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Drug Abuse
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1. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.
Match Strength: 10.139

This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of ... Read More »
» Published in J Drug Educ. 2006;36(1):33-45.

2. A modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test among undergraduate students.
Match Strength: 9.818

The present study assesses the prevalence of items from a modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Form (DAST-10) for substances other than alcohol among undergraduate students. More than 4,500 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern research university completed a web-based survey in 2005. Nearly 1 every 10 undergraduate students experienced three or more DAST-10 items in the past 12 months. Although the prevalence of illicit drug use did not differ by gender, undergraduate men were significantly more likely than women to report DAST-10 items. Less than 6% of individuals ... Read More »
» Published in J Subst Abuse Treat. 2006 Oct;31(3):297-303. Epub 2006 Jul 25.

3. Estimated costs of prescription opioid analgesic abuse in the United States in 2001: a societal perspective.
Match Strength: 8.596

OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the costs to society of prescription opioid analgesic (RxO) abuse in the United States. METHODS: Costs associated with RxO abuse were grouped into healthcare, criminal justice, and workplace categories. Costs were estimated by either (1) a quantity method that multiplies the number of RxO abusers derived from various national surveys by the estimated per abuser cost, or (2) an apportionment method that starts with overall (ie, prescription and nonprescription) drug abuse costs for a cost component (eg, police protection) and apportions the share of costs based ... Read More »
» Published in Clin J Pain. 2006 Oct;22(8):667-76.

4. ESC study group of sports cardiology position paper on adverse cardiovascular effects of doping in athletes.
Match Strength: 7.346

The use of doping substances and methods is extensive not only among elite athletes, but also among amateur and recreational athletes. Many types of drugs are used by athletes to enhance performance, to reduce anxiety, to increase muscle mass, to reduce weight or to mask the use of other drugs during testing. However, the abuse of doping substances and methods has been associated with the occurrence of numerous health side-effects. The adverse effects depend on the type of the consumed drug, as well as the amount and duration of intake and the sensitivity of the body, since there is a large ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Oct;13(5):687-94.

5. Doping: a challenge to the endocrinologist. A reappraisal in view of the Olympic Games of 2004.
Match Strength: 6.595

The aim of this review is to provide an update on drug abuse by athletes, their mode of action and the technical difficulties of detection. The most common doping agents are the anabolic steroids (AS), testosterone derivatives modified to take advantage of the anabolic rather than the androgenic properties of the hormone. However, there are numerous side-effects that discourage their use. Several other substances and hormones, GH and rhEPO are currently used alone or combined to enhance performance. The diversity in nature of the substances used requires a constant alertness of physicians to ... Read More »
» Published in Hormones (Athens). 2003 Jan-Mar;2(1):35-42.

6. Transport, metabolism, and in vivo population pharmacokinetics of the chloro benztropine analogs, a class of compounds extensively evaluated in animal models of drug abuse.
Match Strength: 5.041

Recently, extensive behavioral research has been conducted on the benztropine (BZT) analogs with the goal of developing successful therapeutics for cocaine abuse. The present study was conducted to characterize the contribution of dispositional factors in mediating the behavioral differences among the chloro BZT analogs and to identify cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in their metabolism. Bidirectional transport and efflux studies of four of the chloro BZT analogs were conducted. Screening with a panel of human and rat Supersomes was performed for 4',4''-diCl BZT. In addition, pharmacokinetic ... Read More »
» Published in J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jan;320(1):344-53. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

7. Women-only and mixed-gender drug abuse treatment programs: Service needs, utilization and outcomes.
Match Strength: 5.035

OBJECTIVES: This prospective longitudinal study examined service needs, utilization and outcomes for 189 women in women-only (WO) programs and 871 women in mixed-gender (MG) programs. METHODS: The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and the 9-month follow-up interview to assess clients' problem severity and outcomes, and the Treatment Service Review was given at the 3-month interview to measure service utilization. Treatment completion and arrests were based on official records. RESULTS: Compared to women in MG programs, women in WO programs were more likely to be White, ... Read More »
» Published in Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 20;

8. The science of stimulant abuse.
Match Strength: 4.744

Stimulant medications, although classified by the US Drug Enforcement Agency as controlled with a Schedule IIa rating, are ubiquitous in our society because of their popularity as an effective treatment for childhood ADHD. The number of stimulant products available for practitioners has tripled in the last decade. Although stimulants' action on central dopamine systems can be reinforcing, especially when delivered via intraperitoneal or intravenous routes in laboratory animals, they are far less addicting when taken orally by children in the context of a medical treatment. Fortunately, the ... Read More »
» Published in Pediatr Ann. 2006 Aug;35(8):552-6.

9. Who is becoming hallucinogen dependent soon after hallucinogen use starts?
Match Strength: 4.385

This study, based upon epidemiological survey data from the United States (U.S.) National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) from 2000 to 2001, presents new estimates for the risk of developing a hallucinogen dependence syndrome within 24 months after first use of any hallucinogen (median elapsed time approximately 12 months). Subgroup variations in risk of becoming hallucinogen dependent also are explored. Estimates are derived from the NHSDA representative samples of non-institutionalized U.S. residents ages 12 and older (n=114,241). A total of 2035 respondents had used hallucinogens ... Read More »
» Published in Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 18;

10. Implementing the Institute of Medicine definition of disparities: an application to mental health care.
Match Strength: 4.345

OBJECTIVE: In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines a health service disparity between population groups to be the difference in treatment or access not justified by the differences in health status or preferences of the groups. This paper proposes an implementation of this definition, and applies it to disparities in outpatient mental health care. DATA SOURCES: Health Care for Communities (HCC) reinterviewed 9,585 respondents from the Community Tracking Study in 1997-1998, oversampling individuals with psychological distress, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or mental health ... Read More »
» Published in Health Serv Res. 2006 Oct;41(5):1979-2005.

11. Neonatal stress and litter composition alter sucrose intake in both rat dam and offspring.
Match Strength: 3.648

The early postnatal environment can have long lasting effects on the physiology and behavior of both mother and offspring. A great deal of evidence indicates that stress during this time period is a risk factor for the future development of a multitude of disorders including substance abuse. The maternal separation paradigm is used to model such stress in rats. The current study evaluated the effects of maternal separation and litter composition on sucrose consumption, a non-drug measure of reward, in both male Long-Evans rat offspring and mother. On postnatal day 2, rats were cross-fostered, ... Read More »
» Published in Physiol Behav. 2006 Dec 30;89(5):735-41. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

12. Persistent tobacco use during pregnancy and the likelihood of psychiatric disorders.
Match Strength: 3.607

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between psychiatric disorders and tobacco use during pregnancy. METHODS: Data were derived from a population-based cohort of 744 pregnant African American and White low-income women living in urban and rural areas. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to assess women for 20 different psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: In comparison with nonusers, persistent tobacco users (women who had used tobacco after confirmation of their pregnancy) and nonpersistent users (women who had used tobacco but not after pregnancy confirmation) were 2.5 and 2 times as ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Public Health. 2006 Oct;96(10):1799-807.

13. Internalization of D2 dopamine receptors is clathrin-dependent and select to dendro-axonic appositions in primate prefrontal cortex.
Match Strength: 3.563

Much of our knowledge on trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors derives from heterologous expression systems and neurons in vitro. Understanding these dynamics in vivo for dopamine receptors, and D2 receptors (D2Rs) in particular, presents a foremost challenge as their pharmacological manipulation underlies antipsychotic medications and drug abuse, which may in turn alter response to endogenous dopamine. Here we present the first ultrastructural evidence of clathrin-mediated endocytosis of D2Rs or any other neurotransmitter receptor in the primate brain. We have captured in situ the ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Sep;24(5):1395-403.

14. The relationship of cigars, marijuana, and blunts to adolescent bidi use.
Match Strength: 3.171

OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that bidi, cigar, and marijuana use may be interrelated, but to date, this hypothesis has not been empirically tested. METHODS: We explored the relationships among use of these products using data from 17,429 youths who completed the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Variables of interest included demographics, tobacco use (i.e., cigarettes, cigars), marijuana use, and blunting (i.e., cigars filled with marijuana). Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for past-month bidi use were generated for each variable; regression models were also generated ... Read More »
» Published in Public Health Rep. 2006 Sep-Oct;121(5):603-8.

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* All information on Level1Diet.com is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.



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