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Dry Eye Syndromes
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1. alpha-Blockers for Treatment of the Prostatitis Syndromes.
Match Strength: 7.757

The prostatitis syndromes are among the most common and frustrating clinical challenges for urologists in outpatient practice. Available treatment, especially for the chronic prostatitis syndromes, is poor, with no standard therapy producing significant cure rates. alpha-Blocker therapy has been advocated (with various levels of evidence) as a treatment modality for all categories of the prostatitis syndromes. This article reviews the evidence supporting the use of alpha-blocker therapy in patients with prostatitis. Further trials of longer duration, perhaps employing combination therapies, ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2005;7 Suppl 8:S18-25.

2. Tardive syndromes in the elderly.
Match Strength: 7.112

Tardive syndromes are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements that occur after prolonged exposure to drugs that block dopamine receptors. The prevalence and incidence of tardive syndromes are much higher in elderly individuals, and the number of elderly patients receiving antipsychotics has been increasing. This article summarizes the clinical phenomenology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment of these disorders in elderly individuals. Publication Types: ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Geriatr Med. 2006 Nov;22(4):915-33, viii.

3. Benign pediatric localization-related epilepsies. Part I. Syndromes in infancy.
Match Strength: 6.211

There is currently increasing interest in identifying and classifying pediatric benign epilepsy syndromes and recently several new syndromes have been recognized. Benign epilepsy syndromes, by definition, occur in children with normal developmental history, respond well to therapy, and remit without sequelae. The large majority of children with benign epilepsy syndromes follow a truly benign course. The concept of benign epilepsy syndromes has, however, been challenged by the minority of patients who continue to have seizures despite therapy, develop new seizures after initial remission, or ... Read More »
» Published in Epileptic Disord. 2006 Sep;8(3):169-83.

4. Paraneoplastic syndromes in urologic malignancy: the many faces of renal cell carcinoma.
Match Strength: 6.087

Renal cell carcinoma is unique among the genitourinary malignancies in that close to one third of affected patients show signs and symptoms of a paraneoplastic syndrome. The paraneoplastic syndromes associated with renal cell carcinoma range from those manifesting in constitutional symptoms (ie, fever, cachexia, and weight loss) to those that result in specific metabolic and biochemical abnormalities (ie, hypercalcemia, nonmetastatic hepatic dysfunction, amyloidosis, etc). The presence of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with renal cell carcinoma is neither a marker of metastatic disease ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2002 Fall;4(4):163-70.

5. Molecular bases of progeroid syndromes.
Match Strength: 5.970

Progeroid syndromes (PSs) constitute a group of disorders characterized by clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. In some of these syndromes, biological hallmarks of aging are also present, whereas in others, a link with physiological aging, if any, remains to be elucidated. These syndromes are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and most of them, including Werner syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, are known as 'segmental aging syndromes', as they do not feature all aspects usually associated to physiological aging. However, all the characterized PSs enter ... Read More »
» Published in Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Oct 15;15 Spec No 2:R151-61.

6. Parkinsonian syndromes.
Match Strength: 5.597

The term parkinsonian syndromes refers to a group of disorders whose clinical features overlap those of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The four major entities include three important neurodegenerations, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration, and a lacunar cerebrovascular disorder, vascular parkinsonism. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of these disorders. Publication Types: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Geriatr Med. 2006 Nov;22(4):827-42, vi.

7. Familial neuroendocrine tumor syndromes: From genetics to clinical practice.
Match Strength: 5.211

Thanks to recent developments in molecular biology and cancer genetics, genetic testing has become widely available and useful in several kinds of familial tumor syndrome. However, the impact of genetic testing on medical management is not always straightforward. Clinicians have to consider the psychological impact and ethical complexities of communicating hereditary cancer risk information to families. This review notes some points on genetic counseling before and after genetic testing for familial neuroendocrine tumor syndromes ... Read More »
» Published in Pituitary. 2006;9(3):231-6.

8. Immunomodulation in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Match Strength: 4.892

The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) - bone-marrow stem-cell malignancies that share pathogenetic overlap with acute myeloid leukemia - are characterized by peripheral-blood cytopenias and, in more advanced subtypes, varied degrees of maturation arrest. Premature apoptosis of bone-marrow cellular elements contributes to ineffective hematopoiesis, which is exacerbated by stromal production of inflammatory cytokines. Abrogation of the effects of these cytokines represents an area of active clinical research, particularly in the treatment of low-risk MDS. Agents such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, ... Read More »
» Published in Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2006;19(4):757-67.

9. Intensive statin therapy for treating acute coronary syndromes.
Match Strength: 4.803

The long-term efficacy of statins for the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease is well established; however, until recently, there was little trial-based evidence to support the early clinical benefit of these agents after acute coronary syndromes (ACS). This is particularly important as ACS is characterised by a high rate of recurrent early events in the first 6 months and (traditionally) lipid-lowering therapy was perceived to reduce coronary heart disease risk by lowering the significant risk of elevated cholesterol over many years. This paper reviews the current state ... Read More »
» Published in Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;15(10):1151-9.

10. Short-term effects of atmospheric temperature and humidity on morbidity from acute coronary syndromes in free of air pollution rural Greece.
Match Strength: 4.695

STUDY OBJECTIVE: An evaluation of the effect of ambient temperature on morbidity from acute coronary syndromes (ACS) while avoiding confounding by air pollution. DESIGN: An ecological study in rural Greece. METHODS: Daily admissions to hospital because of ACS were recorded for 1 year and analysed versus daily temperature and humidity. RESULTS: For a 1 degrees C decrease in temperature there was a 1.6% (95% confidence interval 0.9-2.2%) increase in admissions. This effect was more prominent in the elderly. No difference was detected according to sex or type of ACS. CONCLUSION: It is important ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Oct;13(5):846-8.

11. Familial paraganglioma: A novel presentation of a case and response to therapy with radiolabelled MIBG.
Match Strength: 4.511

Phaeochromocytomas (PC) and paragangliomas are disorders of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. They are chromaffin-containing neuroendocrine tumors of neural crest origin that contain catecholamine-secreting granules: they arise from either the adrenal medulla (phaeochromocytomas) or from extra-adrenal neural crest derivatives e.g. the sympathetic chain (paragangliomas). The term paraganglioma is also used for vascular head and neck tumors derived from parasympathetic tissue, which commonly arise at the carotid bifurcation. It has been reported that some 10% of phaeochromocytomas are part of ... Read More »
» Published in Hormones (Athens). 2004 Apr-Jun;3(2):127-31.

12. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.
Match Strength: 4.303

Since 1999, there have been nearly 20,000 cases of confirmed symptomatic West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the United States, and it is likely that more than 1 million people have been infected by the virus. WNV is now the most common cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the United States, and it will likely remain an important cause of neurological disease for the foreseeable future. Clinical syndromes produced by WNV infection include asymptomatic infection, West Nile Fever, and West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). WNND includes syndromes of meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Neurol. 2006 Sep;60(3):286-300.

13. Mutations of TGFbeta signaling molecules in human disease.
Match Strength: 4.026

The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway regulates several biological processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition. Ligand and receptor family members signal through two main Smad signaling branches, TGFbeta/activin to Smad2/3 (Sma and MAD-related proteins) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to Smad1/5. At the molecular level, TGFbeta acts by modifying cytoskeletal organization and ultimately regulating expression of specific target genes. Germline disruption of TGFbeta signaling leads to several ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Med. 2006;38(6):403-14.

14. Phaeohyphomycosis.
Match Strength: 3.931

Phaeohyphomycosis is an uncommon infection, but has become increasingly recognized in a wide variety of clinical syndromes. Many species are associated with human infection, though a few are responsible for most cases. Because these are typically soil organisms and common laboratory contaminants, they are often disregarded from clinical specimens as non-pathogenic. The clinical setting in which they are isolated, however, should always be carefully considered before making decisions regarding therapy. Bipolaris and Curvularia are often associated ith allergic disease. Diagnosis depends on a ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):609-20.

15. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: evidence from patients receiving an oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in the Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable coronary Syndromes- (OPUS-TIMI 16) trial.
Match Strength: 3.803

OBJECTIVE: To assess etiology and impact of thrombocytopenia in a large oral glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor trial. BACKGROUND: Heparin is known to cause thrombocytopenia, and in some of these patients thrombosis. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors are also associated with thrombocytopenia. METHODS: The Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable Coronary Syndromes (OPUS-TIMI 16) Trial randomized 10,392 patients with ACS to the oral GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor orbofiban or placebo. Patients were followed for a minimum of ten months. Thrombocytopenia was defined prospectively as a platelet count < 80,000. ... Read More »
» Published in J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006 Oct;22(2):95-102.

16. Megakaryocytic dysfunction in myelodysplastic syndromes and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is in part due to different forms of cell death.
Match Strength: 3.712

Platelet production requires compartmentalized caspase activation within megakaryocytes. This eventually results in platelet release in conjunction with apoptosis of the remaining megakaryocyte. Recent studies have indicated that in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), premature cell death of megakaryocytes may contribute to thrombocytopenia. Different cell death patterns have been identified in megakaryocytes in these disorders. Growing evidence suggests that, besides apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death, may also be programmed. ... Read More »
» Published in Leukemia. 2006 Nov;20(11):1937-42. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

17. Epidemiology and treatment of pain in multiple sclerosis subjects.
Match Strength: 3.706

Symptom management in multiple sclerosis (MS) represents a primary focus for neurologists, data available in the literature on pain are lacking. There are no double-blind, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled trials and the majority of therapeutic approaches are taken from clinical experience. Pain syndromes can be classified as nociceptive somatic/visceral, neuropathic and psycogenic pain. Several studies has been recently pubblished addressing the prevalence of pain in MS subjects, finding a frequency of 40%. The principal neuropathic pain syndromes common in MS are trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and ... Read More »
» Published in Neurol Sci. 2006 Sep;27 Suppl 4:s291-3.

18. Baseline MRI predicts future attacks and disability in clinically isolated syndromes.
Match Strength: 3.664

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between baseline MRI and both conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) and development of disability in a cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). METHODS: From 1995 to 1998, 175 consecutive patients with CIS underwent brain MRI within 3 months of their first attack and again 12 months and 5 years later. We studied the number and location of lesions at baseline and development of new T2 lesions. We also analyzed conversion to MS and development of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] > or = 3.0). RESULTS: We included 156 ... Read More »
» Published in Neurology. 2006 Sep 26;67(6):968-72.

19. Peripheral neuropathies of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves: MR imaging features.
Match Strength: 3.612

The median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the upper limbs may be affected by various peripheral neuropathies, each of which may be categorized according to its cause, as either an entrapment or a nonentrapment neuropathy. Entrapment neuropathies, also referred to as nerve compression syndromes, include the supracondylar process syndrome, pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and Guyon canal syndrome. Nonentrapment neuropathies include traumatic nerve injuries, infectious and inflammatory ... Read More »
» Published in Radiographics. 2006 Sep-Oct;26(5):1267-87.

20. Noonan syndrome and related disorders: dysregulated RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase signal transduction.
Match Strength: 3.370

Noonan syndrome is a relatively common, genetically heterogeneous Mendelian trait with a pleiomorphic phenotype. Prior to the period covered in this review, missense mutations in PTPN11 had been found to account for nearly 50% of Noonan syndrome cases. That gene encodes SHP-2, a protein tyrosine kinase that plays diverse roles in signal transduction including signaling via the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Noonan syndrome-associated PTPN11 mutations are gain-of-function, with most disrupting SHP-2's activation-inactivation mechanism. Here, we review recent information ... Read More »
» Published in Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Oct 15;15 Spec No 2:R220-6.

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