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Peer Reviewed Scientific Research Reports.
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1. Structural requirements for initiation of cross-reactivity and CNS autoimmunity with a PLP139-151 mimic peptide derived from murine hepatitis virus.
Match Strength: 5.761
MS is an autoimmune CNS demyelinating disease in which infection appears to be an important pathogenic factor. Molecular mimicry, the cross-activation of autoreactive T cells by mimic peptides from infectious agents, is a possible explanation for infection-induced autoimmunity. Infection of mice with a non-pathogenic strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) engineered to express an epitope from Haemophilus influenzae (HI) sharing 6/13 amino acids with the dominant proteolipid protein (PLP) epitope, PLP139-151, can induce CNS autoimmune disease. Here we demonstrate that another ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Immunol. 2006 Oct;36(10):2671-80.
2. Utilization of contraception and abortion and its relationship to HIV infection among female sex workers in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Match Strength: 4.873
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe reported contraceptive and abortion utilization and their relationship to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among female sex workers (FSW) in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, women were recruited through outreach workers affiliated with Istiqbolli Avlod. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and underwent HIV testing. RESULTS: Of 448 participants, the majority (86.2%, n=386) used contraception; 39.6% reported inconsistent use. Methods most frequently utilized were condoms (50.9%) and ... Read More »
» Published in Contraception. 2006 Oct;74(4):318-23. Epub 2006 Jun 30.
3. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men and women entering California prisons.
Match Strength: 4.582
OBJECTIVE: We estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection among newly arriving inmates at 6 California prisons. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study in 1999, urine specimens collected from 698 men aged 18 to 25 years and 572 women aged 18 years or older were tested at intake for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using ligase chain reaction. An analysis of demographic and arrest-related correlates of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae infection was performed. RESULTS: The overall C trachomatis prevalence was 9.9% (95% CI=7.8%, 12.3%) among men aged 18 to ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Public Health. 2006 Oct;96(10):1862-6.
4. Interactions between the parasite's previous and current environment mediate the outcome of parasite infection.
Match Strength: 4.568
The study of parasite virulence has generally focused on the conditions under which virulence is expected to increase or decrease over time and how the interactions between hosts and their environments may mediate the outcome of infection. Recently, parasite traits such as transmission, offspring production, and development have also been shown to be influenced by environmental variation. What is unclear is how variation in the parasite's environment may impact virulence. Recent theory demonstrates that plasticity can promote the evolution of decreased virulence; thus, understanding whether ... Read More »
» Published in Am Nat. 2006 Oct;168(4):565-71. Epub 2006 Aug 31.
5. Prevalence of HIV infection among young adult injecting and non-injecting heroin users in Spain in the era of harm reduction programmes: gender differences and other related factors.
Match Strength: 4.062
The aims were to assess the prevalence of HIV infection among young adult heroin users, including injecting heroin users (IHUs) and non-injecting heroin users (NIHUs), and to explore the differences by gender and other factors. The design was a cross-sectional cohort study between April 2001 and December 2003, which included 961 current heroin users (HU), aged 18-30 years: 422 in Madrid, 351 in Barcelona and 188 in Seville; 621 were IHUs and 340 were NIHUs. All were street-recruited by chain referral methods. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire with computer ... Read More »
» Published in Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Sep 28;:1-12
6. Simulation model estimates of test accuracy and predictive values for the Danish Salmonella surveillance program in dairy herds.
Match Strength: 3.694
The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk ... Read More »
» Published in Prev Vet Med. 2006 Dec 18;77(3-4):284-303. Epub 2006 Sep 18.
7. Serological profiles after consecutive experimental infections of pigs with European H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 swine influenza viruses.
Match Strength: 3.410
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 subtypes, with antigenically different hemagglutinins, are currently cocirculating in pigs in Europe. This study aimed to determine whether the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, which is the primary serological test for SIV, is sufficiently specific to discriminate between infections with the three subtypes. In experiment 1, pigs were consecutively inoculated with European H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 SIVs by the intranasal route, or with the respective subtypes only. In a second experiment, a commercial, inactivated H1N1- and H3N2- based SIV ... Read More »
» Published in Viral Immunol. 2006 Summer;19(3):373-82. Erratum in: Viral Immunol. 2006 Winter;19(4):775.
8. Antimicrobial use control measures to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance in US hospitals.
Match Strength: 2.589
OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines and recommended practices to control use of antibiotics have been published, but the effect of these practices on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates in hospitals is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between antimicrobial use control strategies and AMR rates in a national sample of US hospitals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, stratified study of a nationally representative sample of US hospitals. METHODS: A survey instrument was sent to the person responsible for infection control at a sample of 670 US hospitals. The outcome ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):1088-95. Epub 2006 Sep 18.
9. Suppression of HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance by phosphonate-mediated solvent anchoring.
Match Strength: 2.527
The introduction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) markedly improved the clinical outcome and control of HIV-1 infection. However, cross-resistance among PIs due to a wide spectrum of mutations in viral protease is a major factor limiting their broader clinical use. Here we report on the suppression of PI resistance using a covalent attachment of a phosphonic acid motif to a peptidomimetic inhibitor scaffold. The resulting phosphonate analogs maintain high binding affinity to HIV-1 protease, potent antiretroviral activity, and unlike the parent molecules, ... Read More »
» Published in J Mol Biol. 2006 Oct 27;363(3):635-47. Epub 2006 Aug 2.
10. Antibiotic resistance of urinary tract pathogens and evaluation of empirical treatment in Turkish children with urinary tract infections.
Match Strength: 2.358
The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance in the causative microorganisms of urinary tract infection (UTI) in childhood is a growing problem. The aims of this study were to assess the resistance patterns of urinary isolates to commonly used antimicrobials and to evaluate the options for empirical treatment of UTI. A prospective cross-sectional analysis of bacteria isolated from children with UTI was performed between January 2003 and January 2004. Resistance to antibiotics was analysed in three age groups: Group I, < or =12 months; Group II, 13-60 months; and Group III, >60 months ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006 Nov;28(5):413-6. Epub 2006 Sep 26.
11. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine fetal death.
Match Strength: 2.336
Objective: To determine the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and to find out the place of fetal destructive procedures and cesarean section. Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study : Labour Room, Nishtar Hospital, Multan from January to December 2003. Patients and Methods: All women were included in the present study who presented before the onset of labour pains, after intrauterine fetal death at 26 weeks or onward with singleton pregnancy. Assessment of maternal demographic characteristics, gestational age at ... Read More »
» Published in J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006 Oct;16(10):648-51.
12. Protective cell-mediated immunity by DNA vaccination against Papillomavirus L1 capsid protein in the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model.
Match Strength: 2.278
Papillomavirus major capsid protein L1 has successfully stimulated protective immunity against virus infection by induction of neutralizing antibodies in animal models and in clinical trials. However, the potential impact of L1-induced protective cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses is difficult to measure in vivo because of the coincidence of anti-L1 antibody. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that L1 could activate CMI, using the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model. A unique property of this model is that infections can be initiated with viral DNA, thus bypassing all ... Read More »
» Published in Viral Immunol. 2006 Summer;19(3):492-507.
13. ANN-based mapping of febrile subjects in mass thermogram screening: facts and myths.
Match Strength: 2.275
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a highly infectious disease caused by a coronavirus. Screening to detect potential SARS-infected subjects with elevated body temperature plays an important role in preventing the spread of SARS. Thermography is being used with ANN/AI to analyse the data collected from the designated SARS hospital in Singapore, and conclusive results are drawn. The current work evaluates the correlations (and classifications) between facial skin temperatures, including eye range and forehead, to aural temperature using a neural network (NN) approach, namely training ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Eng Technol. 2006 Sep-Oct;30(5):330-7.
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