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Hospital Infections
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1. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in sporadic cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Northern Italy.
Match Strength: 7.404

Surveillance of norovirus infections in sporadic cases of pediatric gastroenteritis admitted to a main hospital in Northern Italy during a full-year period (2002) showed that noroviruses (10.4%) were the second most common causative viral agent, following rotaviruses (21.1%), and noroviruses (81%) were mostly implicated in mixed infections. The epidemic period of norovirus was September-December, with September and November as months of major prevalence (33.3 and 38.5%, respectively). Six distinct norovirus genotypes were detected (GI.7, GII.1, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, GII, not assigned named GIIb ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Virol. 2006 Nov;78(11):1486-92.

2. Five-year surveillance of nosocomial infections in Ankara Training and Research Hospital.
Match Strength: 7.097

The objective of this study was to assess the rate of nosocomial infections (NIs), frequency of nosocomial pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility changes in a 530-bed hospital over a five-year period. Hospital-wide laboratory-based NI surveillance was performed prospectively between 1999 and 2003. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions were used for NIs and nosocomial surgical site infections, and NI rates were calculated by the number of NIs per number of hospitalized patients on an annual basis. NI rates ranged between 1.4% and 2.4%. Higher rates were observed in ... Read More »
» Published in J Hosp Infect. 2006 Dec;64(4):391-6. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

3. Emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hawaii, 2001-2003.
Match Strength: 6.973

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a retrospective study to determine trends and characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Hawaii. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients with MRSA infections during July 2001-June 2003 in four healthcare facilities. A case was defined as a patient with MRSA infection (colonization excluded), diagnosed in ambulatory settings or ... Read More »
» Published in J Infect. 2006 Sep 18;

4. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: an increasing problem.
Match Strength: 6.773

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. Treatment of invasive infections caused by this organism is difficult as the bacterium is frequently resistant to a wide range of commonly used antimicrobials. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP - SXT) is recommended as the agent of choice for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections. However, the development of resistance to this antibiotic represents a real challenge to laboratorians and clinicians.This letter describes the first isolation of S. maltophilia resistant to TMP - SXT from ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006 Sep 18;5:23.

5. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru.
Match Strength: 6.564

There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of ... Read More »
» Published in Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202(11):767-75. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

6. Active screening in high-risk units is an effective and cost-avoidant method to reduce the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the hospital.
Match Strength: 6.016

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of active screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on MRSA infection rates and cost avoidance in units where the risk of MRSA transmission is high. METHODS: During a 15-month period, all patients admitted to our adult medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) were screened for MRSA nasal carriage on admission and weekly thereafter. The overall rates of all MRSA infections and of nosocomial MRSA infection in the 2 adult ICUs and the general wards were compared with rates during the 15-month period prior to the start of routine ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):1009-17. Epub 2006 Sep 20. Comment in: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):999-1003.

7. Changes in the epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with the emergence of EMRSA-16 at a university hospital.
Match Strength: 5.430

This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the University Hospital of the Canary Islands (HUC) in order to evaluate epidemiological changes over a six-year period. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected between May 2000 and December 2003, and isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing and spa typing. Since 2000, the rate of MRSA infections has increased at the HUC, coinciding with the emergence and spread of the EMRSA-16 clone (ST36-MRSA-II) and ... Read More »
» Published in J Hosp Infect. 2006 Nov;64(3):257-63. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

8. Human papillomavirus type distribution in cervical cancer in Delhi, India.
Match Strength: 5.209

This hospital-based study in New Delhi, North India was performed to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cases of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). A total of 10 cases presenting with an obvious cervical growth were included in this study. 108 cases that was shown to be ICC on histology (101 squamous cell carcinomas, 4 adenocarcinomas, and one neuroendocrine carcinoma) were included in the analysis. DNA was extracted from tumor tissue and HPV genotype was determined by a consensus PCR assay using a reverse line blot hybridization assay. Of 106 evaluable cases, 104 (98.1%) ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006 Oct;25(4):398-402.

9. Common reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes.
Match Strength: 5.142

OBJECTIVE: To determine reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of hospital discharges in the state of Georgia for the years 1998 through 2001 that contained either a primary or a coexisting diagnosis of diabetes. With use of the Clinical Classification Software of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the principal diagnoses among diabetes-related hospital discharges were organized into diagnostic categories. RESULTS: Diabetes was listed as a diagnosis in 14% of all Georgia hospital discharges of adult ... Read More »
» Published in Endocr Pract. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):363-70.

10. Community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococccus aureus as the cause of healthcare-associated infection.
Match Strength: 4.813

OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients with community-associated infection have been described as strains genetically distinct from the strains isolated from patients with healthcare-associated infection. This study examines the hypothesis that community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains now cause serious infections in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Thirty-seven clinical MRSA isolates were randomly selected from blood isolates obtained from July 2003 through June 2004. Strains were tested for staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):1051-6. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

11. Ventricular peritoneal shunt infection resulting from group B streptococcus.
Match Strength: 4.763

OBJECTIVE: To report, to our knowledge, the first case of a ventricular peritoneal shunt infection by group B streptococcus occurring in infancy. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary referral military hospital. PATIENT: A 3-month-old, former preterm infant with a case of postoperative ventricular peritoneal shunt infection by group B streptococcus occurring in infancy. INTERVENTIONS: The infant's shunt infection was treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics, shunt removal, and eventual shunt replacement. He developed a persistently enlarging ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov;7(6):586-8.

12. Susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin as a guide to treating pseudomonas ocular infections.
Match Strength: 4.583

PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ocular infections most frequently originate from an environmental source; successful treatment with various ocular antibiotics is well established. However, emergence of resistant clones to available antibiotics poses a real threat to successful treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities of 100 random clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin, potential agents for the treatment of ocular infections caused by this microorganism. METHODS: One hundred consecutive strains of P. ... Read More »
» Published in Eye Contact Lens. 2006 Sep;32(5):240-4.

13. Predictive values of triage temperature and pulse for antibiotic administration and hospital admission in elderly patients with potential infection.
Match Strength: 4.538

To determine how well triage temperature and pulse abnormalities in elderly patients with potential infections predict antibiotic administration and hospital admission. Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey (2001-2002), a sample of US emergency departments, were used. Patients (>or=65 years) with a reason for visit suggesting potential infection were included. Of 10,586 patients 65 years or older, 32% had reasons for visit suggesting potential infection. The negative predictive value for predicting intensive care unit admission (n = 154) for triage hyperthermia (temperature ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Oct;24(6):679-83.

14. Comparison of multiplex PCR assays and conventional techniques for the diagnostic of respiratory virus infections in children admitted to hospital with an acute respiratory illness.
Match Strength: 3.949

The performances of four multiplex PCR (m-PCR) were compared to direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and HuH7 cell culture for the detection of viruses in 263 children admitted to hospital with an acute respiratory illness. One hundred fifty (57.6%) nasal aspirates were found DFA-positive; 188 (72.3%) were found positive by both DFA and HuH7 cell culture, and 242 (92%) were PCR-positive. The m-PCR detected 124 viruses which were not found by conventional methods: 68 rhinovirus, 17 human metapneumovirus, 15 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 8 parainfluenza virus (PIV), 5 coronavirus 229E, 3 ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Virol. 2006 Nov;78(11):1498-504.

15. Care outcomes in long-term care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Does ownership matter?
Match Strength: 3.919

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether for-profit (FP) versus not-for-profit (NP) ownership of long-term care facilities resulted in a difference in hospital admission and mortality rates among facility residents in British Columbia, Canada. RESEARCH DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study used administrative data on all residents of British Columbia long-term care facilities between April 1, 1996, and August 1, 1999 (n = 43,065). Hospitalizations were examined for 6 diagnoses (falls, pneumonia, anemia, dehydration, urinary tract infection, and decubitus ulcers and/or gangrene), which are ... Read More »
» Published in Med Care. 2006 Oct;44(10):929-35.

16. An oxidation-sensing mechanism is used by the global regulator MgrA in Staphylococcus aureus.
Match Strength: 3.270

Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen responsible for most wound and hospital-acquired infections. The protein MgrA is both an important virulence determinant during infection and a regulator of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The crystal structure of the MgrA homodimer, solved at 2.86 A, indicates the presence of a unique cysteine residue located at the interface of the protein dimer. We discovered that this cysteine residue can be oxidized by various reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxide. Cysteine oxidation leads to dissociation of MgrA from DNA ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Chem Biol. 2006 Nov;2(11):591-5. Epub 2006 Sep 17.

17. Food groups and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter case-control study in Italy.
Match Strength: 2.948

The role of diet, except for alcohol drinking and aflatoxin contamination, in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Italy in 1999-2002, including 185 incident, histologically-confirmed cases of HCC. Controls were 412 subjects admitted to hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic diseases unrelated to diet. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional multiple logistic regression, adjusting for ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Cancer. 2006 Dec 15;119(12):2916-21.

18. Impact of inactive empiric antimicrobial therapy on inpatient mortality and length of stay.
Match Strength: 2.835

The consequences of inactive empiric antimicrobial therapy are not well-described and may cause prolonged hospitalization or infection-related mortality. In vitro susceptibility results for 884 patients hospitalized at an academic medical center with gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBI) from 2001 to 2003 were matched to antimicrobial orders within 24 h of culture. Clinical characteristics, organism, inpatient mortality, and length of stay after culture for patients with GNBI were compared between patients receiving active versus inactive empiric antimicrobial therapy. A total of 14.1% ... Read More »
» Published in Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Oct;50(10):3355-60.

19. Interobserver reliability of radiologists' interpretations of mobile chest radiographs for nursing home-acquired pneumonia.
Match Strength: 2.703

OBJECTIVES: To determine the interobserver reliability of radiologists' interpretations of mobile chest radiographs for nursing home-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional reliability study. SETTING: Nursing homes and an acute care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Four radiologists reviewed 40 mobile chest radiographs obtained from residents of nursing homes who met a clinical definition of lower respiratory tract infections. MEASUREMENTS: Radiologists were asked to interpret radiographs with respect to the film quality; presence, pattern, and extent of an infiltrate; and the presence of a ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2006 Sep;7(7):416-9. Epub 2006 May 30. Comment in: J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2006 Sep;7(7):467-9.

20. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and antibiotic use in German intensive care units: data from Project SARI (Surveillance of Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in German Intensive Care Units).
Match Strength: 2.560

Risk factors for the selection of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were analysed by correlating antimicrobial use and structure parameters (e.g. hospital type) with the incidence density of S. maltophilia and the percentage of S. maltophilia isolated from 39 intensive care units (ICUs). SARI (Surveillance of Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in German Intensive Care Units) is a prospective unit- and laboratory-based surveillance system that collects data on the 13 most important organisms responsible for nosocomial infections. The percentage of S. maltophilia among these organisms and ... Read More »
» Published in J Hosp Infect. 2006 Nov;64(3):238-43. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

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