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Gas Poisoning
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1. Storm-related carbon monoxide poisoning: lessons learned from recent epidemics.
Match Strength: 8.299

Over the past 15 years, a number of epidemics of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning related to various storms have been reported. While the geographical location of these outbreaks and the types of storms involved has been diverse, review of the events reveals a number of common factors and themes. This paper summarizes the details of 9 published reports describing CO poisoning associated with 11 different storms. When common patterns were examined, five "lessons to be learned" from the experience were derived. They are (1) loss of electrical power can lead indirectly to carbon monoxide poisoning, ... Read More »
» Published in Undersea Hyperb Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;33(4):257-63.

2. Munchausen syndrome by proxy caused by ipecac poisoning.
Match Strength: 7.758

OBJECTIVE: To present a case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy caused by ipecac poisoning to increase the awareness of their warning signs and symptoms so that they may be recognized and diagnosed earlier. CASE: Report of one case of a child who was determined to be a victim of Munchausen syndrome by proxy by ipecac poisoning who was hospitalized multiple times over a 4-year period at 2 different hospitals before an accurate diagnosis was made. Publication Types: Case ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006 Sep;22(9):655-6.

3. Treatment of poisoning caused by beta-adrenergic and calcium-channel blockers.
Match Strength: 6.320

PURPOSE: The toxic effects and treatment of beta-adrenergic blocker and calcium-channel blocker (CCB) overdose are reviewed. SUMMARY: Overdoses with cardiovascular drugs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Beta-blockers and CCBs represent the most important classes of cardiovascular drugs. In overdose, beta-blockers and CCBs have similar presentation and treatment overlaps and are often refractory to standard resuscitation measures. The common feature of beta-blocker toxicity is excessive blockade of the beta-receptors resulting in bradycardia and hypotension. Poisoning by ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Oct 1;63(19):1828-35.

4. Comparison of oral and i.v. acetylcysteine in the treatment of acetaminophen poisoning.
Match Strength: 4.148

PURPOSE: The efficacy, safety, and cost issues that should be considered when deciding on the appropriate route of acetylcysteine for the treatment of patients with acetaminophen poisoning are reviewed. SUMMARY: Oral and i.v. acetylcysteine appear to be equally effective when given within 8-10 hours of acetaminophen overdose. Anaphylactoid reactions to i.v. acetylcysteine have generally been reported in 3-6% of acetaminophen-poisoned patients. Dosing errors and hyponatremia have occurred in pediatric patients receiving i.v. acetylcysteine. Several investigators found an increased rate of ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Oct 1;63(19):1821-7.

5. Pretreatment with pyridinium oximes improves antidotal therapy against tabun poisoning.
Match Strength: 4.120

Oximes K033 [1,4-bis(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) butane dibromide] and K048 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide] were tested as pretreatment drugs in tabun-poisoned mice followed by treatment with atropine plus K033, K048, K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide], TMB-4 [1,3-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and HI-6 [(1-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane dichloride)]. Oxime doses of 25% or 5% of its LD(50) were used for pretreatment 15 min ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicology. 2006 Nov 10;228(1):41-50. Epub 2006 Aug 18.

6. Human paraoxonase: A promising approach for pre-treatment and therapy of organophosphorus poisoning.
Match Strength: 3.997

The limited efficiency of medical countermeasures against poisoning by nerve agent justifies efforts to find new prophylactic means and new antidotes. The concept of bioscavengers has emerged as an alternative approach to pharmacological pre- and post-exposure treatments. Catalytic scavengers are enzymes displaying a turnover with OPs as substrates, allowing rapid and efficient protection using administration of small doses. Several reasons have endorsed human paraoxonase (PON1) to be a pertinent candidate as catalytic bioscavenger. The physiological function of PON1 has not yet been ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicology. 2006 Sep 3;

7. Cholinergic receptor-independent dysfunction of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP depletion underlie necrotic cell death induced by the organophosphate poison mevinphos.
Match Strength: 3.961

Our current understanding of the nature of cell death that is associated with fatal organophosphate poisoning and the underlying cellular mechanisms is surprisingly limited. Taking advantage of the absence in an in vitro system of acetylcholinesterase, the pharmacological target of organophosphate compounds, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that the repertoire of cholinergic receptor-independent cellular events that underlie fatal organophosphate poisoning entails induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, followed by bioenergetic failure that leads to necrotic cell death because of ATP ... Read More »
» Published in Neuropharmacology. 2006 Dec;51(7-8):1109-19. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

8. Extrapolating from animal studies to the efficacy in humans of a pretreatment combination against organophosphate poisoning.
Match Strength: 3.655

The extrapolation from animal data to therapeutic effects in humans, a basic pharmacological issue, is especially critical in studies aimed to estimate the protective efficacy of drugs against nerve agent poisoning. Such efficacy can only be predicted by extrapolation of data from animal studies to humans. In pretreatment therapy against nerve agents, careful dose determination is even more crucial than in antidotal therapy, since excessive doses may lead to adverse effects or performance decrements. The common method of comparing dose per body weight, still used in some studies, may lead to ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Toxicol. 2006 Sep 29;

9. Benzene exposure in the shoemaking industry in China, a literature survey, 1978-2004.
Match Strength: 3.251

This article presents a summary of benzene exposure levels in the shoemaking industry in China reported in the Chinese medical literature between 1978 and 2004. A comprehensive search identified 182 papers reporting such exposure data. These papers could be classified into two categories: benzene poisoning case reports and industrial hygiene surveys. From each paper, the following information was abstracted whenever available: location and year of occurrence, occupation and/or task involved, benzene content in adhesives/solvents, work environment, working conditions, working hours, diagnosis, ... Read More »
» Published in Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;46(2):149-56. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

10. Clinical presentation and management of moxidectin toxicity in two dogs.
Match Strength: 3.041

Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone related to ivermectin used in horses and dogs for endoparasite treatment and prophylaxis. The clinical and neurological presentation of moxidectin toxicity in two dogs following inadvertent poisoning with a moxidectin-containing equine de-worming medication is reported here. In both the dogs, the predominant clinical signs were generalised tremors and ataxia. Moxidectin exerts its neurotoxic effects in mammals by potentiating the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid and, consistent with this, both the dogs demonstrated a poor response to treatment with diazepam ... Read More »
» Published in J Small Anim Pract. 2006 Oct;47(10):620-4.

11. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic and high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopic studies of benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111).
Match Strength: 2.716

Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) have been used in combination for the first time to study a catalytic reaction. These techniques have been able to identify surface intermediates in situ during benzene hydrogenation on a Pt(111) single-crystal surface at Torr pressures. In a background of 10 Torr of benzene, STM is able to image small ordered regions corresponding to the c(2 radical3 x 3)rect structure in which each molecule is chemisorbed at a bridge site. In addition, individual benzene molecules are also ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Oct 4;128(39):12810-6.

12. Lead neurotoxicity in children: Is prenatal exposure more important than postnatal exposure?
Match Strength: 2.547

Numerous studies indicate that low-level lead poisoning causes mild mental retardation and low IQ scores in children. The general mean lead intake in the adult European population corresponds to a reassuring 14% (0.5-56%) of the tolerable daily intake: at this low level of exposure only few children (less than 10%) have blood lead levels (PbB) higher than 10 microg/dl, previously considered the PbB of concern. In more recent years data now suggest that even when 'the lifetime average blood lead concentration' is below 10 microg/dl an inverse association exists with intelligence quotient (IQ) ... Read More »
» Published in Acta Paediatr. 2006 Oct;95:45-49.

13. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines.
Match Strength: 2.483

Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Salmonella in young chickens, a cDNA microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles between two chicken lines under control and Salmonella infected conditions. Newly hatched chickens were orally infected with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Since the intestine is the first ... Read More »
» Published in Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006 Dec 15;114(3-4):247-58. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

14. Cholinergic modulation of periaqueductal grey neurons: Does it contribute to epileptogenesis after organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication?
Match Strength: 2.423

Previous work has shown that a single focal microinjection of the unselective cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the periaqueductal grey (PAG) of the midbrain is sufficient to induce forebrain seizures in rats. In order to determine the cholinergic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis at the cellular and network level of the PAG, we performed whole-cell recordings from rat PAG neurons in vitro and examined how the activation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors modulates cellular excitability and synaptic responses. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors produced either a pirenzepine ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicology. 2006 Aug 22;

15. Arsenic binding to human metallothionein.
Match Strength: 2.399

The number of reported cases of chronic arsenic poisoning is on the rise throughout the world, making the study of the long-term effects of arsenic critical. As(3+) binds readily to biological thiols, including mammalian metallothionein (MT), which is an ubiquitous sulfur-rich metalloprotein known to coordinate a wide range of metals. The two-domain mammalian protein binds divalent metals (M) into two metal-thiolate clusters with stoichiometries of M(3)S(cys9) (beta) and M(4)S(cys11) (alpha). We report that As(3+) binds with stoichiometries of As(3)S(cys9) (beta) and As(3)S(cys11) (alpha) to ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Sep 27;128(38):12473-83.

16. Chronic vanadium poisoning in calves and its treatment with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.
Match Strength: 2.358

Sixteen Friesland heifer calves aged between 96 and 157 days were removed from a dairy farm that had been polluted with vanadium and randomly allocated into two equal groups (n = 8). The objective of the trial was to determine whether calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa(2)EDTA) could be used as a treatment for cattle running in environments high in background vanadium. The treatment group received 80 mg CaNa(2)EDTA per kg body weight intraperitonealy (i.p.) twice a week over a 10-week period. The control group received normal saline i.p. over the same period. During the trial ... Read More »
» Published in Vet Res Commun. 2006 Oct;30(7):807-22.

17. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of spherulites as sequestering vesicles with potential application in drug detoxification.
Match Strength: 2.340

The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and characterize lecithin spherulites as parenteral drug sequestering agents with potential application in the treatment of drug overdose and chemical poisoning. The spherulites (approximately 200 nm) obtained by controlled hydration and shearing of lipid-alcohol mixtures, revealed unexpected differences in the physical properties of the bilayer when compared to liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry, 31-phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance, and pH-sensitive pyranine steady-state fluorescence studies indicated that although spherulites ... Read More »
» Published in Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1758(11):1787-96. Epub 2006 Aug 17.

18. Toxinology in Australia's colonial era: a chronology and perspective of human envenomation in 19th century Australia.
Match Strength: 2.163

The medical management of those envenomed by snakes, spiders and poisonous fish in Australia featured extensively in the writings 19th century doctors, expeditioners and anthropologists. Against the background of this introduced medical doctrine there already existed an extensive tradition of Aboriginal medical lore; techniques of heat treatment, suction, incision and the application of plant-derived pharmacological substances featured extensively in the management of envenomed victims. The application of a hair-string or grass-string ligature, suctioning of the bite-site and incision were ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicon. 2006 Dec 1;48(7):726-37. Epub 2006 Aug 3.

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