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Drug Use Disorders
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1. Screening for serious mental illness in populations with co-occurring substance use disorders: Performance of the K6 scale.
Match Strength: 7.878

Serious mental illnesses (SMIs) such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression are prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders, particularly those in drug treatment programs. No screening tool has yet become the gold standard for identifying SMI among individuals with substance use disorders. One candidate instrument, the K6 screening scale, is brief, easy to administer and score, and has performed well, detecting SMI in studies using general population samples. We used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine the K6's psychometric properties ... Read More »
» Published in J Subst Abuse Treat. 2006 Oct;31(3):287-96. Epub 2006 Jul 18.

2. Clinical and economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed antiepileptic drug therapy.
Match Strength: 5.746

This study explores the associations between pharmacist-managed antiepileptic drug therapy in hospitalized Medicare patients and diagnoses indicating the need for these drugs. It also explores the following major heath care outcomes: death rate, hospital length of stay (LOS), Medicare charges, drug charges, laboratory charges, complications, and adverse drug reactions. Data were drawn from the 1998 MedPAR and 1998 National Clinical Pharmacy Services databases. Pharmacist-managed antiepileptic drug therapy was evaluated in a study population of 9380 Medicare patients with diagnosed epilepsy or ... Read More »
» Published in Pharmacotherapy. 2006 Oct;26(10):1369-78.

3. Persistent tobacco use during pregnancy and the likelihood of psychiatric disorders.
Match Strength: 5.477

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between psychiatric disorders and tobacco use during pregnancy. METHODS: Data were derived from a population-based cohort of 744 pregnant African American and White low-income women living in urban and rural areas. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to assess women for 20 different psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: In comparison with nonusers, persistent tobacco users (women who had used tobacco after confirmation of their pregnancy) and nonpersistent users (women who had used tobacco but not after pregnancy confirmation) were 2.5 and 2 times as ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Public Health. 2006 Oct;96(10):1799-807.

4. Eating, sleeping and rewarding: orexin receptors and their antagonists.
Match Strength: 5.082

The orexin system plays a key role in the control of eating, sleeping and rewarding. This review summarizes the latest developments in the identification of orexin receptor antagonists. By using a selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867-A (GlaxoSnzithKline plc), the in vivo futctions of both the orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors have been elucidated. This review also sunmmarizes the literature and current opinions up to May 2006 on the therapeutic utility of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of eating disorders, sleeping disorders and drug addiction. Publication Types: ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2006 Sep;9(5):551-9.

5. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.
Match Strength: 4.813

Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in ... Read More »
» Published in Metabolism. 2006 Oct;55(10 Suppl 2):S40-4.

6. Preclinical research into cognition enhancers.
Match Strength: 4.521

The preclinical development of drugs to treat the cognitive symptoms of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders is a formidable challenge. Evidence from a wide range of preclinical behavioral and neuropharmacological tests has formed the basis for predicting drug-induced cognition enhancement in normal volunteers and in patients with cognitive impairments. However, the limited validity of preclinical predictions of this enhancement in humans indicates that conventional screening for "broadly active" compounds represents a below-optimal research strategy. This article conceptualizes the ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Nov;27(11):602-8. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

7. Clinical perspectives on pulmonary systemic and macromolecular delivery.
Match Strength: 4.499

The large epithelial surface area, the high organ vascularization, the thin nature of the alveolar epithelium and the immense capacity for solute exchange are factors that led the lung to serve as an ideal administration route for the application of drugs for treatment of systemic disorders. However, the deposition behaviour of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract depends on a number of physical (e.g. properties of the particle), chemical (e.g. properties of the drug) and physiological (e.g. breathing pattern, pulmonary diseases) factors. If these are not considered, it will not be ... Read More »
» Published in Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2006 Oct 31;58(9-10):996-1008. Epub 2006 Aug 12.

8. What should psychiatry residents be taught about neurology?: A survey of psychiatry residency directors.
Match Strength: 4.425

OBJECTIVES: To improve our ability to teach psychiatry residents during their required 2 months on neurology rotations, we investigated the perceived needs of psychiatry program training directors. METHODS: We contacted the program directors organization of the American Psychiatric Association and disseminated a web-based survey to all program directors. The survey asked questions about the format and content of neurology training desired for psychiatry residents. The survey was sent a second time to increase response rate. RESULTS: Sixty (32%) training directors responded. Overall ... Read More »
» Published in Neurologist. 2006 Sep;12(5):268-70.

9. Comparison of reproductive effects of levetiracetam and valproate studied in prepubertal porcine ovarian follicular cells.
Match Strength: 4.243

PURPOSE: Long-term valproate (VPA) treatment has been associated with reproductive endocrine disorders characterized by hyperandrogenism and polycystic changes in the ovaries in women with epilepsy. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a promising, new antiepileptic drug that may represent an alternative to VPA for many patients. Here the effect of LEV and VPA on basal and gonadotropin-stimulated steroid secretion from prepubertal porcine ovarian follicular cells was compared and the conversion of testosterone to estradiol is measured. METHODS: Ovarian follicles were obtained from prepubertal pigs. ... Read More »
» Published in Epilepsia. 2006 Sep;47(9):1580-3.

10. Disability and quality of life in post-traumatic stress disorder: impact of drug treatment.
Match Strength: 4.063

The degree of functional disability and quality of life (QOL) impairment in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is at least comparable with, and in many instances greater than, that of patients with other anxiety and mood disorders. Multidimensional QOL assessments in PTSD have utility in capturing aspects of individual patient experience and satisfaction related to health and treatment, and have fairly robust sensitivity to treatment effects. Despite the growing number of epidemiological and clinical studies detailing QOL in PTSD, there are few studies of the impact of ... Read More »
» Published in Pharmacoeconomics. 2006;24(10):989-98.

11. High resolution electrocardiography.
Match Strength: 3.721

Over the past decade, significant advances were made in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Such progress was in every sphere of cardiology that includes non-invasive, minimally invasive, and invasive technologies. Interpretive electrocardiography, cardiac pacemakers, cardiac stents, and angioplasty are some areas where the progress has been significant. Non-invasive methods of diagnosis of cardiac disorders involve digital recording of cardiac signals at the body surface (chest) and subsequent computerized analysis. Such methods and instruments provide a vital ... Read More »
» Published in Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2002 Apr 1;2(2):50-6.

12. Is cannabis use a contributory cause of psychosis?
Match Strength: 3.594

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood is a contributory cause of schizophreniform psychosis in that it may precipitate psychosis in vulnerable individuals. METHOD: We reviewed longitudinal studies of adolescents and young adults that examined the relations between self-reported cannabis use and the risk of diagnosis with a psychosis or of reporting psychotic symptoms. We also reviewed studies that controlled for potential confounders, such as other forms of drug use and personal characteristics that predict an increased risk of psychosis. We assessed ... Read More »
» Published in Can J Psychiatry. 2006 Aug;51(9):556-65. Comment in: Can J Psychiatry. 2006 Aug;51(9):554-5., Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2006;48(9):729-31.

13. Development of a novel bioavailable inhibitor of the calmodulin-regulated protein kinase MLCK: a lead compound that attenuates vascular leak.
Match Strength: 3.199

Tissue barriers involving epithelial and endothelial cell layers are critical to homeostasis, regulating passage of water, macromolecules, cells and certain classes of small molecules via two distinct cellular mechanisms, transcellular or paracellular. Endothelial or epithelial barrier dysfunction is a key component of pathophysiology in diverse diseases and injuries that have a broad impact on survival and quality of life. However, effective and safe small molecule therapeutics for these disorders are lacking. Success in development would therefore fill a major unmet medical need across ... Read More »
» Published in Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1266-74. Epub 2006 Aug 11.

14. Neonatal stress and litter composition alter sucrose intake in both rat dam and offspring.
Match Strength: 3.105

The early postnatal environment can have long lasting effects on the physiology and behavior of both mother and offspring. A great deal of evidence indicates that stress during this time period is a risk factor for the future development of a multitude of disorders including substance abuse. The maternal separation paradigm is used to model such stress in rats. The current study evaluated the effects of maternal separation and litter composition on sucrose consumption, a non-drug measure of reward, in both male Long-Evans rat offspring and mother. On postnatal day 2, rats were cross-fostered, ... Read More »
» Published in Physiol Behav. 2006 Dec 30;89(5):735-41. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

15. Regardless of psychiatric severity the addition of contingency management to standard treatment improves retention and drug use outcomes.
Match Strength: 2.945

The relationship between psychiatric severity and substance use disorders treatment outcome was assessed in 393 individuals who received either standard treatment or standard treatment plus contingency management. The sample was divided into groups of low, moderate, and high psychiatric severity based upon baseline Addiction Severity Index psychiatric composite scores. Participants in the high psychiatric severity group reported a greater prevalence of psychiatric hospitalization, psychiatric medications, and suicide attempts, as well as poorer baseline psychosocial functioning. In terms of ... Read More »
» Published in Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 25;

16. Pharmacokinetic studies of coagulation factors: relevance of plasma and extracellular volume and body weight.
Match Strength: 2.933

Summary. The clinical utility of pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of infused clotting factor concentrates in subjects with inherited coagulation disorders (e.g. haemophilia) remains unproven. In this regard, differences in drug distribution and elimination between very young children and older subjects is likely to be of importance, and there is preliminary information to suggest that the elimination half-life of infused factor VIII (FVIII) is shorter in very young boys with haemophilia A as compared to older subjects. The cause for this difference is likely multifactorial and may relate, in part, ... Read More »
» Published in Haemophilia. 2006 Nov;12 Suppl 4:33-9.

17. Canadian Association of Neurosciences Review: polyglutamine expansion neurodegenerative diseases.
Match Strength: 2.768

Since the early 1990s, DNA triplet repeat expansions have been found to be the cause in an ever increasing number of genetic neurologic diseases. A subset of this large family of genetic diseases has the expansion of a CAG DNA triplet in the open reading frame of a coding exon. The result of this DNA expansion is the expression of expanded glutamine amino acid repeat tracts in the affected proteins, leading to the term, Polyglutamine Diseases, which is applied to this sub-family of diseases. To date, nine distinct genes are known to be linked to polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington's ... Read More »
» Published in Can J Neurol Sci. 2006 Aug;33(3):278-91.

18. Disturbances of visual information processing in early states of psychosis and experimental delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol altered states of consciousness.
Match Strength: 2.457

Recent data on alterations of the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia have raised the question of its functional role in this disease. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), has been shown to induce psychotic symptoms, but it is unknown to what extend prodromal states of psychoses are reflected by these experimental approaches. This study compares four groups of subjects: antipsychotic-naive patients suffering from acute paranoid schizophrenic or schizophreniform psychosis (SZ), patients in the prodromal state (IPS), healthy controls ... Read More »
» Published in Schizophr Res. 2006 Dec;88(1-3):142-50. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

19. Patient characteristics and patterns of drug use for sleep complaints in the United States: analysis of National Ambulatory Medical Survey data, 1997-2002.
Match Strength: 2.215

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this work were to characterize ambulatory patients in the United States presenting with primary or secondary insomnia complaints and resultant diagnoses, and to describe the characteristics of patients treated with medications commonly used for sleep complaints. METHODS: Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for the years 1997 through 2002 were analyzed. Data were stratified by patient characteristics, physician specialty, resulting diagnosis, and medications prescribed or provided. The unit of analysis was the individual patient visit; statistical ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Ther. 2006 Jul;28(7):1044-53.

20. Traumatic fracture in a healthy man: benign or pathologic?
Match Strength: 2.056

OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenge of determining the correct diagnosis in a healthy adult male patient with a recent femoral fracture and a history of multiple bone fractures. METHODS: We present clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic details in a patient with a history of recurrent fractures associated with minimal trauma. Moreover, the various types of osteopetrosis are reviewed. RESULTS: A 34-year-old African American man was in his usual state of good health when he fell hard on concrete. Immediately after the fall, he was able to bear weight, although pain prompted him ... Read More »
» Published in Endocr Pract. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5):552-8.

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