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1. Infectious RNA Isolated from the Spinal Cords of Mice Chronically Infected with Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus.
Match Strength: 6.110

The DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) persistently infects cells of the spinal cord during the chronic phase of infection. Though in situ hybridization and RT-PCR have demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in the spinal cord, it has not been determined whether this RNA is infectious and, if so, how many PFU equivalents of virus the RNA can yield. In this study, we demonstrated that TMEV RNA isolated from the spinal cord of chronically infected mice is infectious and there is at least 30-fold more infectious RNA in the spinal cords of these mice than infectious virus ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2006 Sep 27;

2. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus leader protein amino acid residue 57 regulates subgroup-specific virus growth on BHK-21 cells.
Match Strength: 5.878

Strains of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) are divided into two subgroups, TO and GDVII. TMEV strains show subgroup-specific virus growth and cell tropism and induce subgroup-specific diseases. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the amino acid at position 57 of the leader protein (L(57)), which is located at the most N-terminal part of the polyprotein, regulates subgroup-specific virus growth on BHK-21 cells. Further study suggested that L(57) may regulate viral RNA encapsidation, although it does not affect the synthesis of viral proteins or the assembly of ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2006 Dec;80(24):12025-31. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

3. Heart rate variability monitoring in the detection of central nervous system complications in children with enterovirus infection.
Match Strength: 4.490

PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest the possibility of autonomic dysfunction in patients with complicated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. Heart rate variability (HRV), an index for autonomic nervous system, may be useful to detect disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2002, 66 patients (1-9 years old) were enrolled prospectively in either a control (20 patients) or disease (46 patients with HFMD or herpangina) group. The disease group was subdivided into stage I (fever only), stage II (with complications of encephalomyelitis), and stage III (with ... Read More »
» Published in J Crit Care. 2006 Sep;21(3):280-6. Comment in: J Crit Care. 2006 Sep;21(3):286-9.

4. Protection from autoimmunity by DNA vaccination against T-cell receptor.
Match Strength: 3.564

T-lymphocytes are essential participants of adaptive immunity, essential for cellular and humoral recognition of foreign antigens. In pathogenic situations T cells may, however, also recognize self-antigens, causing detrimental autoimmune responses that ultimately lead to autoimmune disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine model for the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis, in which T cells invade the central nervous system and destroy the myelin sheath around neuronal axon fibers. In some EAE systems, the sequence of the alpha- or beta-chains of the pathogenic T ... Read More »
» Published in Methods Mol Med. 2006;127:269-80.

5. Analyses of TCR clustering at the T cell-antigen-presenting cell interface and its impact on the activation of naive CD4+ T cells.
Match Strength: 3.180

The role of micrometer-scale clustering of TCRs at the T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface in T cell activation is an area of active investigation. Here we have investigated the impact of variations in the extent of TCR clustering on the activation of naive CD4+ T cells. These T cells are derived from transgenic (tg) mice expressing TCRs (172.10 and 1934.4) specific for the N-terminal nonapeptide of MBP bound to I-A(u), and are associated with murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The 172.10 TCR has a approximately 4-fold higher affinity for antigen relative to the ... Read More »
» Published in Int Immunol. 2006 Nov;18(11):1615-25. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

6. Challenge with innate and protein antigens induces CCR7 expression by microglia in vitro and in vivo.
Match Strength: 3.140

Since activated microglia are able to phagocytose damaged cells and subsequently express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and co-stimulatory proteins, they are considered to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the central nervous system. The maturation and migratory potential of professional APCs is associated with the expression of chemokine receptor CCR7. We therefore investigated whether the immunological activation of microglia induces CCR7 expression. We here present that activation of cultured microglia by both the innate antigen lipopolysaccharide and ... Read More »
» Published in Glia. 2006 Dec;54(8):861-72.

7. Induction of autoimmunity by expansion of autoreactive CD4+CD62Llow cells in vivo.
Match Strength: 2.935

The prerequisites of peripheral activation of self-specific CD4(+) T cells that determine the development of autoimmunity are incompletely understood. SJL mice immunized with myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151 developed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when pertussis toxin (PT) was injected at the time of immunization but not when injected 6 days later, indicating that PT-induced alterations of the peripheral immune response lead to the development of autoimmunity. Further analysis using IA(s)/PLP(139-151) tetramers revealed that PT did not change effector T cell ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1;177(7):4384-90.

8. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins: regulation in chronic active plaques in multiple sclerosis and functional analysis of glial cells.
Match Strength: 2.673

Studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest that astrocyte-secreted insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) helps target IGF-1 to IGF-1 receptor-expressing oligodendrocytes and promote remyelination. We examined the presence of IGFBPs 1-6 in astrocytes in normal post-mortem human brain tissue and lesions of MS by means of immunohistochemistry. Under normal conditions all six IGFBPs were detected. Compared to controls, hypertrophic astrocytes at the borders of chronic active MS lesions displayed increased ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Sep;24(6):1645-52.

9. Structural requirements for initiation of cross-reactivity and CNS autoimmunity with a PLP139-151 mimic peptide derived from murine hepatitis virus.
Match Strength: 2.657

MS is an autoimmune CNS demyelinating disease in which infection appears to be an important pathogenic factor. Molecular mimicry, the cross-activation of autoreactive T cells by mimic peptides from infectious agents, is a possible explanation for infection-induced autoimmunity. Infection of mice with a non-pathogenic strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) engineered to express an epitope from Haemophilus influenzae (HI) sharing 6/13 amino acids with the dominant proteolipid protein (PLP) epitope, PLP139-151, can induce CNS autoimmune disease. Here we demonstrate that another ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Immunol. 2006 Oct;36(10):2671-80.

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* All information on is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.

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