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Endocrine Cancer
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1. Clinical outcome of adjuvant endocrine treatment according to PR and HER-2 status in early breast cancer.
Match Strength: 7.008

Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)- and/or HER-2 overexpressing breast carcinomas may derive lower benefit from endocrine treatment. We examined retrospectively data from 972 breast cancer patients who received tamoxifen (725), tamoxifen + Gn-RH analogs (127) and aromatase inhibitors (120) as adjuvant treatments. ER+/PR- versus ER+/PR+ tumours were characterised by larger size (P = 0.001), higher tumour grade (P = 0.001), higher Ki-67 expression (P = 0.001) and lower mean ER (P = 0.000) and HER-2 expression (P = 0.000). At univariate analysis, tumour grading ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Oncol. 2006 Nov;17(11):1631-6. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

2. Current concepts in RET-related genetics, signaling and therapeutics.
Match Strength: 5.858

The receptor tyrosine kinase RET is expressed in cell lineages derived from the neural crest and has a key role in regulating cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during embryogenesis. Germline and somatic mutations in RET that produce constitutively activated receptors cause the cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and several endocrine and neural-crest-derived tumors, whereas mutations resulting in nonfunctional RET or lower expression of RET are found in individuals affected with Hirschsprung disease. This review focuses on the genetics and molecular ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Genet. 2006 Nov;22(11):627-36. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

3. A whole MEN1 gene deletion flanked by Alu repeats in a family with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
Match Strength: 5.791

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome characterized by pituitary, parathyroid and enteropancreatic endocrine tumors, which is caused by germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1. In the case reported here, the patient had family with this disease whose germline MEN1 mutation was undetectable by conventional sequencing analysis. Further investigations involving polymorphism analyses, gene dose assay and nucleotide sequencing identified a large germline deletion of approximately 29 kilobase pairs spanning the whole MEN1 gene. The deletion was ... Read More »
» Published in Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2006 Nov;36(11):739-44. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

4. Fetal origins of breast cancer.
Match Strength: 4.860

Susceptibility to breast cancer might be pre-determined in utero. Alterations in the fetal hormonal environment, caused by either maternal diet or exposure to environmental factors with endocrine activities, can modify the epigenome, and these modifications are inherited in somatic daughter cells and maintained throughout life. These epigenetic modifications might lead to changes in mammary gland development, such as increased vulnerability of epithelial targets for malignant transformation. According to this hypothesis, on post-pubertal exposure to an initiating factor, such as a carcinogen, ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;17(9):340-8. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

5. Ovarian cyst torsion and extreme ovarian stimulation in a premenopausal patient treated with tamoxifen for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.
Match Strength: 4.408

Tamoxifen is increasingly used in adjuvant endocrine therapy for postsurgery breast cancer patients and in chemoprevention for high-risk patients. We present a case of bilateral ovarian cyst development with consecutive unilateral cyst torsion and elevated serum estradiol in a premenopausal patient treated with tamoxifen after breast-conserving surgery. Publication Types: Case ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;195(4):e5-6.

6. The endocrine disrupting chemical, diethylhexyl phthalate, activates MDR1 gene expression in human colon cancer LS174T cells.
Match Strength: 4.156

Resistance to anticancer drugs is often mediated by the overexpression of P-glycoprotein encoded by the multi-drug resistance (MDR1) gene. The nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), is one of the key transcriptional regulators of MDR1 gene expression. A variety of xenobiotics bind to SXR, and stimulate transcription on xenobiotic-response elements (XREs), located in the MDR1 gene promoter. Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices. Previous studies have shown that a significant amount of DEHP leaches from PVC ... Read More »
» Published in J Endocrinol. 2006 Sep;190(3):897-902.

7. Coexistence of the loss of heterozygosity at the PTEN locus and HER2 overexpression enhances the Akt activity thus leading to a negative progesterone receptor expression in breast carcinoma.
Match Strength: 3.963

Serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB is known to regulate divergent cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism. Akt is activated by a variety of stimuli, through such growth factor receptors as HER2, in phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. A loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) function also activates Akt. It has recently been shown that Akt activation is associated with a worse outcome among endocrine treated breast cancer patients and that it also inhibits the progesterone receptor (PR) expression via ... Read More »
» Published in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Mar;101(3):249-57. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

8. Unresolved issues, dilemmas and points of interest in thyroid cancer: A current perspective.
Match Strength: 3.670

Thyroid cancer (TC) is the commonest endocrine malignancy. In the overwhelming majority of cases, thyroid carcinomas are well-differentiated malignancies that respond favorably to treatment; however, this outcome cannot be absolutely guaranteed. The absence of large prospective randomized clinical trials in TC-due to its low incidence and protracted clinical course in cases with persistent/recurrent metastatic disease-results in considerable debates regarding the optimal treatment and follow-up regimens in this malignancy. Some of these debates originated several decades ago, yet are still ... Read More »
» Published in Hormones (Athens). 2004 Jul-Sep;3(3):149-70.

9. Phase II trial evaluating the palliative benefit of second-line zoledronic acid in breast cancer patients with either a skeletal-related event or progressive bone metastases despite first-line bisphosphonate therapy.
Match Strength: 3.394

PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether additional palliative benefits could be derived from the second-line use of the more potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid in metastatic breast cancer patients with either progressive bone metastases or skeletal-related events (SRE), despite first-line therapy with either pamidronate or clodronate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study evaluated the impact of second-line zoledronic acid on pain, quality of life, and markers of bone turnover (for example, urinary N-telopeptide [NTX]). Patients received monthly zoledronic acid (4 mg) for 3 months. ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Oncol. 2006 Oct 20;24(30):4895-900. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

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