25;25(43):5898-905.

2. Inflammatory breast cancer: current understanding.
Match Strength: 9.529

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory breast cancer is a highly aggressive variant of locally advanced breast cancer that carries a significantly worse prognosis. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the molecular modus operandi of this particular form of breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on tumor cell emboli, E-cadherin, chemokine receptors, steroid hormone receptor, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and gene expression all suggest significant differences with noninflammatory breast cancer and are clearly in line with a different pathogenesis of the condition. SUMMARY: ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Nov;18(6):563-71.

3. Histopathological types of breast cancer in Nigerian women: a 12-year review (1993-2004).
Match Strength: 9.189

To determine the commonest histological types of breast cancer in Nigerian women in Edo State and the mean age at diagnosis, we reviewed the histological slides of breast cancer received in the pathology department of University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a twelve-year period (January 1993-December 2004). The clinical data was obtained from the original request form and case notes where necessary. The mean age of the patients was 45.7 (SD= 13.4, SEM = 0.7). Invasive ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) constituted the majority of breast cancer accounting for 75.5% while papillary ... Read More »
» Published in Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Apr;10(1):71-5. Comment in: Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Apr;10(1):7-12.

4. The 3' untranslated region C > T polymorphism of prohibitin is a breast cancer risk modifier in Polish women carrying a BRCA1 mutation.
Match Strength: 8.981

The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. The C to T transition in the 3' untranslated region of the prohibitin (PHB) gene alters mRNA function and has been shown to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk among young North-American women who have one first-degree relative with breast cancer. To investigate whether the PHB 3'UTR polymorphism acts as a modifier of hereditary breast cancer risk we performed a case-control study among female BRCA1 mutation carriers, which included ... Read More »
» Published in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Sep 27;

5. Altered sirtuin expression is associated with node-positive breast cancer.
Match Strength: 8.584

Sirtuins are genes implicated in cellular and organismal ageing. Consequently, they are speculated to be involved in diseases of ageing including cancer. Various cancers with widely differing prognosis have been shown to have differing and characteristic expression of these genes; however, the relationship between sirtuin expression and cancer progression is unclear. In order to correlate cancer progression and sirtuin expression, we have assessed sirtuin expression as a function of primary cell ageing and compared sirtuin expression in normal, 'nonmalignant' breast biopsies to breast cancer ... Read More »
» Published in Br J Cancer. 2006 Oct 23;95(8):1056-61. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

6. Anaplastic large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast in periprosthetic localisation 32 years after treatment for primary breast cancer-a case report.
Match Strength: 8.250

Primary, as well as secondary, lymphomas of the breast are rare diseases and might, in some cases, be misdiagnosed as breast cancer on routine hematoxylin/eosin stainings. We report a case of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a 72-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer treated with breast-ablative surgery and a subsequent silicon implant 32 years ago. Clinically, she presented with an ulceration of the skin, which had developed within a few months. On conventional histology, the tumor cells were mimicking poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma with a prominent leukocytic ... Read More »
» Published in Virchows Arch. 2006 Nov;449(5):561-4. Epub 2006 Sep 16.

7. Systemic treatment of breast cancer. Two decades of progress.
Match Strength: 8.197

Over the past 20 years we have witnessed the emergence of a new generation of aromatase inhibitors as valuable antiestrogens in the management of both advanced and early-stage breast cancer. In addition, the list of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents useful in the control of breast cancer has grown considerably. The emergence ofanthracyclines was a major chemotherapeutic step forward in the 1980s, and the taxanes have clearly been the agents with the greatest impact on breast cancer treatment over the past decade. The end of the past 2 decades has been characterized by a greater understanding ... Read More »
» Published in Oncology (Williston Park). 2006 Aug;20(9):983-90; discussion 991-2, 997-8.

8. Cancer incidence in first-degree relatives of a population-based set of cases of early-onset breast cancer.
Match Strength: 8.054

Reliable determination of familial risks for cancer is important for clinical counselling, cancer prevention and understanding cancer aetiology. Family-based gene identification efforts may be targeted if the risks are well characterised and the mode of inheritance is identified. Early-onset breast cancer in a family member is a risk indicator for cancer among first-degree relatives; however, the familial risk pattern has not been assessed fully in population-based incidence studies. We estimated the risks for cancers of the breast, ovary and other sites among the first-degree relatives of ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Cancer. 2006 Nov;42(17):3034-40. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

9. A nurse is a nurse? A systematic review of the effectiveness of specialised nursing in breast cancer.
Match Strength: 7.967

The effectiveness of specialised nursing in breast cancer has received limited attention. This systematic literature review aims at (i) presenting and discussing role models of specialised nursing in the area of breast cancer and (ii) suggesting avenues for future research in this field. The ten studies included in the review differ with respect to the roles of specialised nurses as well as the measured outcome variables; thus, the comparability and generalisability of results are limited. Nevertheless, the review indicates that specialised nursing in breast cancer may contribute to improved ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Cancer. 2006 Dec;42(18):3117-26. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

10. Effect of undertreatment on the disparity in age-related breast cancer-specific survival among older women.
Match Strength: 7.790

OBJECTIVES: Assess the relationship between age and breast cancer-specific survival among older women and determine whether the observed age-related disparities in survival is explained by differences in breast cancer treatments received. METHODS: Women >/=65 years old at diagnosis with stage I-IIIA breast cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 1998 were recruited from four regions of the United States and followed prospectively for 5 years after diagnosis. Data was obtained from tumor registries, medical records, and telephone interviews. The primary endpoint was breast cancer-specific survival ... Read More »
» Published in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Sep 27;

11. Ethnic and geographic differences in mammographic density and their association with breast cancer incidence.
Match Strength: 7.731

The objective of this pooled analysis was to compare differences in dense areas and percent mammographic densities to breast cancer incidence in populations at different breast cancer risk. The data set included 1,327 women aged 40-80: Caucasians from Norway, Arizona, and Hawaii, Japanese from Hawaii and Japan, Latina from Arizona, and Native Hawaiians from Hawaii. One reader performed computer-assisted quantitative density assessment for all mammographic films. Multiple linear regression models evaluated the influence of the covariates on breast density. Spearman correlation coefficients (r ... Read More »
» Published in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Sep 29;

12. Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings.
Match Strength: 7.714

The impact of soyfood intake on breast cancer risk has been investigated extensively. Much of this focus can be attributed to the soybean being a dietary source that is uniquely rich in isoflavones. The chemical structure of isoflavones is similar to that of estrogen, and isoflavones bind to both estrogen receptors (ER alpha and ER beta) (although they preferentially bind to and activate ER beta) and exert estrogen-like effects under some experimental conditions. Isoflavones also possess nonhormonal properties that are associated with the inhibition of cancer cell growth. Thus, there are ... Read More »
» Published in J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Sep 20;98(18):1275-84.

13. A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases.
Match Strength: 7.627

The complication of multiple brain metastases in breast cancer patients is a life threatening condition with limited success following standard therapies. The arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway appears to play a role in brain tumor growth as well as inhibition of apoptosis in in-vitro studies. The down regulation of these arachidonate lipoxygenase growth stimulating products therefore appeared to be a worthwile consideration for testing in brain metastases not responding to standard therapy. Boswellia serrata, a lipoxygenase inhibitor was applied for this inhibition. Multiple brain metastases ... Read More »
» Published in J Neurooncol. 2006 Sep 26;

14. Modifiers of risk of hereditary breast cancer.
Match Strength: 7.608

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer a high lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The risk varies from individual to individual, and it appears that the risk has increased in recent generations. These observations imply that non-genetic factors may modify the inherited risk. To date, the factors that appear most strongly to modify the risk include reproductive histories and exogenous hormones. Oral contraceptives are associated with a profound reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer, and with little or no increase in the risk of breast cancer. Other modifying factors include age ... Read More »
» Published in Oncogene. 2006 Sep 25;25(43):5832-6.

15. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.
Match Strength: 7.541

OBJECTIVE: Adequate folate intake may be important for breast cancer prevention. Its protective effect may be influenced by factors associated with folate metabolism. We sought to evaluate folate intake in relation to breast cancer risk and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B(2) and B(12). METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis of folate intake was conducted among 62,739 postmenopausal women in the French E3N cohort who had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1993. During nine years' follow-up, 1,812 cases of pathology-confirmed breast ... Read More »
» Published in Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Nov;17(9):1209-13.

16. Measurement of coping and stress responses in women with breast cancer.
Match Strength: 7.519

The development of the Responses to Stress Questionnaire-cancer version (RSQ-CV) to assess coping with and responses to the stress of breast cancer is described. The RSQ-CV was completed by 232 women with breast cancer near the time of their diagnosis. Confirmatory factor analyses verified a model that includes three voluntary coping factors (primary control engagement coping, secondary control engagement coping, disengagement coping) and two involuntary stress response factors (involuntary engagement, involuntary disengagement). Internal consistency reliability, and stability over 12 weeks ... Read More »
» Published in Psychooncology. 2006 Dec;15(12):1038-54.

17. Twenty-year incidence and patterns of contralateral breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with radiation.
Match Strength: 7.460

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of contralateral breast cancer (CLB) after treatment for early-stage breast cancer with breast-conserving treatment (BCT), and to observe patterns of CLB presentation. METHODS: Medical records of 1,801 women treated for unilateral AJCC Stage 0-II breast cancer with BCT between 1977 and 2000 were analyzed as a retrospective cohort. RESULTS: The incidence of any CLB at 20 years was 15.4%. The annual risk of developing any CLB remained constant at approximately 0.75% per year after treatment. The median time to any CLB was 8.2 years ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Dec 1;66(5):1313-9. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

18. Association between reproductive factors and breast cancer survival in younger women.
Match Strength: 7.281

This analysis investigated whether reproductive factors such as age at menarche, parity, and timing and outcomes of pregnancies were associated with survival among women with breast cancer younger than 55 years. Female residents of Atlanta, Georgia, and central New Jersey who were diagnosed with a primary, incident invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 1992 and enrolled in a population-based study (n = 1,264) were followed for 8-10 years. Detailed exposure and covariate information was collected via in-person interviews administered shortly after diagnosis. Vital status as of January 1, 2000 ... Read More »
» Published in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Sep 27;

19. Estrogen metabolism and breast cancer risk--a review.
Match Strength: 7.204

The standard paradigm providing a general mechanistic explanation for the association of cumulative, excessive estrogen exposure and breast cancer risk is that estrogen and perhaps progesterone affect the rate of cell division; and thus manifest their effect on the risk of breast cancer by causing proliferation of breast epithelial cells. Proliferating cells are susceptible to genetic errors during DNA replication which, if uncorrected, can ultimately lead to a malignant phenotype. This standard paradigm has recently been expanded to encompass emerging research data supporting a complementary ... Read More »
» Published in Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Apr;10(1):13-25. Comment in: Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Apr;10(1):7-12.

20. Clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Match Strength: 7.152

The cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 appear to be responsible for virtually all hereditary breast ovarian families, and a smaller subset of hereditary site-specific breast cancer families. Fortunately, effective strategies have been developed to reduce the risk for the development of breast and ovarian cancer in women with BRCA1/2 mutations, making genetic testing for these mutations an important part of the management at women with a strong family history of these diseases. Here, we review the current evidence for risk reduction strategies and outline future research directions. ... Read More »
» Published in Oncogene. 2006 Sep 25;25(43):5825-31.

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