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Encephalitis
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1. Childhood encephalitis in Crete, Greece.
Match Strength: 8.344

This study included all 18 cases of children hospitalized for encephalitis in the referral university hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, during the 5-year period from 2000 to 2004. Encephalitis was attributed to viral infection (echovirus, herpes simplex virus 1, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and influenza A) in eight children and to bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, and Rickettsia typhi) in a further five cases. Multiple hyperintense brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were associated with a severe clinical presentation but not ... Read More »
» Published in J Child Neurol. 2006 Oct;21(10):910-2.

2. Postencephalitic chronic granulomatous disease.
Match Strength: 6.154

This report details the evolution of a case of herpes simplex encephalitis to chronic granuloma in a 13-year old female who, at the age of 8, suffered herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis. Eight months later, she developed an intracranial hypertension syndrome with the onset of a new lesion in the necrosed zone of her right temporal lobe, with no viral presence in the cerebrospinal fluid. The histologic characteristics were those of chronic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and calcifications. Initially treated for neurosarcoidosis, the patient remained steroid-dependent for 4 ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Oct;35(4):297-9.

3. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.
Match Strength: 4.486

Since 1999, there have been nearly 20,000 cases of confirmed symptomatic West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the United States, and it is likely that more than 1 million people have been infected by the virus. WNV is now the most common cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the United States, and it will likely remain an important cause of neurological disease for the foreseeable future. Clinical syndromes produced by WNV infection include asymptomatic infection, West Nile Fever, and West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). WNND includes syndromes of meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Neurol. 2006 Sep;60(3):286-300.

4. Development and evaluation of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and real-time detection of Japanese encephalitis virus.
Match Strength: 4.416

The standardization and validation of a one-step, single-tube accelerated quantitative reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay is reported for rapid and real-time detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The RT-LAMP assay reported in this study is very simple and rapid; the amplification can be obtained in 30 min under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C by employing a set of six primers targeting the E gene of JEV. The RT-LAMP assay demonstrated exceptionally higher sensitivity compared to that of RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 0.1 PFU. The ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Nov;44(11):4172-8. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

5. Should we routinely perform blood tests in children with uncontrolled seizures?
Match Strength: 3.756

The value of biochemical tests in treating patients with uncontrolled seizures is unclear. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with uncontrolled seizures receiving two antiepileptic drugs. He had been diagnosed with recurrent herpes encephalitis and treated with acyclovir 1 year previously. Laboratory blood analyses, performed because of his uncontrolled seizure episodes, revealed hypocalcemia. Hypoparathyroidism was detected with elevated levels of phosphorus and low levels of parathormone. In conclusion, blood tests, especially to measure calcium, in children with uncontrolled seizures ... Read More »
» Published in J Child Neurol. 2006 Oct;21(10):896-8.

6. Flavivirus infection activates the XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Match Strength: 2.817

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a coordinated change in gene expression triggered by perturbations in functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). XBP1, a key transcription factor of the UPR, is activated by an IRE1-mediated splicing event, which results in a frameshift and encodes a protein with transcriptional activity. Here, we report that XBP1 was activated during flaviviral infection, as evidenced by XBP1 mRNA splicing and protein expression, as well as induction of the downstream genes ERdj4, EDEM1, and p58(IPK) in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)- and dengue virus serotype 2 ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2006 Dec;80(23):11868-80. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

7. Crystal structure of the West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein.
Match Strength: 2.731

The envelope glycoprotein (E) of West Nile virus (WNV) undergoes a conformational rearrangement triggered by low pH that results in a class II fusion event required for viral entry. Herein we present the 3.0-A crystal structure of the ectodomain of WNV E, which reveals insights into the flavivirus life cycle. We found that WNV E adopts a three-domain architecture that is shared by the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses and forms a rod-shaped configuration similar to that observed in immature flavivirus particles. Interestingly, the single N-linked glycosylation site on ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol. 2006 Dec;80(23):11467-74. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

8. Rapid detection, serotyping and quantitation of dengue viruses by TaqMan real-time one-step RT-PCR.
Match Strength: 2.701

The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnosis is now accepted worldwide and has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. In the laboratory, a rapid detection, serotyping and quantitation, one-step real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for dengue virus using TaqMan probes. In this assay, a set of forward and reverse primers were designed targeting the serotype conserved region at the NS5 gene, at the same time flanking a variable region for all four serotypes which were used to design the serotype-specific TaqMan probes. This multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay ... Read More »
» Published in J Virol Methods. 2006 Dec;138(1-2):123-30. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

9. Expression of multidrug resistance type 1 gene (MDR1) P-glycoprotein in intractable epilepsy with different aetiologies: a double-labelling and electron microscopy study.
Match Strength: 2.651

The objective of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics, pathological features and expression patterns of multiple drug resistance type 1 (MDR1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in intractable epilepsy patients with variable aetiologies and to analyse the relationships between the clinical and pathological findings. Twenty-six patients (15 males, 11 females, age range 4-25 years, mean age 22.92 years, SD 11.19 years) with intractable epilepsy were included in this study; the clinical characteristics were considered, and the pathological changes as well as expression ... Read More »
» Published in Neurol Sci. 2006 Sep;27(4):245-51.

10. Intracranial complications of sinusitis in children and adolescents and their outcomes.
Match Strength: 2.478

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into patterns of presentation, imaging, microbiological aspects, therapy, disease course, and outcome of intracranial complications of sinusitis (ICS), which are challenging conditions with the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. We reviewed our experience with ICS in children and adolescents. DESIGN: Consecutive case series with a mean follow-up of 12 months. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric referral center. PATIENTS: Consecutive sample of 25 children and adolescents treated for 35 intracranial complications (mean age, 13.2 years [range, 4-18 years]). ... Read More »
» Published in Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Sep;132(9):969-76.

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