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Asian Influenza
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1. New laboratory assay for diagnostic testing of avian influenza A/H5 (Asian Lineage).
Match Strength: 15.368

On February 3, 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced clearance of the Influenza A/H5 (Asian Lineage) Virus Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) Primer and Probe Set and inactivated virus as a source of positive RNA control for the in vitro qualitative detection of highly pathogenic influenza A/H5 virus (Asian lineage). Two genetic lineages of influenza A/H5 viruses exist: Eurasian (Asian) and North American. The primer and probe set, developed at CDC, is designed to detect highly pathogenic influenza A/H5 viruses from the Asian lineage associated ... Read More »
» Published in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Feb 10;55(5):127.

2. Update: Influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 2004-05 season.
Match Strength: 12.057

During the 2004-05 influenza season, influenza A (H1),* A (H3N2), and B viruses cocirculated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. In addition, several Asian countries continued to report widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry; in Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2004-05 influenza season peaked in February, was moderate, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States ... Read More »
» Published in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Jul 1;54(25):631-4.

3. Avian influenza A (H5N1).
Match Strength: 11.526

Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The current knowledge of the virology, clinical spectrum, diagnosis and treatment of human influenza H5N1 virus infections is reviewed herein ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Virol. 2006 Jan;35(1):2-13. Epub 2005 Oct 6.

4. Update: influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 2003-04 season, and composition of the 2004-05 influenza vaccine.
Match Strength: 11.093

During the 2003-04 influenza season, influenza A (H1), A (H3N2), and B viruses co-circulated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. Several Asian countries reported widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry. In Vietnam and Thailand, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2003-04 influenza season began earlier than most seasons, peaked in December, was moderately severe in terms of its impact on mortality, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses. This report 1) ... Read More »
» Published in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Jul 2;53(25):547-52.

5. Studies of H5N1 influenza virus infection of pigs by using viruses isolated in Vietnam and Thailand in 2004.
Match Strength: 10.597

To determine whether avian H5N1 influenza viruses associated with human infections in Vietnam had transmitted to pigs, we investigated serologic evidence of exposure to H5N1 influenza virus in Vietnamese pigs in 2004. Of the 3,175 pig sera tested, 8 (0.25%) were positive for avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated in 2004 by virus neutralization assay and Western blot analysis. Experimental studies of replication and transmissibility of the 2004 Asian H5N1 viruses in pigs revealed that all viruses tested replicated in the swine respiratory tract but none were transmitted to contact pigs. Virus ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2005 Aug;79(16):10821-5.

6. Influenza viruses and their ion channels.
Match Strength: 10.570

Influenza is an ancient disease that has infected humans in irregular intervals throughout recorded history. The most infamous pandemic was "Spanish Flu" which affected large parts of the world population and killed in 1918-1919, at a rough estimate, at least 50 million people. More recently, two influenza A pandemics occurred in 1957 ("Asian influenza") and 1968 ("Hong Kong influenza") and caused significant morbidity and mortality globally. Most recently, in 1997 and 2003, limited outbreaks caused by a new influenza A virus subtype H5N1 that was directly transmitted from birds to humans, ... Read More »
» Published in Acta Virol. 2006;50(1):7-16.

7. H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Korean live bird markets continuously evolve and cause the severe clinical signs in layers.
Match Strength: 10.508

H9N2 influenza viruses are endemic in many Asian countries. We demonstrated that H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Korean live bird markets are genetically changing and could cause the clinical signs in layers. Genetic analysis showed that Korean avian H9N2 influenza viruses are distinct from H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in poultry in China and Hong Kong. When we infected layers with H9N2 isolates, layers showed about 30% mortality and the reduction of egg productions. Considering that H9N2 influenza virus is one of potential pandemic candidates, the continuous surveillance ... Read More »
» Published in Vet Microbiol. 2006 Dec 20;118(3-4):169-76. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

8. Avian influenza H5N1 in viverrids: implications for wildlife health and conservation.
Match Strength: 10.245

The Asian countries chronically infected with avian influenza A H5N1 are 'global hotspots' for biodiversity conservation in terms of species diversity, endemism and levels of threat. Since 2003, avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have naturally infected and killed a range of wild bird species, four felid species and a mustelid. Here, we report fatal disseminated H5N1 infection in a globally threatened viverrid, the Owston's civet, in Vietnam, highlighting the risk that avian influenza H5N1 poses to mammalian and avian biodiversity across its expanding geographic range ... Read More »
» Published in Proc Biol Sci. 2006 Jul 22;273(1595):1729-32.

9. Isolation of avian influenza viruses from two different transhemispheric migratory shorebird species in Australia.
Match Strength: 10.142

Shorebirds on their southerly migration from Siberia to Australia, may pass through Asian regions currently experiencing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza. To test for the presence of avian influenza viruses in migratory shorebirds arriving in Australia during spring 2004, 173 cloacal swabs were collected from six species. Ten swabs were positive for influenza A, with H4N8 viruses detected in five red-necked stints and H11N9 viruses detected in five sharp-tailed sandpipers. No H5N1 viruses were detected. All isolated viruses were non-pathogenic in domestic chickens. These results ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Virol. 2006 Nov;151(11):2301-9. Epub 2006 May 26.

10. Pandemic influenza threat and preparedness.
Match Strength: 10.038

The threat of a human influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past several years with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza viruses, notably H5N1 viruses, which have infected humans in several Asian and European countries. Previous influenza pandemics have arrived with little or no warning, but the current widespread circulation of H5N1 viruses among avian populations and their potential for increased transmission to humans and other mammalian species may afford us an unprecedented opportunity to prepare for the next pandemic threat. The US Department of Health and Human ... Read More »
» Published in Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;12(1):73-7.

11. Avian influenza: a new pandemic threat?
Match Strength: 10.015

In December 2003, the largest outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 occurred among poultry in 8 Asian countries. A limited number of human H5N1 infections have been reported from Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate approaching 70%. Deaths have occurred in otherwise healthy young individuals, which is reminiscent of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic. The main presenting features were fever, pneumonitis, lymphopenia, and diarrhea. Notably, sore throat, conjunctivitis, and coryza were absent. The H5N1 strains are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine but are susceptible ... Read More »
» Published in Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Apr;79(4):523-30; quiz 530. Erratum in: Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Jun;79(6):833.

12. Efficacy of inactivated vaccines against H5N1 avian influenza infection in ducks.
Match Strength: 9.959

The current Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus has spread over much of Asia and into Europe and Africa. As well as affecting village and commercial chicken operations in many South East Asian countries, it differs from past H5 avian influenza viruses in that it causes morbidity and mortalities in other domesticated birds, such as ducks and turkeys and in wild waterbirds. Effective vaccines that can prevent infection, as well as disease, and be used in a variety of avian species are needed for field use. In this report, a bivalent H5N9+H7N1 oil emulsion vaccine is compared, in ... Read More »
» Published in Virology. 2006 Oct 6;

13. Avian influenza.
Match Strength: 9.774

Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses, namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential. The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in 1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenza epidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidental human infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Human influenza viruses differ with other avian influenza viruses on the choice of cellular receptors ... Read More »
» Published in Chang Gung Med J. 2005 Nov;28(11):753-7.

14. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model.
Match Strength: 9.649

Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A ... Read More »
» Published in PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jan 29;6(1):e1000656.

15. Inactivated North American and European H5N2 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens from Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.
Match Strength: 9.567

High-pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has caused an unprecedented epizootic in birds within nine Asian countries/regions since it was first reported in 1996. Vaccination has emerged as a tool for use in managing the infection in view of future eradication. This study was undertaken to determine whether two divergent H5N2 commercial vaccine strains, one based on a European and the other a North American low-pathogenicity AI virus, could protect chickens against a recent Asian H5N1 HPAI virus. The North American and European vaccine viruses had 84 and 91% deduced ... Read More »
» Published in Avian Pathol. 2006 Apr;35(2):141-6.

16. Variation and infectivity neutralization in influenza.
Match Strength: 9.408

Worldwide epidemics of influenza are caused by viruses that normally infect other species, particularly waterfowl, and that contain haemagglutinin membrane glycoproteins (HAs) to which the human population has no immunity. Anti-HA immunoglobulins neutralize influenza virus infectivity. In this review we outline structural differences that distinguish the HAs of the 16 antigenic subtypes (H1-16) found in viruses from avian species. We also describe structural changes in HA required for the effective transfer to humans of viruses containing three of them, H1, H2 and H3, in the 1918 (Spanish), ... Read More »
» Published in Immunology. 2006 Sep;119(1):1-7.

17. Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia.
Match Strength: 9.278

Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with ... Read More »
» Published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26;102(30):10682-7. Epub 2005 Jul 19.

18. Cases of influenza A (H5N1)--Thailand, 2004.
Match Strength: 9.273

Since mid-December 2003, eight Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam) have reported an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry and various other birds caused by influenza A (H5N1). As of February 9, 2004, a total of 23 laboratory-confirmed human cases of influenza A (H5N1) had been reported in Thailand and Vietnam. In 18 (78%) of these cases, the patients died. Clinical experience with avian H5N1 disease in humans is limited. The human H5N1 viruses identified in Asia in 2004 are antigenically and genetically ... Read More »
» Published in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Feb 13;53(5):100-3.

19. Targeted social distancing design for pandemic influenza.
Match Strength: 9.219

Targeted social distancing to mitigate pandemic influenza can be designed through simulation of influenza's spread within local community social contact networks. We demonstrate this design for a stylized community representative of a small town in the United States. The critical importance of children and teenagers in transmission of influenza is first identified and targeted. For influenza as infectious as 1957-58 Asian flu (=50% infected), closing schools and keeping children and teenagers at home reduced the attack rate by >90%. For more infectious strains, or transmission that is less ... Read More »
» Published in Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Nov;12(11):1671-81.

20. Influenza: prospect for prevention and control.
Match Strength: 9.155

Influenza is an emerging and re-emerging disease. Since the late 1930s influenza viruses have been isolated yearly from different parts of the world during epidemics and pandemics. The "epidemiologic success" of influenza is due largely to rapid and unpredictable antigenic changes (antigenic drift) among human influenza viruses, and the emergence of new subtypes (antigenic shift), mostly from reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses. Antigenic shifts were attributed to the global pandemic viruses of 1957 (H2N2 Asian flu) and 1968 (H3N2 Hong Kong flu). Concern over possible new ... Read More »
» Published in Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2002 Sep;18(9):421-34.

21. Seroprevalance and identification of influenza a virus infection from migratory wild waterfowl in china (2004-2005).
Match Strength: 9.041

Outbreaks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) were reported in birds in more than eight Asian countries. We sought to identify the origin of this infection, and herein report the results of serological and virological monitoring of migrant wild waterfowl in mainland China. From a total of 493 serum samples, collected from 15 migratory wild waterfowl species for 9 months (from June 2004 to May 2005) in mainland China, we detected only low-level antibodies against influenza subtypes H2, H9 and H10 in the relict gull, little egret, black-crowned night heron, bar-tailed godwit, whimbrel ... Read More »
» Published in J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006 May;53(4):166-70.

22. Avian and swine influenza viruses: our current understanding of the zoonotic risk.
Match Strength: 8.875

The introduction of swine or avian influenza (AI) viruses in the human population can set the stage for a pandemic, and many fear that the Asian H5N1 AI virus will become the next pandemic virus. This article first compares the pathogenesis of avian, swine and human influenza viruses in their natural hosts. The major aim was to evaluate the zoonotic potential of swine and avian viruses, and the possible role of pigs in the transmission of AI viruses to humans. Cross-species transfers of swine and avian influenza to humans have been documented on several occasions, but all these viruses lacked ... Read More »
» Published in Vet Res. 2007 Mar-Apr;38(2):243-60. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

23. Seroprevalance and identification of influenza A virus infection from migratory wild waterfowl in China (2004-2005).
Match Strength: 8.836

Outbreaks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) were reported in birds in more than eight Asian countries. We sought to identify the origin of this infection, and herein report the results of serological and virological monitoring of migrant wild waterfowl in mainland China. From a total of 493 serum samples, collected from 15 migratory wild waterfowl species for 9 months (from June 2004 to May 2005) in mainland China, we detected only low-level antibodies against influenza subtypes H2, H9 and H10 in the relict gull, little egret, black-crowned night heron, bar-tailed godwit, whimbrel ... Read More »
» Published in J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006 May;53(4):166-70.

24. Comparative efficacy of North American and antigenically matched reverse genetics derived H5N9 DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens.
Match Strength: 8.772

Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza has become endemic in several countries in Asia and Africa, and vaccination is being widely used as a control tool. However, there is a need for efficacious vaccines preferably utilizing a DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) marker strategy to allow for improved surveillance of influenza in vaccinated poultry. Using a reverse genetics approach, we generated Asian rgH5N9 vaccine strain deriving the hemagglutinin gene from A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) with modification of the cleavage site to be low pathogenic (LP) and N9 ... Read More »
» Published in Vaccine. 2009 Oct 19;27(44):6247-60. Epub 2009 Aug 15.

25. Genotype turnover by reassortment of replication complex genes from avian influenza A virus.
Match Strength: 8.762

Reassortment among the RNA segments of Influenza A virus caused the two most recent human influenza pandemics; recently, reassortment has generated viral genotypes associated with outbreaks of avian H5N1 influenza in Asia and Europe. A statistical analysis has been developed for the systematic identification and characterization of reassortant viruses. The analysis was applied to the genes of the replication complex of 152 avian influenza A viruses isolated between 1966 and 2004 from predominantly terrestrial and domestic aquatic avian species. The results indicated that reassortment among ... Read More »
» Published in J Gen Virol. 2006 Oct;87(Pt 10):2803-15.

26. Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia.
Match Strength: 8.715

An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) has recently spread to poultry in 9 Asian countries. H5N1 infections have caused > or =52 human deaths in Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia from January 2004 to April 2005. Genomic analyses of H5N1 isolates from birds and humans showed 2 distinct clades with a nonoverlapping geographic distribution. All the viral genes were of avian influenza origin, which indicates absence of reassortment with human influenza viruses. All human H5N1 isolates tested belonged to a single clade and were resistant to the adamantane drugs but sensitive to ... Read More »
» Published in Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;11(10):1515-21.

27. Avian flu: isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus.
Match Strength: 8.658

The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is currently used for protection against and treatment of influenza. Further investigation is necessary to determine the prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 viruses among patients treated with this drug ... Read More »
» Published in Nature. 2005 Oct 20;437(7062):1108. Erratum in: Nature. 2005 Dec 8;438(7069):754.

28. Wet markets--a continuing source of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza?
Match Strength: 8.494

CONTEXT: Live-animal markets (wet markets) provide a source of vertebrate and invertebrate animals for customers in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Wet markets sell live poultry, fish, reptiles, and mammals of every kind. Live-poultry markets (mostly chicken, pigeon, quail, ducks, geese, and a wide range of exotic wild-caught and farm-raised fowl) are usually separated from markets selling fish or red-meat animals, but the stalls can be near each other with no physical separation. Despite the widespread availability of affordable refrigeration, many Asian people prefer live ... Read More »
» Published in Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):234-6.

29. Structure, receptor binding, and antigenicity of influenza virus hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 pandemic.
Match Strength: 8.451

The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 A resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2010 Feb;84(4):1715-21. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

30. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam from 2004 to 2005.
Match Strength: 8.237

Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses have been spreading among domestic poultry, wild aquatic birds, and humans in many Asian countries since 2003. The largest number of patients, to date, infected with the H5N1 viruses are in Vietnam, where these viruses continue to cause outbreaks in domestic poultry. Here, we molecularly characterized the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of nine H5N1 viruses isolated between January 2004 and August 2005 from domestic poultry in Vietnam. We found that several groups of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses are circulating among ... Read More »
» Published in J Vet Med Sci. 2006 May;68(5):527-31.

31. Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and interim recommendations for evaluation and reporting of suspected cases--United States, 2004.
Match Strength: 8.210

During December 2003-February 2004, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry were reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. As of February 9, 2004, a total of 23 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza A (H5N1) virus infections in humans, resulting in 18 deaths, had been reported in Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, approximately 100 suspected cases in humans are under investigation by national health authorities in Thailand and Vietnam. CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and national health authorities in ... Read More »
» Published in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Feb 13;53(5):97-100. Comment in: Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan;45(1):88-92.

32. Evolution of the receptor binding phenotype of influenza A (H5) viruses.
Match Strength: 8.085

Receptor specificity of influenza A/H5 viruses including human 2003-04 isolates was studied. All but two isolates preserved high affinity to Sia2-3Gal (avian-like) receptors. However, two isolates (February, 2003, Hong Kong) demonstrated decreased affinity to Sia2-3Gal and moderate affinity to a Sia2-6Gal (human-like) receptors. These two viruses had a unique Ser227-Asn change in the hemagglutinin molecule. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter receptor specificity of avian H5N1 viruses, providing them with an ability to bind to receptors optimal for human influenza ... Read More »
» Published in Virology. 2006 Jan 20;344(2):432-8. Epub 2005 Oct 13.

33. Public health risk from avian influenza viruses.
Match Strength: 7.900

Since 1997, avian influenza (AI) virus infections in poultry have taken on new significance, with increasing numbers of cases involving bird-to-human transmission and the resulting production of clinically severe and fatal human infections. Such human infections have been sporadic and are caused by H7N7 and H5N1 high-pathogenicity (HP) and H9N2 low-pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses in Europe and Asia. These infections have raised the level of concern by human health agencies for the potential reassortment of influenza virus genes and generation of the next human pandemic influenza A virus. The ... Read More »
» Published in Avian Dis. 2005 Sep;49(3):317-27.

34. Evolution and molecular epidemiology of H9N2 influenza A viruses from quail in southern China, 2000 to 2005.
Match Strength: 7.627

H9N2 influenza viruses have become established and maintain long-term endemicity in terrestrial poultry in Asian countries. Occasionally these viruses transmit to other mammals including humans. Increasing epidemiological and laboratory findings suggest that quail may be an important host as they are susceptible to different subtypes of influenza viruses. To better understand the role of quail in influenza ecology and evolution, H9N2 viruses isolated from quail during 2000 to 2005 were antigenically and genetically characterized. Our results showed that H9N2 viruses are prevalent year-round in ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2006 Dec 27;

35. Genetic characterization of H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in southern China during the 2003-04 avian influenza outbreaks.
Match Strength: 7.576

The recent H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in Asia spread over more than 8 countries. It has caused enormous economic loss and grand challenges for the public health. During these breakouts we isolated three strains of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from chickens and one from duck in different farms of Southern China. We completely sequenced these four AIVs. Molecular characterization demonstrated that these strains retain the reported H5N1 AIV sequence properties relevant to virus virulence and host adaptation. Phylogeny results demonstrated that three of these isolates (except A/Chicken ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Virol. 2005 Jun;150(6):1257-66. Epub 2005 Feb 18.

36. Intercontinental reassortment and genomic variation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (Anas acuta) in Alaska: Examining the evidence through space and time.
Match Strength: 7.512

Migration and population genetic data for northern pintails (Anas acuta) and phylogenetic analysis of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from this host in Alaska suggest that northern pintails are involved in ongoing intercontinental transmission of avian influenza. Here, we further refine this conclusion through phylogenetic analyses which demonstrate that detection of foreign lineage gene segments is spatially dependent and consistent through time. Our results show detection of foreign lineage gene segments to be most likely at sample locations on the Alaska Peninsula and least ... Read More »
» Published in Virology. 2010 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]

37. The novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus riddle: is it a domestic bird H1N1-derived virus?
Match Strength: 7.459

To understand the role of domestic birds in the 2009 H1N1 influenza A outbreak, a phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and matrix protein genes from human, avian and swine H1N1 viruses was carried out. Analysis of the H1 sequences revealed that the virus evolved most likely from American swine as well as intermixing between Asian swine and American domestic bird H1N1 viruses. Neuroaminidase and matrix protein analysis showed that the H1N1 2009 viruses were more closely related to the H1N1 isolates from Euro-Asiatic domestic birds and swine than wild birds. Domestic birds could ... Read More »
» Published in New Microbiol. 2010 Jan;33(1):77-81.

38. Pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated in Vietnam between late 2003 and 2005.
Match Strength: 7.308

Since late 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A viruses have spread among poultry and wild aquatic birds in Asian countries. Transmission of these viruses to humans can be lethal. Most human cases of infection with H5N1 viruses have occurred in Vietnam. Therefore, to understand the pathogenicity in mammals of these H5N1 viruses, we took viruses isolated from poultry (5 strains) and humans (2 strains) in Vietnam and tested their virulence in mice. The results showed that the H5N1 viruses from humans were pathogenic in mice and that one avian isolate was also pathogenic. These findings ... Read More »
» Published in J Vet Med Sci. 2006 Jul;68(7):735-7.

39. Characterization of the pathogenicity of members of the newly established H9N2 influenza virus lineages in Asia.
Match Strength: 7.230

The reported transmission of avian H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the isolation of these viruses from Hong Kong poultry markets lend urgency to studies of their ecology and pathogenicity. We found that H9N2 viruses from North America differ from those of Asia. The North American viruses, which infect primarily domestic turkeys, replicated poorly in inoculated chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes indicated that the Asian H9N2 influenza viruses could be divided into three sublineages. Initial biological characterization of at least one virus from ... Read More »
» Published in Virology. 2000 Feb 15;267(2):279-88.

40. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in cats and other carnivores.
Match Strength: 7.213

The Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a known pathogen of birds. Only recently, the virus has been reported to cause sporadic fatal disease in carnivores, and its zoonotic potential has been dominating the popular media. Attention to felids was drawn by two outbreaks with high mortality in tigers, leopards and other exotic felids in Thailand. Subsequently, domestic cats were found naturally infected and experimentally susceptible to H5N1 virus. A high susceptibility of the dog to H3N8 equine influenza A virus had been reported earlier, and recently also HPAI ... Read More »
» Published in Vet Microbiol. 2007 Jan 22;

41. Human infection by avian influenza A H5N1.
Match Strength: 7.118

The Southeast Asian outbreak of the highly lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infection in humans is unlikely to abate because of the enormous number of backyard farms providing poultry as the main source of food protein in developing countries. This increases the risk of the emergence of a reassortant pandemic influenza virus with improved human-to-human transmissibility. Currently triage of suspected cases by epidemiological risk factors remains the only practical way of case identification for laboratory investigation and infection control. The clinical usefulness of rapid diagnostic laboratory ... Read More »
» Published in Hong Kong Med J. 2005 Jun;11(3):189-99.

42. Avian influenza and human health.
Match Strength: 7.046

Natural infections with influenza A viruses have been reported in a variety of animal species including humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals, mustelids and birds. Occasionally devastating pandemics occur in humans. Although viruses of relatively few HA and NA subtype combinations have been isolated from mammalian species, all 15 HA subtypes and all 9 NA subtypes, in most combinations, have been isolated from birds.In the 20th century the sudden emergence of antigenically different strains transmissible in humans, termed antigenic shift, has occurred on four occasions, 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), ... Read More »
» Published in Acta Trop. 2002 Jul;83(1):1-6.

43. Occupational and consumer risks from avian influenza viruses.
Match Strength: 7.009

Sporadic human infections have been reported with a few select avian influenza (AI) viruses over the past 50 years. Most of the infections resulted from the H7N7 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) virus from The Netherlands (2003) and H5N1 HPAI viruses from several Asian countries (1997-2005). Epidemiological studies have identified direct exposure to infected poultry as the primary risk factor for human infection. In The Netherlands, veterinarians, cullers and poultry farmers had an occupational risk of infection through exposure to infected commercial poultry, and presented with conjunctivitis and ... Read More »
» Published in Dev Biol (Basel). 2006;124:85-90.

44. The Situation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Outbreaks in Turkey.
Match Strength: 6.936

The first avian influenza (AI) outbreak occurred on 5 October, 2005, in north-west Turkey. On 13 October 2005, the virus was confirmed as H5N1 in Weybridge CVL, AI-NDV Reference Laboratory. Based on genetic analysis of the NA gene, the virus showed a close similarity to A7 Great Black Headed Gull/Qinghai/1/05 (99.6 % identity). Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the recent central Asian and Turkey isolates. The HA gene of the Turkish isolate was most similar to A/Grebe/Novosbirsk/05 (98.7% identity), and the Turkish isolate has therefore direct relationship with recent Russia, ... Read More »
» Published in J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006 Dec;53(s1):34.

45. Immunogenicity and tolerability of an AS03(A)-adjuvanted prepandemic influenza vaccine: a phase III study in a large population of Asian adults.
Match Strength: 6.864

The immunogenicity and lot-to-lot consistency of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine were evaluated in 1206 Asian adults, randomised to receive two doses of adjuvanted (3.75 microg haemagglutinin) or diluent-mixed vaccines, 21 days apart. Post-Dose 2, 96.0% of vaccinees in the H5N1-AS03 group demonstrated a four-fold increase in neutralising antibody titres against the vaccine strain A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and 91.4% against strain A/Indonesia/05/2005. Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies (titre > or = 1:40) against A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and A/Indonesia/05/2005 strains were observed in 94.3% and 50.2 ... Read More »
» Published in Vaccine. 2009 Dec 9;27(52):7428-35. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

46. Characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry markets in central China.
Match Strength: 6.839

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have seriously affected the Asian poultry industry since their recurrence in 2003. While surveillance in southern China has revealed that H5N1 viruses underwent extensive genetic reassortment to generate many different viral genotype viruses, little is known concerning the genotypes of H5N1 virus that circulated in central China in recent years. In this study, 16 H5N1 influenza viruses were isolated from the poultry market in central China during late 2006 and early 2007, and the genotypes and pathogenicity of the viruses were identified ... Read More »
» Published in Virus Res. 2009 Dec;146(1-2):19-28. Epub 2009 Aug 29.

47. Heterosubtypic anti-avian H5N1 influenza antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulins from globally separate populations protect against H5N1 infection in cell culture.
Match Strength: 6.817

With antigenically novel epidemic and pandemic influenza strains persistently on the horizon it is of fundamental importance that we understand whether heterosubtypic antibodies gained from exposures to circulating human influenzas exist and can protect against emerging novel strains. Our studies of IVIG obtained from an infection-naive population (Australian) enabled us to reveal heterosubtypic influenza antibodies that cross react with H5N1. We now expand those findings for an Australian donor population to include IVIG formulations from a variety of northern hemisphere populations. ... Read More »
» Published in J Mol Genet Med. 2009 Dec 23;3(2):217-24.

48. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand.
Match Strength: 6.805

Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004-May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 virus in Thailand and abundance of free-grazing ducks and, to a lesser extent, native chickens, cocks, ... Read More »
» Published in Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Feb;12(2):227-34.

49. Study of drug resistance of chicken influenza A virus (H5N1) from homology-modeled 3D structures of neuraminidases.
Match Strength: 6.774

The spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in many Asian and European countries as well as its drug-resistance have raised serious worldwide concerns. In this paper, the structure-activity relationship between NA (neuraminidase) and its three inhibitors (DANA, zanamivir, and oseltamivir) was investigated. A homology model of H5N1-NA (BAE46950), which is the first reported oseltamivir-resistance virus strain, and the 108 homology-modeled 3D structures of chicken influenza H5N1 NAs downloaded from the website at , formed the molecular structural basis for the drug-resistance study. The ... Read More »
» Published in Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Mar 16;354(3):634-40. Epub 2007 Jan 19.

50. Influenza pandemics: past, present and future.
Match Strength: 6.714

Influenza A virus is well known for its capability for genetic changes either through antigen drift or antigen shift. Antigen shift is derived from reassortment of gene segments between viruses, and may result in an antigenically novel virus that is capable of causing a worldwide pandemic. As we trace backwards through the history of influenza pandemics, a repeating pattern can be observed, namely, a limited wave in the first year followed by global spread in the following year. In the 20th century alone, there were three overwhelming pandemics, in 1918, 1957 and 1968, caused by H1N1 (Spanish ... Read More »
» Published in J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Jan;105(1):1-6.

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