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Hydatidiform Mole
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1. The accuracy of first trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 24.044

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have examined ultrasound findings in histopathologically confirmed cases of hydatidiform mole. The aim of this study was to assess the first-trimester ultrasonographic findings in all women suspected of having hydatidiform mole on ultrasound and those subsequently diagnosed with hydatidiform mole after histological examination of removed products of conception after surgical evacuation of the uterus. The aim was to obtain a true sensitivity and positive predictive value for ultrasound in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was ... Read More »
» Published in Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan;29(1):70-5.

2. The accuracy of first trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 24.044

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have examined ultrasound findings in histopathologically confirmed cases of hydatidiform mole. The aim of this study was to assess the first-trimester ultrasonographic findings in all women suspected of having hydatidiform mole on ultrasound and those subsequently diagnosed with hydatidiform mole after histological examination of removed products of conception after surgical evacuation of the uterus. The aim was to obtain a true sensitivity and positive predictive value for ultrasound in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was ... Read More »
» Published in Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan;29(1):70-5.

3. Increased adenosine deaminase in hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 23.079

Background: The aim of the current study was to investigate levels of adenosine deaminase in plasma of patients with hydatidiform mole. Methods: Plasma adenosine deaminase levels were determined in 17 women with normal pregnant course, in 17 women with hydatidiform mole, and in 17 non-pregnant healthy volunteers. Results: Mean adenosine deaminase activity in the hydatidiform mole group was 121.5+/-24.8 U/L, significantly higher than in the pregnant control (7.8+/-6.5 U/L; p<0.0001) and non-pregnant control groups (6.4+/-7.4 U/L; p<0.0001). A cutoff level of 40.5 U/L was found, with both ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007 Jan;45(1):78-81.

4. Partial hydatidiform mole: clinicopathological features, differential diagnosis, ploidy and molecular studies, and gold standards for diagnosis.
Match Strength: 20.557

Partial hydatidiform mole is optimally diagnosed histopathologically when four microscopic features coexist: 1) two populations of villi, 2) enlarged villi (> or = 3-4 mm) with central captivation, 3) irregular villi with geographic, scalloped borders with trophoblast inclusions, and 4) trophoblast hyperplasia (usually focal and involving syncytiotrophoblast). Pathologic mimics of partial mole include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, placental angiomatous malformation, twin gestation with complete mole and existing fetus, early complete hydatidiform mole, and hydropic spontaneous abortion. ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2001 Oct;20(4):315-22.

5. Spontaneous acute subdural haemorrhage, cerebral and pulmonary metastases in a complete mole.
Match Strength: 19.775

Complete and partial moles remit spontaneously in most cases, following evacuation of the uterine cavity. However, either persistent trophoblastic disease or a frank trophoblastic tumour can follow a complete hydatidiform mole. To our knowledge, acute subdural haematoma, as a complication of cerebral metastases, following treatment for hydatidiform mole has not been reported. We describe a 29-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous acute subdural haemorrhage and pulmonary metastases, eight months after evacuation of a complete hydatidiform mole, with a fatal outcome ... Read More »
» Published in Singapore Med J. 2007 Jul;48(7):e186-9.

6. Total intravenous anesthesia for evacuation of a hydatidiform mole and termination of pregnancy in a patient with thyrotoxicosis.
Match Strength: 19.431

Clinical hyperthyroidism is found in approximately 5% of women with a hydatidiform mole, as human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by molar tissue is structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone. A hydatidiform mole occasionally presents with a co-existing viable fetus. Surgical evacuation may be indicated for significant hemorrhage or preeclampsia. Perioperative management in the presence of hyperthyroidism may be complicated by a thyroid storm. We report a case of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, combined with an esmolol infusion, to control sympathetic ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Obstet Anesth. 2007 Apr 23;

7. Recurrent gestational trophoblastic disease after hCG normalization following hydatidiform mole in The Netherlands.
Match Strength: 19.415

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk for recurrent trophoblastic disease after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in patients with hydatidiform mole and to determine the risk for tumor relapse after apparent remission following chemotherapy in patients with low- and high-risk persistent trophoblastic disease. METHODS: From 1994 until 2004, 355 patients with hydatidiform mole were registered at the Dutch Central Registry of Hydatidiform Mole and were monitored by sequential hCG assays in serum at the department of Chemical Endocrinology of the Radboud University ... Read More »
» Published in Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Jul;106(1):142-146. Epub 2007 Apr 26.

8. Partial hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 19.052

A case of partial hydatidiform mole is presented, occurring in a young primiparous woman after natural conception. She presented with incomplete miscarriage. Histological diagnosis of partial mole was made. Failure of beta HCG to fall resulted in the start of chemotherapy. WHO scoring placed her in low risk group. In spite of the low risk, she required third line chemotherapy for complete eradication of disease. Publication Types: Case ... Read More »
» Published in J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005 Jan;15(1):50-1.

9. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy.
Match Strength: 18.077

OBJECTIVE.: Hydatidiform mole can be classified by histopathologic characteristics and by genetic constitutions and most complete moles are diploid, whereas most partial moles are triploid. We investigated the concordance between these two classifications, characterized moles with conflicting classifications, and compared the ability of the two classifications to discriminate between patients with and without a substantial risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. METHODS.: 294 cases of consecutively collected hydropic placentas clinically suspected of hydatidiform mole made the basis of this ... Read More »
» Published in Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Feb;104(2):411-5. Epub 2006 Oct 2.

10. Postmenopausal complete hydatidiform mole: A case report.
Match Strength: 18.073

BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a disease with a course of trophoblastic proliferation, and histologically classified as partial hydatidiform mole, complete mole, invasive and metastatic mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Occurrence of GTN in postmenopausal women is rare. CASE: We report the case of a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with a complete mole. The patient was admitted to gynecology outpatient clinic with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for about 1 month. Ultrasound examination revealed enlargement of the uterus with ... Read More »
» Published in Maturitas. 2008 Jan 20;59(1):95-8. Epub 2007 Dec 26.

11. Correlation of c-erbB-2 oncogene and p53 tumor suppressor gene with malignant transformation of hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 17.180

AIM: Considering the roles of c-erB-2 and p53 oncoproteins in tumor progression, we aimed to evaluate their expression in hydatidiform moles, and the possible predictive value of this immunoexpression in postmolar follow-up. METHODS: Group I comprised 35 patients with progression to gestational trophoblastic tumor, and group II included 32 patients with progression to spontaneous remission. Immunohistochemical tests were performed by streptavidin-peroxidase method. c-erbB-2 immunoexpression was evaluated according to quantitative and semiquantitative criteria; p53 according to percentage of ... Read More »
» Published in J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006 Jun;32(3):265-72.

12. Management of postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease with methotrexate and folinic acid: 15 years of experience.
Match Strength: 17.082

OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) following hydatidiform mole and to evaluate the effectiveness of single-agent chemotherapy using methotrexate with folinic acid rescue. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of all cases of hydatidiform mole diagnosed and treated in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Medical College, Calicut, India, was started in June 1990 to determine the incidence of postmolar GTD and the effectiveness of single-agent chemotherapy with methotrexate and folinic acid in postmolar nonmetastatic GTD. RESULTS: For the 15 ... Read More »
» Published in J Reprod Med. 2006 Oct;51(10):835-40.

13. Routine pre-evacuation ultrasound diagnosis of hydatidiform mole: experience of more than 1000 cases from a regional referral center.
Match Strength: 16.939

OBJECTIVES: To examine the accuracy of sonographic findings of routine ultrasound examinations in patients with a proven histological diagnosis of complete or partial hydatidiform mole referred to a supra-regional referral center, and to examine the relationship of sonographic findings to gestational age across the first and early second trimesters. METHODS: Review of consecutive cases referred to a trophoblastic disease unit from June 2002 to January 2005 with a diagnosis of possible or probable hydatidiform mole in whom results of a pre-evacuation ultrasound examination were documented. ... Read More »
» Published in Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jan;27(1):56-60.

14. Acute onset of severe hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome in a patient with a partial hydatidiform mole at 17 weeks gestation.
Match Strength: 16.824

Preeclampsia is uncommon prior to 24 weeks gestation and has been associated with partial and complete hydatidiform moles. We present an unusual case in which a patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia at 17 weeks gestation. Ultrasound findings were consistent with a partial hydatidiform mole. Within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, the patient developed severe hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, with a platelet count of 20 x 10 (9) cells/L. Termination of pregnancy was performed with rapid resolution of signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities. Triploid ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Perinatol. 2006 Apr;23(3):163-6. Epub 2006 Mar 29.

15. Persistent trophoblast disease following partial molar pregnancy.
Match Strength: 16.657

OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) follow-up data were analysed retrospectively in all patients registered in the Hydatidiform Mole Registry at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne from January 1992 to January 2001 to determine the risk of persistent trophoblast disease following partial molar pregnancy and to review the present follow-up protocol of patients suffering from partial hydatidiform molar pregnancy (PHM). METHODS: Demographic factors were determined for all 344 cases with a review diagnosis of PHM, included age, history of previous hydatidiform mole, gestation length, ... Read More »
» Published in Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Apr;46(2):119-23. Erratum in: Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Jun;46(3):179. Wiesma, Sabien [corrected to Wielsma, Sabien].

16. Evaluation of the risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after twin pregnancy with diploid hydatidiform mole and coexisting normal fetus.
Match Strength: 16.250

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of persistent trophoblastic disease and obstetric complications related to a multiple pregnancy comprising a diploid hydatidiform mole and normal cofetus(es). STUDY DESIGN: From a database of 270 consecutively collected hydatidiform moles, 8 multiple and 154 singleton molar pregnancies were identified. Molar and fetal ploidy was determined, and data on clinical features and chemotherapy were collected. Differences between groups were assessed with Fisher's exact or Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The molar component in all 8 multiple ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul;197(1):45.e1-5.

17. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in pregnancies complicated by hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 16.191

PROBLEM: 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) plays an important role in regulating active glucocorticoid reaching the fetus. In normal pregnancy, placental 11beta-HSD functions primarily in oxidative direction. Placental tissue of patients with pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia exhibit significantly lower type 1 and 2 11beta-HSD activities and significantly high cortisol level in cord blood suggesting fetal exposure to higher level of active glucocorticoids. The activity of 11beta-HSD in gestational trophoblastic disease has not been determined. The objective of this study ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Reprod Immunol. 2006 Jun;55(6):415-9.

18. Hydatidiform mole and triploidy: the role of genomic imprinting in placental development.
Match Strength: 15.989

Genomic imprinting, the differential expression of paternal and maternal alleles, is involved in the regulation of embryonic and fetal growth and development. In this review, we focus on the genetics of a disorder caused by a global defect in genomic imprinting, the hydatidiform mole. The ratio between the maternal and paternal genomes is critical in determining the development of both the embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, with an excess of paternally derived chromosomes leading to a complete (no maternal genome) or partial (lower amount of maternal chromosomes) mole. The recent ... Read More »
» Published in Hum Reprod Update. 2005 Mar-Apr;11(2):137-42. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

19. Assessment of Her-2/neu expression in hydatidiform moles for prediction of subsequent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
Match Strength: 15.958

OBJECTIVE.: The aim of the present study was to asses the ability of Her-2/neu immunohistochemical staining of the molar tissue to predict the risk of developing gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). METHODS.: Sections prepared from 33 consecutive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival reconfirmed hydatidiform mole tissue blocks were immunohistochemically stained for Her-2/neu. The staining was scored according to the subjectively evaluated intensity of staining and the proportion of stained villous cytotrophoblastic cells. Clinical data were abstracted from medical files. RESULTS.: 23 ... Read More »
» Published in Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Nov 23;

20. Morphological, immunohistochemical and chromosome in situ hybridization in the differential diagnosis of Hydatidiform Mole and Hydropic Abortion.
Match Strength: 15.846

OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of histological, immunohistochemical and chromosome in situ hybridization (CISH) test in the differential diagnosis of Complete Hydatidiform Mole (CHM), Partial Hydatidiform Mole (PHM) and Hydropic Abortion (HA). STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the histological characteristics, p57(kip2) and Factor VIII expression and CISH test in 38 cases with some diagnostic concerns, comprising 13 CHM, 14 PHM and 11 HA. RESULTS: Our results indicate that p57(kip2) expression and the ploidy assessed by CISH were essential for the reclassification of 2 cases, one from CHM to PHM ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007 Jun 27;

21. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of blood vessels in complete and partial hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 15.810

OBJECTIVE: To assess 46 cases diagnosed as complete and partial hydatidiform mole in regard to their histopathologic aspects according to current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and to determine whether their immunohistochemical features are related to the presence of blood vessels. STUDY DESIGN: An observational, descriptive study was done on the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of 46 molar pregnancy cases seen at the Gynecological Pathology Department, Anatomopathological Institute, Central University of Venezuela, during 1990-2003. Data were obtained primarily from ... Read More »
» Published in J Reprod Med. 2006 Dec;51(12):933-7.

22. Clinical utility of hyperglycosylated hCG in serum taken before hydatidiform mole evacuation to predict persistent trophoblastic disease.
Match Strength: 15.747

OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is widely used in the management of hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). Studies on hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (invasive trophoblast antigen, ITA) in PTD are limited. In serum samples taken before evacuation of molar pregnancies we measured the concentrations of free hCG beta-subunit (free hCGbeta), "total" hCG (hCG+hCGbeta) and ITA, and determined whether ITA, the two other hCG analytes, or the calculated ratios of hCGbeta/hCG+hCGbeta, hCGbeta/ITA and hCG+hCGbeta/ITA could predict the later development ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Biol Markers. 2006 Jan-Mar;21(1):45-9.

23. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.
Match Strength: 15.613

Hydatidiform mole, a disorder of fertilization, comprises complete and partial molar pregnancy. The pathologic and clinical features of complete and partial mole are well-described. Because of earlier diagnosis, however, the clinical presentation of complete molar pregnancy has significantly changed in recent years. The earlier diagnosis of complete mole is associated with more subtle pathologic findings than later molar pregnancy. The use of immunohistochemical techniques for the detection of maternally imprinted genes as ancillary testing in the diagnosis of complete and partial mole is ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Mar;50(1):112-122.

24. Guidelines following hydatidiform mole: a reappraisal.
Match Strength: 15.523

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine how often patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) who spontaneously achieve normal human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels subsequently develop persistent or recurrent gestational trophoblast disease. METHODS: Four hundred and fourteen cases of CHM registered at the Hydatidiform Mole Registry of Victoria were reviewed retrospectively after molar evacuation. Maternal age, gestational age, gravidity and parity were determined for each patient, as well as the need for chemotherapy. RESULTS: Among the 414 patients, 55 (13.3%) required ... Read More »
» Published in Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Apr;46(2):112-8. Erratum in: Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Jun;46(3):179. Wiesma, Sabien [corrected to Wielsma, Sabien].

25. Persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after partial hydatidiform mole incidence and outcome.
Match Strength: 15.434

OBJECTIVE: To report the Sheffield experience with persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and to review worldwide experience. METHODS: All PHMs registered at the Sheffield Trophoblast Centre between 1991 and 2004 were included in this retrospective study. Any case of PHM leading to persistent GTN was reviewed centrally by an expert gynecologic pathologist. Clinical features, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: During the 14-year study period 3189 PHMs were registered. Forty-one developed persistent GTN. Central histopathology review ... Read More »
» Published in J Reprod Med. 2006 Oct;51(10):764-6.

26. Partial molar pregnancy and coexisting fetus with diploid karyotype.
Match Strength: 15.426

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cases of partial hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus, including an observation of our own, and to discuss the proper antenatal management of women wishing to continue with a partial molar pregnancy. METHOD: A PubMed search was then undertaken, extending over the time period from 1975 to 2006, using the keywords 'partial hydratidiform mole', 'hydatidiform mole' and 'coexisting fetus'. RESULTS: At 16 weeks of gestation, an ultrasonographic examination revealed a normal fetus with an extremely large, multicystic placenta. The woman was informed of future risks ... Read More »
» Published in J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Feb;20(2):175-81.

27. Clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole in Northern Italy: Has it changed in the last 20 years?
Match Strength: 15.260

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the current clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole changed in the recent years compared with an historic group. STUDY DESIGN: We retrieved 500 patients from our database. We compared the clinical presentation of 189 cases followed-up between 1992-2004 ("later" group) with that of a previous series of 311 patients ("earlier" group, 1970-1982). A Pearson chi(2) test was performed analyzing the following variables: uterine volume, ovarian cysts, vaginal bleeding, hyperemesis, preeclampsia, and maternal age; we considered P < .05 to ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan 4

28. Analysis of the chromosomal region 19q13.4 in two Chinese families with recurrent hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 15.130

BACKGROUND: Familial recurrent hydatidiform mole is an extremely rare autosomal recessive condition in which affected individuals have a predisposition to molar pregnancies that are diploid but biparental, rather than androgenetic, in origin. A gene for this condition has been previously mapped to a 1.1 Mb region of chromosome 19q13.4. However, investigation of further families is needed to refine the location of the specific gene(s) involved. METHODS: We have recently identified two novel Chinese families in which four affected women had recurrent pregnancy loss including 14 complete ... Read More »
» Published in Hum Reprod. 2006 Feb;21(2):536-41. Epub 2005 Oct 20.

29. Differential expression profiling of genes in a complete hydatidiform mole using cDNA microarray analysis.
Match Strength: 14.550

OBJECTIVES: To gain a better understanding of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic diseases, we evaluated the genome-wide expression levels of genes in complete hydatidiform mole (H-mole) as compared to normal placenta using cDNA microarray technique. METHODS: The expression profiles of complete H-mole tissues were compared with those of normal placenta using cDNA microarray technique. The data obtained from 10,305 human genes were normalized by the print-tip-based LOWESS method. Significance analysis of microarray (SAM) was used to identify genes with ... Read More »
» Published in Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Nov;103(2):654-60. Epub 2006 Jun 22.

30. Differential diagnosis between complete and partial mole using a TSSC3 antibody: correlation with DNA polymorphic marker analysis.
Match Strength: 14.477

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of maternally expressed, imprinted genes for the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and partial hydatidiform mole (PHM). STUDY DESIGN: Expression patterns of imprinted genes in CHM were validat ed by microarray analysis. Twenty CHMs and 10 PHMs were then subjected to Western blot analysis and immunostaining with appropriate antibodies. RESULTS: TSSC3 (also known as PHLDA2, IPL), SLC22A1L, KCNQ1 and decorin were shown to be down-regulated, with the suppression of TSSC3 most marked. In all 20 CHM cases for which the diagnosis had been ... Read More »
» Published in J Reprod Med. 2006 Nov;51(11):861-7.

31. Natural history of an untreated presumed hydatidiform mole: a case report.
Match Strength: 14.372

BACKGROUND: Hydatidiform moles (HMs) usually are evacuated by dilation and curettage soon after diagnosis. A small percentage of HMs later progress to choriocarcinomas. CASE: A 20-year-old woman presented with signs and symptoms of an HM. Through poor medical care, noncompliance and misunderstanding, she delayed dilation and curettage for 3 months, until after the condition regressed spontaneously. CONCLUSION: HMs masquerading as miscarriages (or other pregnancy outcomes) may account for some rogue choriocarcinomas that do not appear to follow HMs ... Read More »
» Published in J Reprod Med. 2006 Aug;51(8):659-61.

32. Choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic disease.
Match Strength: 14.344

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) encompasses a unique group of uncommon but interrelated conditions derived from placental trophoblasts. For the purposes of discussion GTD is the appropriate collective name for hydatidiform mole, whereas the term gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is reserved for cases with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) titer elevation after evacuation of hydatidiform mole, metastatic disease, or choriocarcinoma. Although the pathology and clinical behavior of CM and PM are different, the initial management of both conditions is surgical ... Read More »
» Published in Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2005 Dec;32(4):661-84.

33. Diagnosis of hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease: diagnostic accuracy of total human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), free hCG {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits, and their ratios.
Match Strength: 14.320

OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is widely used in the management of hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). Predicting PTD after molar pregnancy might be beneficial since prophylactic chemotherapy reduces the incidence of PTD. DESIGN: A retrospective study based on blood specimens collected in the Dutch Registry for Hydatidiform Moles. A group of 165 patients with complete moles (of which 43 had PTD) and 39 patients with partial moles (of which 7 had PTD) were compared with 27 pregnant women with uneventful pregnancy. METHODS: Serum samples from patients ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Oct;153(4):565-75.

34. Defective placentation and resultant oxidative stress play a similar role in complete hydatidiform mole to that in preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss.
Match Strength: 14.278

Defective placentation and resultant oxidative stress are believed to be largely responsible for preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. In experiments to test the hypothesis that these factors may also be important in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). CHM cases were found to have significantly higher levels of mean total peroxide, mean oxidative stress index, protein carbonyls and endogenous DNA damage, and lower levels of total antioxidant potential and thiols compared with healthy pregnant patients, pointing to a role for oxidative stress in the condition. Whether this role is primary, ... Read More »
» Published in Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(1):100-2. Epub 2005 Sep 19.

35. Distribution of the alleles at loci D16S539, D7S820, and D13S317 in hydatidiform mole genome from Chinese women and its relationship with clinical prognosis.
Match Strength: 14.180

Using polymerase chain reaction and denaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic techniques, we studied 53 cases of hydatidiform moles. Of these, 41 cases were genetically complete hydatidiform moles (g-CHM) whose genome were totally paternally derived. We investigated the distribution of the alleles in the short tandem repeat sequences at loci D16S539, D7S820, and D13S317 in these cases. In particular, we analyzed the allelic distribution and potential significance in cases with traceable benign and invasive moles (i.e., persistent trophoblastic tumor [PTT]). Among 41 g-CHM cases, there ... Read More »
» Published in Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006 Jan 15;164(2):133-6.

36. Recurrent partial hydatidiform mole: a report of a patient with three consecutive molar pregnancies.
Match Strength: 14.172

Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and is characterized by atypical hyperplastic trophoblasts and hydropic villi. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a patient with three consecutive partial HMs without normal pregnancy. A 28-year-old woman with gravida 3, para 0, was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of an invasive mole in December 2003. She had three consecutive molar pregnancies in 2000, 2001, and 2003. All three molar pregnancies were evacuated by suction curettage and the patient was followed by serial ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):940-3.

37. IGF-II regulates metastatic properties of choriocarcinoma cells through the activation of the insulin receptor.
Match Strength: 14.045

Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor that can arise from trophoblasts of any type of gestational event but most often from complete hydatidiform mole. IGF-II plays a fundamental role in placental development and may play a role in gestational trophoblastic diseases. Several studies have shown that IGF-II is expressed at high levels in hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma tissues; however, conflicting data exist on how IGF-II regulates the behaviour of choriocarcinoma cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the receptors for IGF-I and insulin to the ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Hum Reprod. 2007 Jun 6;

38. Mutations in Nalp7 Cause Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles and Reproductive Wastage in Humans
Match Strength: 13.800

Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy with no embryo and cystic degeneration of placental villi. We report five mutations in the maternal gene NALP7 in individuals with familial and recurrent HMs. NALP7 is a member of the CATERPILLER protein family involved in inflammation and apoptosis. NALP7 is the first maternal effect gene identified in humans and is also responsible for recurrent spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and intrauterine growth retardation ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Genet. 2006 Mar;38(3):300-2. Epub 2006 Feb 5. Comment In: Nat Genet. 2006 Mar;38(3):274-6.

39. Twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and surviving co-existent fetus.
Match Strength: 13.704

INTRODUCTION: Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and co-existent fetus (CHMF) resulting in a healthy take-home baby is rare, with only 30 cases documented in detail in the literature. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old woman conceived following two cycles of ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Successive ultrasound examinations demonstrated a normally growing live fetus alongside a normal placenta and an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of hydatidiform mole. At 17 week gestation, serum beta-hCG level was 25.38 multiples of the median. Genetic amniocentesis at ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008 Feb 14

40. Complete hydatidiform mole and normal live birth following intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Match Strength: 13.088

A twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole (HM) and preterm birth of a normal female infant after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) conception was experienced. ICSI due to severe oligozoospermia was performed on three ova, and three embryos with confirmed two proneclei (2PN) were subsequently transferred to the uterus. At 7 weeks of gestation, molar pregnancy as well as a viable fetus was recognized. At 33 weeks, the pregnancy was terminated due to preterm labor. Dichorionic pregnancy consisting of a normal fetus and placenta in one chorionic membrane and complete HM in the other ... Read More »
» Published in J Hum Genet. 2006;51(5):477-9. Epub 2006 Mar 17.

41. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and mutant p53 is increased in hydatidiform mole as compared with normal placenta.
Match Strength: 13.016

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are group of enzymes thought to play an important role in trophoblastic and tumor invasion. The aim of our study was to investigate the trophoblastic expression of MMPs and p53 in normal trophoblast and hydatidiform moles (HM). Paraffin sections of 45 specimens, including 14 complete hydatidiform moles (CM), 15 partial hydatidiform moles (PM), 8 atypical partial hydatidiform moles (aPM), and 8 controls were selected. Classification of HM was established on histologic criteria and supported by the DNA ploidy results. Tissue sections from each case were ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1679-84.

42. Extravillus endovascular implantation site trophoblast invasion is abnormal in complete versus partial molar pregnancies.
Match Strength: 12.993

This study examines endovascular trophoblast invasion in pregnancies complicated by complete hydatidiform mole (CM), partial hydatidiform mole (PM) and non-molar abortions (HA). Two hundred consecutive cases from a supra-regional referral centre for suspected trophoblastic disease were examined histologically with particular regard to the presence or absence of endovascular trophoblast invasion of decidual vessels. There were 57 CM, 75 PM and 68 HA. The prevalence of normal endovascular invasion of decidual vessels was significantly lower in CM compared to all other clinical groups, amongst ... Read More »
» Published in Placenta. 2001 Sep-Oct;22(8-9):725-8.

43. Shortened duration of human chorionic gonadotrophin surveillance following complete or partial hydatidiform mole: evidence for revised protocol of a UK regional trophoblastic disease unit.
Match Strength: 12.975

Following hydatidiform mole, women are at increased risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (pGTN) and are therefore monitored using serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentration measurements. We retrospectively evaluated the policy of extended (2 year) follow up for women with hCG concentrations returning to normal >56 days after evacuation. Of 6701 women registered for hCG follow up, 422 (6%) developed pGTN, 412 (98%) of these women presented within 6 months after evacuation. Three developed pGTN at 402, 677 and 1267 days after evacuation following spontaneous ... Read More »
» Published in BJOG. 2007 Jun;114(6):760-2.

44. Complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting dichorionic diamniotic twins following testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Match Strength: 12.648

We present the first report of complete hydatidiform mole (HM) with coexisting dichorionic diamniotic twins. This pregnancy was achieved after testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for azoospermia in the woman's husband. Standard in vitro fertilization may cause multisperm fertilization and increase triploid partial HM and complete HM, which arise from dispermic fertilization. In contrast, ICSI can avoid multisperm fertilization. In our case, paternal isodisomy in the molar tissue was confirmed by microsatellite analysis suggesting that it resulted from ... Read More »
» Published in J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008 Feb;34(1):121-4.

45. P57kip2 immunohistochemical expression and ultrastructural findings of gestational trophoblastic disease and related disorders.
Match Strength: 12.462

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a unique spectrum of diseases ranging from complete hydatidiform mole (CHM), partial hydatidiform mole (PHM), and invasive mole (IM) to choriocarcinoma (CC). Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) have been classified as related disorders. Mesenchymal dysplasia (MD) may be misdiagnosed as PHM; however, it is said to have a quite different histogenesis from PHM. P57kip2 is the protein product of a paternally imprinted or maternal gene that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), thus serving to inhibit cell ... Read More »
» Published in Med Mol Morphol. 2007 Jun;40(2):95-102. Epub 2007 Jun 18.

46. Prenatal diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies complicated by a co-existing molar pregnancy.
Match Strength: 12.293

Recent advances in ultrasound and molecular genetics have increased our understanding and hence enhanced the perinatal management of complete and partial hydatidiform mole. By contrast, the management of a twin pregnancy combining a normal pregnancy with a normal fetus and a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) remains complex and controversial due to conflicting data from different parts of the world. The aim of this review is to analyse the international literature on twin pregnancies that include a mole, present the complications and outcome of pregnancy and to discuss the perinatal management. ... Read More »
» Published in Prenat Diagn. 2005 Sep;25(9):772-6. Comment in: Prenat Diagn. 2006 Apr;26(4):373.

47. Conception without the development of a human being.
Match Strength: 12.185

Abstract Conception sometimes results in products that are not capable of developing into an embryo and fetus. This group, designated with the term gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, comprises the benign hydatidiform mole, the invasive mole (chorioadenoma destruens) and the frankly malignant variety, choriocarcinoma. Another type of atypical oocyte activation occurs in parthenogenesis. In the human, two types of tumors, dermoid cysts and teratomas, are believed to result from this process. We elucidate the generation of these abnormal growths and provide explanations as to why they cannot be ... Read More »
» Published in J Perinat Med. 2008 Jan 23

48. Severe hyperthyroidism requiring therapeutic plasmapheresis in a patient with hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 12.051

A 38-year-old woman had a 4-week history of vaginal bleeding, heat intolerance and palpitations. Levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and thyroid hormones were abnormally high. After ultrasound diagnosis of a molar pregnancy, evacuation of the mole was planned with preoperative treatment involving the use of antithyroid drugs and plasmapheresis. Plasmapheresis was used to prepare for surgery in our patient who needed more rapid hormonal control. In conclusion, early diagnosis of molar pregnancy results in decreased incidence of significant complications related to hyperthyroidism. ... Read More »
» Published in Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006 Jul;22(7):402-4.

49. Multiplex short tandem repeat DNA analysis confirms the accuracy of p57(KIP2) immunostaining in the diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole.
Match Strength: 11.998

Detailed histopathologic examination remains to be the basis for the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole (HM). However, poor sampling, necrosis, and earlier uterine evacuation can lead to uncertainty in the diagnosis. Also, the criteria are subjective, resulting in considerable interobserver variability. The p57(KIP2) gene is paternally imprinted and maternally expressed, and the presence of its protein product serves as a surrogate marker for the nuclear maternal genome. Because a complete HM (CHM) is the only type of conceptus lacking a maternal contribution, p57(KIP2) immunostaining is ... Read More »
» Published in Hum Pathol. 2006 Nov;37(11):1426-34. Epub 2006 Aug 10.

50. A case of a hydatidiform mole in a 56-year-old woman.
Match Strength: 11.845

A case of a 56-year-old woman with a mole pregnancy and a human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-induced thyreotoxicosis is presented. A proper diagnosis was only made after a period of patient and doctor's delay. After performing a hysterectomy, the HCG quickly normalized. Thyroid function normalized with thiamazol treatment. It is well known that older women have a higher risk to develop gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Furthermore, the chance of persistent trophoblastic disease is increased in this population. The literature on risk factors for developing persistent GTD and the ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005 Jan-Feb;15(1):163-6.

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