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Chancroid
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1. Gross and microscopic features in chancroid: a study in 200 new culture-proven cases in San Salvador.
Match Strength: 14.018

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A better knowledge of gross and microscopic features in chancroid are important in this increased frequency disease. STUDY DESIGN: Two biopsies were taken from each one of 200 culture-proven cases of chancroid, and studied through different stains. RESULTS: The ratio male/female was 15.7/1, and adenopathies were found in 87%. Biopsies showed edema, lymphohistiocytic inflammation and fibrinoid vasculitis, as well as the presence of numerous eosinophils and Russell bodies. CONCLUSION: Biopsy should be considered as an important tool for the diagnostic of chancroid ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Dis. 1994 Mar-Apr;21(2):112-7.

2. Co-occurrence of chancroid and gonorrhea.
Match Strength: 13.498

BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea and chancroid are common sexually transmitted infections in many parts of the world. Still, co-occurrence of these two conditions is uncommonly reported. OBJECTIVE: We present here a patient who presented with painful genital ulcers and urethral discharge simultaneously acquired from a single exposure, which turned out to be chancroid and gonorrhea, respectively. Both conditions responded well to a single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone 250 mg. CONCLUSION: This report describes the uncommon occurrence of gonorrhea and chancroid in a patient. Clinical features, relevant ... Read More »
» Published in J Cutan Med Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;10(1):41-4.

3. Eradicating chancroid.
Match Strength: 11.698

Genital ulcers are important cofactors of HIV transmission in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. Chancroid is a common cause of genital ulcer in all 18 countries where adult HIV prevalence surpasses 8% and is rare in countries with low-level HIV epidemics. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative organism of chancroid, is biologically vulnerable and occupies a precarious epidemiological niche. Both simple, topical hygiene and male circumcision greatly reduce risk of infection and several classes of antibiotics--some of which can be administered in single-dose treatment regimens- ... Read More »
» Published in Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(9):818-26. Epub 2001 Oct 23.

4. An immunohistochemical analysis of naturally occurring chancroid.
Match Strength: 11.432

Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of genital ulcer disease in many developing countries and is associated with augmented transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the mechanisms through which H. ducreyi produces ulceration are poorly understood. The characteristics of the host response to H. ducreyi and the pathobiology of its potential contribution to increased HIV susceptibility are not known. Chancroid ulcer biopsies from 8 patients were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. All biopsies had perivascular and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates that ... Read More »
» Published in J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug;174(2):427-30.

5. Immunization with the Haemophilus ducreyi hemoglobin receptor HgbA protects against infection in the swine model of chancroid.
Match Strength: 11.040

The etiologic agent of chancroid is Haemophilus ducreyi. To fulfill its obligate requirement for heme, H. ducreyi uses two TonB-dependent receptors: the hemoglobin receptor (HgbA) and a receptor for free heme (TdhA). Expression of HgbA is necessary for H. ducreyi to survive and initiate disease in a human model of chancroid. In this study, we used a swine model of H. ducreyi infection to demonstrate that an experimental HgbA vaccine efficiently prevents chancroid, as determined by several parameters. Histological sections of immunized animals lacked typical microscopic features of chancroid. ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2006 Apr;74(4):2224-32.

6. Treatment of chancroid with a single dose of spectinomycin
Match Strength: 10.925

Fifty patients with lesions characteristic of chancroid were enrolled in an open-label prospective study to examine the efficacy of a single 2-gm dose of spectinomycin for treatment of chancroid. Only those patients (41 men; aged 18 to 49 years) with positive culture results for Haemophilus ducreyi were included in the analysis. Patients each received a single 2-gm dose of spectinomycin intramuscularly. The recovery process began on the third day of follow-up, as evidenced by the occurrence of epithelialization and a decrease in inflammation. By the seventh day after treatment, only one ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Dis. 1992 Sep-Oct;19(5):291-4.

7. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Match Strength: 9.213

OBJECTIVES: Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the associations between male circumcision and infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Treponema pallidum, or Haemophilus ducreyi. METHODS: Electronic databases (1950-2004) were searched using keywords and text terms for herpes simplex, ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Infect. 2006 Apr;82(2):101-9; discussion 110.

8. Localization of Haemophilus ducreyi in naturally acquired chancroidal ulcers.
Match Strength: 8.847

Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. In human inoculation experiments, bacteria colocalize with neutrophils and macrophages but remain extracellular. The organism also colocalizes with collagen and fibrin but not with keratinocytes, fibroblasts, laminin, or fibronectin. These relationships are established by 48 h postinoculation and persist through the pustular stage of disease. To extend these observations to the ulcerative stage of disease, and to compare results in the human model with those of natural disease, we obtained biopsies from ... Read More »
» Published in Microbes Infect. 2006 Aug;8(9-10):2465-8. Epub 2006 Jul 25.

9. The Cytolethal Distending Toxin of Haemophilus Ducreyi Aggravates Dermal Lesions in a Rabbit Model of Chancroid
Match Strength: 8.128

Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) that inhibits cultured cell proliferation, leading to cell death. A rabbit model of dermal infection was used to investigate the roles of H. ducreyi bacteria and HdCDT in the development, clinical appearance, and persistence of infection. A non-toxin producing H. ducreyi strain, and for comparison purposes a non-capsulated Haemophilus influenzae strain, were inoculated intradermally, with and without co-administration of purified HdCDT. Co-administration of ... Read More »
» Published in Microbes Infect. 2005 May;7(5-6):867-74. Epub 2005 Apr 20.

10. Expression of Haemophilus ducreyi collagen binding outer membrane protein NcaA is required for virulence in swine and human challenge models of chancroid.
Match Strength: 7.837

Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid, has been shown to associate with dermal collagen fibers within infected skin lesions. Here we describe NcaA, a previously uncharacterized outer membrane protein that is important for H. ducreyi collagen binding and host colonization. An H. ducreyi strain lacking the ncaA gene was impaired in adherence to type I collagen but not fibronectin (plasma or cellular form) or heparin. The mutation had no effect on serum resistance or binding to HaCaT keratinocytes or human foreskin fibroblasts in ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2006 May;74(5):2651-8.

11. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia.
Match Strength: 7.201

BACKGROUND: Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. METHODS: This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. RESULTS: A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%), gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%), syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%), ... Read More »
» Published in BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 10;6:3.

12. Molecular characterization of Haemophilus ducreyi isolates from different geographical locations.
Match Strength: 7.015

The technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was adapted and optimized to study Haemophilus ducreyi isolates. A panel of 43 strains isolated from chancroid patients from different countries in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia were characterized. The strains were also studied with respect to lipooligosaccharide (LOS) migration and immunoblotting patterns and the presence of cytolethal distending toxin genes. The RAPD method with the OPJ20 primer generated nine banding patterns (1 to 9). The majority of the isolates were clustered into two major profiles, 14 and 13 strains ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Jan;44(1):132-7.

13. Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: a review.
Match Strength: 6.764

OBJECTIVES: To review studies of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in South Africa between 1985 and 2003 in selected sentinel populations. To examine how STI prevalence varies between populations and to identify the limitations of the existing data. METHODS: Studies of the prevalence of syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were considered. Results were included if they related to women attending antenatal clinics or family planning ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Infect. 2005 Aug;81(4):287-93.

14. Syphilis and gonorrhoea in the Czech Republic.
Match Strength: 6.222

Syphilis remains a public health problem in the Czech Republic and worldwide. The Czech Republic--until 1993 a part of Czechoslovakia--has a long tradition in public health activities, and STI surveillance is mainly focused on the infections traditionally called venereal diseases--syphilis, gonorrhoea, chancroid, and lymphogranuloma venereum. Campaigns from the early 1950s, were successful in controlling syphilis and gonorrhoea; and chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum infections are extremely rare. In late 1980s, a low incidence of newly reported syphilis cases was achieved (100-200 cases ... Read More »
» Published in Euro Surveill. 2004 Dec;9(12):18-20.

15. Clinical patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual practices in the Farwaniya region of Kuwait.
Match Strength: 6.099

Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are common worldwide, but there are few studies available on STDs from the Gulf countries, including Kuwait. Our goal was to determine the clinical patterns, sociodemographic factors, and sexual practices of patients with STDs who attended a government hospital in the Farwaniya region of Kuwait. Methods All patients seen over a 1-year period (July 2003 to June 2004), who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of STDs, were included. Sociodemographic details and clinical findings were recorded. The diagnosis of each STD was based mainly on ... Read More »
» Published in Int J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;46(6):594-9.

16. Haemophilus ducreyi causing chronic skin ulceration in children visiting Samoa.
Match Strength: 6.051

Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection associated with genital ulceration and lymphadenopathy caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. Localized skin infections, in the absence of genital lesions, have not been previously reported. We report 3 cases of lower limb ulceration in children caused by H. ducreyi and postulate that H. ducreyi may be a previously unrecognized cause of chronic skin ulceration ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Infect Dis. 2007 May 15;44(10):e85-7. Epub 2007 Apr 4.

17. Empirical observations underestimate the proportion of human immunodeficiency virus infections attributable to sexually transmitted diseases in the Mwanza and Rakai sexually transmitted disease treatment trials: Simulation results.
Match Strength: 6.001

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Population attributable fractions (PAF) from observational studies may under- or overestimate the contribution of cofactor sexually transmitted disease (STD) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Empirical PAF estimates from the Mwanza and Rakai trials indicated the proportion of HIV infections attributable to STDs was higher in Mwanza than Rakai. GOAL OF THIS STUDY: Estimate the "true" proportion (PAFM) of HIV infections attributable to STDs in the Mwanza and Rakai STD trial populations and explore how the evaluated interventions prevented HIV infections. ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Sep;33(9):536-44. Comment in: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):61; author reply 62.

18. Understanding differences between contrasting HIV epidemics in East and West Africa: results from a simulation model of the Four Cities Study.
Match Strength: 5.304

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if the observed differences in risk behaviours, proportion of males circumcised and STI prevalences observed in two African cities with low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaounde, Cameroon) and two cities with high prevalence (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia) could explain the contrasting HIV epidemics in the four cities. METHODS: An individual-based stochastic model, STDSIM, was fitted to the demographic, behavioural and epidemiological characteristics of the four urban study populations based on the data from the Four Cities Study and other relevant sources. ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Infect. 2007 Apr 3;

19. Binding of Haemophilus ducreyi to carbohydrate receptors is mediated by the 58.5-kDa GroEL heat shock protein.
Match Strength: 4.925

The bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, which is characterized by the appearance of mucocutaneous, persistent ulcers on the external genitals. To identify carbohydrate receptors that mediate the attachment of this pathogen to host cells, we investigated the binding of 35S-methionine-labeled H. ducreyi strains to a panel of defined glycosphingolipids that were separated on thin layer chromatography plates. H. ducreyi bound to lactosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, gangliotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, the GM3 ganglioside, and ... Read More »
» Published in Microbes Infect. 2006 Aug;8(9-10):2452-8. Epub 2006 Jul 7.

20. The legal framework covering the practice of genitourinary medicine in the UK: the Venereal Diseases Regulations.
Match Strength: 4.693

The legal framework governing the practice of genitourinary medicine is traced from 1916 to the present. The first legislation, the Public Health (Venereal Diseases) Regulations of 1916 was comprehensive, and accompanied by guidance on setting up outpatient clinics and their supporting laboratories with practical advice on taking samples to support clinical diagnosis. Confidentiality was emphasized. The regulations led to the development of a nationwide network of clinics providing free care, open at times convenient to the public, and situated in general hospitals in large centres of ... Read More »
» Published in Int J STD AIDS. 2001 Nov;12(11):701-4.

21. Male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Match Strength: 4.526

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2005, 4.1 million people were infected with HIV. There is an urgent need to intensify and expand HIV prevention methods. Male circumcision is one of several potential approaches. This review summarizes recent evidence for the potential of male circumcision to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. RECENT FINDINGS: The first randomized controlled trial of adult male circumcision found a highly significant 60% reduction in HIV incidence among men in the intervention arm. Modelling this effect predicts that widespread implementation of male circumcision could ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb;20(1):66-72.

22. Experimental infection with Haemophilus ducreyi in persons who are infected with HIV does not cause local or augment systemic viral replication.
Match Strength: 4.389

We infected 11 HIV-seropositive volunteers whose CD4(+) cell counts were >350 cells/ microL (7 of whom were receiving antiretrovirals) with Haemophilus ducreyi. The papule and pustule formation rates were similar to those observed in HIV-seronegative historical control subjects. No subject experienced a sustained change in CD4(+) cell count or HIV RNA level. The cellular infiltrate in biopsy samples obtained from the HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects did not differ with respect to the percentage of leukocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, or T cells. The CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio ... Read More »
» Published in J Infect Dis. 2007 May 15;195(10):1443-51. Epub 2007 Apr 5.

23. Profile of men suffering from sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan.
Match Strength: 4.359

BACKGROUND: To evolve effective prevention and efficient treatment strategies for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a country, comprehensive understanding of the prevalent STI and their modes of transmission is needed. The aim of this present study was to generate such data for Pakistan. METHODS: The study was conducted between June 1999 and September 1999 in four provincial capitals. In each city, data was collected from one or more teaching hospitals and a number of general practitioners. During this period, 465 men suffering from STIs were interviewed. RESULTS: The mean age of study ... Read More »
» Published in J Pak Med Assoc. 2006 Jan;56(1 Suppl 1):S60-5. Republished from: J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2003 Apr-Jun;15(2):15-9.

24. Trends in the Use of Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnostic Technologies in California, 1996-2003.
Match Strength: 4.297

OBJECTIVE:: To describe trends in STD diagnostic test volume and test technology in California from 1996 to 2003. STUDY:: A self-administered survey was mailed annually to licensed clinical laboratories in California that performed STD testing. Data were collected on volume and diagnostic test type for chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, HIV, hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human papilloma virus (HPV). Data were analyzed for trends over time. RESULTS:: Response rates ranged from 77% to 99% per survey year. The total number of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis tests ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan 30;

25. Sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected persons.
Match Strength: 4.271

It appears incontestable that there is a link between genital ulcer disease and HIV infection. On the one hand the natural history and response to therapy of syphilis, HSV-2, and chancroid are all modified by the immunosuppressive effects of HIV infection. On the other hand, HIV transmission is probably facilitated by the disruption of the normal epithelial barriers of the genital organs caused by these ulcerative infections. Information is somewhat less convincing that a similar association exists between the nonulcerative STDs (trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections) and HIV. ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1994 Jun;8(2):439-48.

26. Role of lipooligosaccharides in experimental dermal lesions caused by Haemophilus ducreyi
Match Strength: 4.228

The mouse and rabbit intradermal injection models have been used to define factors that may be important in Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis. We used H. ducreyi strains with diverse geographic origins and phenotypic characteristics to evaluate the experimental models. Injection of live and heat-killed bacteria caused skin abscesses in both models. Semiquantitative cultures of skin injected with live bacteria showed that H. ducreyi failed to replicate in animal tissue. These data suggested that the experimental lesions were caused by a heat-stable substance such as lipooligosaccharide (LOS). In ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 1991 Aug;59(8):2601-8.

27. Haemophilus ducreyi targets Src family protein tyrosine kinases to inhibit phagocytic signaling.
Match Strength: 4.121

Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, has been shown to inhibit phagocytosis of both itself and secondary targets in vitro. Immunodepletion of LspA proteins from H. ducreyi culture supernatant fluid abolished this inhibitory effect, indicating that the LspA proteins are necessary for the inhibition of phagocytosis by H. ducreyi. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that macrophages incubated with wild-type H. ducreyi, but not with a lspA1 lspA2 mutant, were unable to complete development of the phagocytic cup around immunoglobulin G-opsonized ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2005 Dec;73(12):7808-16.

28. The outer membrane protein DsrA is the major fibronectin-binding determinant of Haemophilus ducreyi.
Match Strength: 4.119

The ability to bind extracellular matrix proteins is a critical virulence determinant for skin pathogens. Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiological agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid, binds extracellular matrix components, including fibronectin (FN). We investigated H. ducreyi FN binding and report several important findings about this interaction. First, FN binding by H. ducreyi was greatly increased in bacteria grown on heme and almost completely inhibited by hemoglobin. Second, wild-type strain 35000HP bound significantly more FN than a dsrA mutant in two different FN binding assays. ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2008 Jan 22

29. Identification of a novel sialic acid transporter in Haemophilus ducreyi.
Match Strength: 4.101

Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which terminates in N-acetyllactosamine. This glycoform can be further extended by the addition of a single sialic acid residue to the terminal galactose moiety. H. ducreyi does not synthesize sialic acid, which must be acquired from the host during infection or from the culture medium when the bacteria are grown in vitro. However, H. ducreyi does not have genes that are highly homologous to the genes encoding known bacterial sialic acid transporters. In this study, we identified the sialic acid ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2005 Oct;73(10):6727-35.

30. CCR4 versus CCR10 in human cutaneous TH lymphocyte trafficking
Match Strength: 4.064

The chemokine receptors (CCRs) CCR4 and CCR10, and the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA), have each been proposed as critical mediators of skin-specific TH lymphocyte homing in mice and humans. CLA initiates skin homing by mediating E-selectin-dependent tethering and rolling within cutaneous venules, but the specific roles of CCR4 and CCR10 are unclear. We have generated an antihuman CCR10 monoclonal antibody (mAb; 1B5) to illuminate the individual contributions of these molecules. This mAb allows us to compare CCR10, CCR4, and CLA expression within human TH populations. The mAb 1B5 ... Read More »
» Published in Blood. 2003 Mar 1;101(5):1677-82. Epub 2002 Oct 24.

31. Identification of genes involved in the expression of atypical lipooligosaccharide structures from a second class of Haemophilus ducreyi.
Match Strength: 4.005

Haemophilus ducreyi is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of chancroid. Strain 35000HP has been well characterized and is representative of the majority of H. ducreyi strains. Strain 35000HP produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that contains D-glycero-D-manno-heptose in the main oligosaccharide chain extension; the lbgB gene has been shown to encode the DD-heptosyltransferase. The lbgB gene is found in a gene cluster together with the lbgA gene, which encodes for the galactosyltransferase I. These two genes are flanked by two housekeeping genes, rpmE and xthA, encoding the ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2007 Jan;75(1):113-21. Epub 2006 Oct 9.

32. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted urethritis and circumcision: a meta-analysis.
Match Strength: 3.953

The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of circumcision status to the risk for genital ulcerative disease (GUD) and sexually transmitted urethritis. A MEDLINE search and a review of references in published articles identified studies addressing the risk of sexually transmitted urethritis or GUD based on circumcision status. Meta-analyses, sensitivity analysis, and exploration for publication bias were performed. Thirty articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The data from one study were published twice. GUD showed a trend towards being more common in genitally intact ... Read More »
» Published in Int J STD AIDS. 2007 Dec;18(12):799-809.

33. Prevalence of cdtABC genes encoding cytolethal distending toxin among Haemophilus ducreyi and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains.
Match Strength: 3.864

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the three cdtABC genes responsible for production of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) in Haemophilus ducreyi and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains. Of 100 H. ducreyi strains from the culture collection of the University of Goteborg (CCUG), 27 strains with low or intermediate cytotoxic titre (< 1 in 10(4)) and 23 of the remaining isolates with a high cytotoxic titre (> or = 1 in 10(4)) were selected. Twenty-nine strains of H. ducreyi were isolated recently from patients with chancroid and 50 A. actinomycetemcomitans ... Read More »
» Published in J Med Microbiol. 2001 Oct;50(10):860-4.

34. PL10 Oral manifestations of orogenital bacterial infections.
Match Strength: 3.846

Orogenital sex in the last decades has become a common sexual practice (fellatio and cunnilingus) between both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Consequently, several sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including bacterial infections, are a persistent problem in Europe and throughout the world, despite vigorous efforts in prevention and people education. The last two decades, HIV infection, revived the interest of the medical community and the people for the sexually transmitted diseases. Many of these bacterial infections present predominantly with characteristic oral signs and ... Read More »
» Published in Oral Dis. 2006 Sep;12(s1):2-3.

35. Detection and discrimination of herpes simplex viruses, Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis from genital ulcers.
Match Strength: 3.703

BACKGROUND: Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is commonly caused by pathogens for which suitable therapies exist, but clinical and laboratory diagnoses may be problematic. This collaborative project was undertaken to address the need for a rapid, economical, and sensitive approach to the detection and diagnosis of GUD using noninvasive techniques to sample genital ulcers. METHODS: The genital ulcer disease multiplex polymerase chain reaction (GUMP) was developed as an inhouse nucleic acid amplification technique targeting serious causes of GUD, namely, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs), H. ducreyi, ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 15;42(10):1431-8. Epub 2006 Apr 13. Erratum in: Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 15;43(2):270.

36. Telling Signs and Symptoms
Match Strength: 3.589

PIP: Each year 250 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to cause pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, blindness, and death. Sometimes the onset of these STDs is symptomless, but the following conditions indicate the presence of an STD: genital discharge, sores, wounds, or blisters; swollen glands in the groin; cauliflower-like growths on the genitals; skin rash; lower abdominal pain in females; painful swelling in the testicles; alopecia; discharge from the eyes; and pain during intercourse. The 5 most common STDs which can be cured with ... Read More »
» Published in Afr Women Health. 1994 Jul-Sep;2(3):31-7.

37. The contribution of cytolethal distending toxin to bacterial pathogenesis.
Match Strength: 3.568

Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a bacterial toxin that initiates a eukaryotic cell cycle block at the G2 stage prior to mitosis. CDT is produced by a number of bacterial pathogens including: Campylobacter species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Shigella dystenteriae, enterohepatic Helicobacter species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (the cause of aggressive periodontitis), and Haemophilus ducreyi (the cause of chancroid). The functional toxin is composed of three proteins; CdtB potentiates a cascade leading to cell cycle block, and CdtA and CdtC function as ... Read More »
» Published in Crit Rev Microbiol. 2006 Oct-Dec;32(4):227-48.

38. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.
Match Strength: 3.540

Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD) - Behcet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted ... Read More »
» Published in Braz J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr;11(2):254-60.

39. The proportion of new HIV infections attributable to HSV- 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics.
Match Strength: 3.534

OBJECTIVE: To understand the changing impact of HSV-2 and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) on HIV incidence over time in four sub-Saharan African cities using simulation models. METHODS: An individual-based stochastic model was fitted to demographic, behavioural and epidemiological data from cross-sectional population-based surveys in four African cities (Kisumu, Kenya; Ndola, Zambia; Yaounde, Cameroon; and Cotonou, Benin) in 1997. To estimate the proportion of new HIV infections attributable to HSV-2 and other STIs over time, HIV incidence in the fitted model was compared to that ... Read More »
» Published in Sex Transm Infect. 2007 Apr 3;

40. Biosynthesis of sialylated lipooligosaccharides in Haemophilus ducreyi is dependent on exogenous sialic acid and not mannosamine. Incorporation studies using N-acylmannosamine analogues, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and 13C-labeled N-acetylneuraminic acid.
Match Strength: 3.534

Haemophilus ducreyi is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease. Cell surface lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of H. ducreyi are thought to play important biological roles in host infection. The vast majority of H. ducreyi strains contain high levels of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuAc) in their LOS. Here we investigate the biosynthetic origin of H. ducreyi sialosides by metabolic incorporation studies using a panel of N-acylmannosamine and sialic acid analogues. Incorporation of sialosides into LOS was assessed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ... Read More »
» Published in Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 23;40(42):12666-77.

41. Changing trends in sexually transmitted infections at a Regional STD Centre in north India.
Match Strength: 3.417

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a major public health problem in India show various trends in different parts of the country. However, there are limited data on the changing profile of laboratory proven STIs in the same clinic over the years. The present study was thus aimed to determine the changing trends of the profile of STIs and HIV seropositivity in STD clinic attendees over a 15 yr period, and also to detect change, if any, in the antimicrobial resistance pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: The STIs were diagnosed clinically and confirmed by ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Med Res. 2006 Nov;124(5):559-68.

42. Changing trends in sexually transmitted infections at a Regional STD Centre in north India.
Match Strength: 3.417

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a major public health problem in India show various trends in different parts of the country. However, there are limited data on the changing profile of laboratory proven STIs in the same clinic over the years. The present study was thus aimed to determine the changing trends of the profile of STIs and HIV seropositivity in STD clinic attendees over a 15 yr period, and also to detect change, if any, in the antimicrobial resistance pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: The STIs were diagnosed clinically and confirmed by ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Med Res. 2006 Nov;124(5):559-68.

43. The role of Haemophilus ducreyi bacteria, cytotoxin, endotoxin and antibodies in animal models for study of chancroid
Match Strength: 3.155

Haemophilus ducreyi cytotoxin-positive and -negative strains as well as bacterial sonicates and lipooligosaccharides (LOS) from such strains were evaluated for the capacity to produce dermonecrotic lesions, especially ulcers, after intradermal injections to rabbits and to different mouse strains, including nude mice. Dermonecrotic lesions of the ulcerous type were observed within 4 days and they were developed in both rabbits and mice with about 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of H. ducreyi. Viable bacteria were isolated from the lesions up to 9 days after inoculation. All lesions healed ... Read More »
» Published in Microb Pathog. 1992 Sep;13(3):203-17.

44. Knowledge of Aids and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Women Attending a Family Planning Clinic in Nairobi, Kenya
Match Strength: 3.118

We interviewed 1,716 women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi between January 1990 and May 1991 about their knowledge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). When participants in the study were asked to name spontaneously the STDs they knew, more than 90% of the women named gonorrhea and AIDS, and 75.0% named syphilis; 65.4% could name two or more signs of AIDS; and 96.9%, 66.5%, and 58.3% mentioned sexual transmission, transmission via blood transfusion, and perinatal transmission, respectively, as routes of transmission of ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Prev Med. 1993 Jan-Feb;9(1):1-5. Comment in: Am J Prev Med. 1993 Jan-Feb;9(1):62-4.

45. Improving the National Board of Medical Examiners Internal Medicine Subject Exam For Use in Clerkship Evaluation
Match Strength: 3.077

OBJECTIVE: To provide a consensus opinion on modifying the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Medicine Subject Exam (Shelf) to: 1) reflect the internal medicine clerkship curriculum, developed by the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) and the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM); 2) emphasize knowledge important for a clerkship student; and 3) obtain feedback about students' performances on the Shelf. DESIGN: Two-round Delphi technique. PARTICIPANTS: The CDIM Research and Evaluation Committee and CDIM members on NBME Step 2 Committees. MEASUREMENTS: Using 1-5 Likert ... Read More »
» Published in J Gen Intern Med. 2002 Jun;17(6):435-40.

46. Historical account of venereal diseases in Mexico.
Match Strength: 2.917

This paper reviews the history of sexually acquired diseases in Mexico. It is divided into four major chronological sections which discuss social attitudes and values, the development of services and of official policy, and historical epidemiology. PIP: During the pre-conquest period of 1325-1521, Mexico was inhabited by more than 80 distinct ethnographic groups, disconnected, and with cultures less developed than those of the Aztec and Maya. Male polygamy was accepted only among nobles, although warriors received sexual services from groups of women who lived isolated from society. Adultery ... Read More »
» Published in Genitourin Med. 1993 Dec;69(6):462-6.

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