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Bone Fractures
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1. Diagnostic values of sonography for assessment of sternal fractures compared with conventional radiography and bone scans.
Match Strength: 9.550

OBJECTIVE: This study was prospectively undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic value of sonography for detection of sternal fractures. We compared sonographic, conventional radiographic, and bone scan examinations of sternal fractures. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients (26 male and 24 female; mean age, 45.2 years) were evaluated. Conventional radiography and sonography were performed in all patients, and bone scans were performed in 39 patients. All patients had acute pain and tenderness in anterior midline chest areas. Sonography was performed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists within 1 to 2 ... Read More »
» Published in J Ultrasound Med. 2006 Oct;25(10):1263-8; quiz 1269-70.

2. Ultrasonographic examination for inversion ankle sprains associated with osseous injuries.
Match Strength: 8.383

OBJECTIVE: The study attempted to evaluate the value of ultrasonography in determining the therapeutic strategy for patients with osseous injuries caused by ankle sprains. DESIGN: A 10-MHz compact linear-array ultrasound transducer was used to assess patients with inversion ankle sprains. Eleven female and 12 male patients who had fractures detected by sonograms were included in the study. All 23 patients underwent radiographic examination for identification of fractures. Bone scintigraphy was performed for those who had negative x-ray findings. RESULTS: Eighteen patients had distal fibular ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Oct;85(10):785-92.

3. Subtrochanteric femoral fractures due to simple bone cysts in children.
Match Strength: 7.756

Seven children were treated surgically as a result of a pathologic fracture through a simple bone cyst in the subtrochanteric region of the proximal femur. Average age at surgery was 10.6 years. Six children were treated primarily. One child was operated for a refracture through a persistent cyst and malunion of a previous fracture that had been treated nonoperatively. Surgery included curettage of cysts in all patients. The cysts were filled with autologous bone graft in five patients and Osteoset bone substitute in two patients. The fracture was stabilized using a blade plate in three ... Read More »
» Published in J Pediatr Orthop B. 2006 Nov;15(6):439-42.

4. Comparison of lateral locking plate and antiglide plate for fixation of distal fibular fractures in osteoporotic bone: a biomechanical study.
Match Strength: 7.643

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of posterolateral antiglide plating and lateral locked plating for fixation of displaced short oblique fractures of the fibula in osteoporotic bone. METHODS: Short oblique fractures of the distal fibula at the level of the syndesmosis were simulated with a fibular osteotomy and ligamentous sectioning in 18 paired fresh frozen ankles. The fractures were fixed with either a lateral locking plate with an independent lag screw or a posterolateral antiglide plate with a lag screw through the plate. The specimens were ... Read More »
» Published in J Orthop Trauma. 2006 Sep;20(8):562-6.

5. Genetic regulation of bone mass and susceptibility to osteoporosis.
Match Strength: 7.252

Osteoporosis is a common disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass and increased risk of fragility fractures. Twin and family studies have shown that the heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other determinants of fracture risk-such as ultrasound properties of bone, skeletal geometry, and bone turnover-is high, although heritability of fracture is modest. Many different genetic variants of modest effect size are likely to contribute to the regulation of these phenotypes by interacting with environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Linkage ... Read More »
» Published in Genes Dev. 2006 Sep 15;20(18):2492-506.

6. Fat embolism syndrome: history, definition, epidemiology.
Match Strength: 7.228

The first clinical case of fat embolism was described over 100 years ago and significant progress has been made in the understanding of this condition since then. Gurd's criteria, consisting of major and minor clinical features, is the most commonly used diagnostic tool in the literature. Due to the lack of a gold standard for diagnosis, clinical criteria cannot be validated. It is now recognized that although fat embolization occurs in the majority of patients with long bone fractures, clinical signs and symptoms occur only in 1-10% of patients with fractures ... Read More »
» Published in Injury. 2006 Oct;37(4S):S3-S7.

7. Traumatic fracture in a healthy man: benign or pathologic?
Match Strength: 7.016

OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenge of determining the correct diagnosis in a healthy adult male patient with a recent femoral fracture and a history of multiple bone fractures. METHODS: We present clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic details in a patient with a history of recurrent fractures associated with minimal trauma. Moreover, the various types of osteopetrosis are reviewed. RESULTS: A 34-year-old African American man was in his usual state of good health when he fell hard on concrete. Immediately after the fall, he was able to bear weight, although pain prompted him ... Read More »
» Published in Endocr Pract. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5):552-8.

8. Racing performance after arthroscopic removal of apical sesamoid fracture fragments in Thoroughbred horses age > or = 2 years: 84 cases (1989-2002).
Match Strength: 6.693

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Studies have shown that surgical removal of apical fracture fragments in Standardbred racehorses carries the best prognosis for return to racing performance, but there are no reports involving mature Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of apical proximal sesamoid fractures in TB racehorses and determine probability and quality of racing performance after arthroscopic removal of such fractures in TB racehorses age > or = 2 years. METHODS: Medical records and pre- and post operative race records of TB racehorses age > or = 2 ... Read More »
» Published in Equine Vet J. 2006 Sep;38(5):446-51.

9. Computer-assisted surgical treatment of orbitozygomatic fractures.
Match Strength: 6.386

Orbitozygomatic fractures pertain to the most common injuries in craniofacial trauma patients. Accurate fracture reduction is of high importance for a successful outcome. This pilot study was performed to assess the potential benefit of surgical navigation to aid in orbitozygomatic fracture reduction. A non-comparative series of five consecutive patients with severely displaced orbitozygomatic fractures was treated using the guidance of computed tomography (CT)-based surgical navigation. Using a previously developed software platform, the fracture was reduced virtually by a three-dimensional ... Read More »
» Published in J Craniofac Surg. 2006 Sep;17(5):837-42.

10. Medical management of patients over 80 years admitted to orthopedic surgery for low-energy fracture.
Match Strength: 6.316

OBJECTIVE: To develop a cost-effective strategy for improving osteoporosis management in patients admitted to an orthopedic surgery department for low-energy fractures. METHODS: From November 2003 to July 2004, all patients over 50 years admitted to the orthopedics department of the Caen Teaching Hospital (France) for low-energy fractures were identified and evaluated by rheumatology department physicians in the same hospital. RESULTS: During the study period, 313 patients were identified, 257 women (mean age, 79.5+/-10.2 years) and 56 men (mean age, 74.6+/-10.8 years), each with one fracture ... Read More »
» Published in Joint Bone Spine. 2006 Jul 21;

11. Intramedullary nailing of proximal quarter tibial fractures.
Match Strength: 6.291

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of intramedullary nailing of proximal quarter tibial fractures with special emphasis on techniques of reduction. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: During a 36-month period, 456 patients with fractures of the tibial shaft (OTA type 42) or proximal tibial metaphysis (OTA type 41A2, 41A3, and 41C2) were treated operatively at a level 1 trauma center. Thirty-five patients with 37 fractures were treated primarily with intramedullary nailing of their proximal quarter tibial fractures and formed the study group. Thirteen ... Read More »
» Published in J Orthop Trauma. 2006 Sep;20(8):523-8.

12. Bone fragility: failure of periosteal apposition to compensate for increased endocortical resorption in postmenopausal women.
Match Strength: 5.825

The increase in bone fragility after menopause results from reduced periosteal bone formation and increased endocortical resorption. Women with highest remodeling had greatest loss of bone mass and estimated bone strength, whereas those with low remodeling lost less bone and maintained estimated bone strength. INTRODUCTION: Bone loss from the inner (endocortical) surface contributes to bone fragility, whereas deposition of bone on the outer (periosteal) surface is believed to be an adaptive response to maintain resistance to bending. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test this hypothesis, changes in ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Dec;21(12):1856-63.

13. Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss.
Match Strength: 5.320

The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ... Read More »
» Published in Oncology (Williston Park). 2006 Aug;20(9):1029-39; discussion 1039-40, 1042, 1048.

14. Selective estrogen receptor modulators to prevent treatment-related osteoporosis.
Match Strength: 5.138

The intended therapeutic effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists is hypogonadism, which is a leading cause of osteoporosis in men. Consistent with this observation, GnRH agonists decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture risk in men with prostate cancer. GnRH agonists markedly decrease serum levels of both testosterone and estrogen. Estrogens play a central role in homeostasis of the normal male skeleton, and the available evidence suggests that estrogen deficiency rather than testosterone deficiency accounts for the adverse skeletal effects of GnRH agonists. The ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Urol. 2005;7 Suppl 3:S30-5.

15. Biomechanical evaluation of different types of rigid internal fixation techniques for subcondylar fractures.
Match Strength: 4.847

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of various internal fixation systems for subcondylar fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen identical synthetic mandibles were used. Left condylar processes were cut to mimic perpendicular subcondylar fracture and right sides were mimicked oblique subcondylar fracture. The fixation systems used included single 4-hole mini adaptation plate, double fixation with the same plates, single 4-hole mini dynamic compression plate (DCP), Eckelt lag screw system, Wurzburg lag screw plate system and double 4-hole biodegradable ... Read More »
» Published in J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Oct;64(10):1510-6.

16. Size-corrected BMD decreases during peak linear growth: implications for fracture incidence during adolescence.
Match Strength: 4.692

Peak adolescent fracture incidence at the distal end of the radius coincides with a decline in size-corrected BMD in both boys and girls. Peak gains in bone area preceded peak gains in BMC in a longitudinal sample of boys and girls, supporting the theory that the dissociation between skeletal expansion and skeletal mineralization results in a period of relative bone weakness. INTRODUCTION: The high incidence of fracture in adolescence may be related to a period of relative skeletal fragility resulting from dissociation between bone expansion and bone mineralization during the growing years. ... Read More »
» Published in J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Dec;21(12):1864-70.

17. Proximal humeral fractures: regional differences in bone mineral density of the humeral head affect the fixation strength of cancellous screws.
Match Strength: 4.624

The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the humeral head and determine the effects of trabecular BMD on the pullout strength of cancellous screws. Five regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in the humeral head (superior- anterior, superior-posterior, central, inferior-anterior, and inferior-posterior). The trabecular BMD of each ROI was determined by use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Cancellous screws were inserted in each ROI and cyclically loaded. The superior-anterior ROI had a lower trabecular BMD than all ... Read More »
» Published in J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct;15(5):620-4. Epub 2006 Aug 7.

18. Safety of adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.
Match Strength: 4.602

The long-term effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on lipids and bone and cardiovascular and gynecological health are of particular interest to clinicians. The safety data of anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane are limited to trials with follow-up periods of 5 years or less, and much of the data arise from comparisons with tamoxifen, a drug that has both estrogen agonist and antagonist effects. With the lack of extensive long-term data, indirect comparisons between the safety profiles of the AIs provide some insights. Although results from these indirect comparisons should be interpreted ... Read More »
» Published in Cancer Treat Rev. 2006 Nov;32(7):548-56. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

19. Early markers of acute respiratory distress syndrome development in severe trauma patients.
Match Strength: 4.424

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify early risk factors for development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 693 severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score >or=16 and/or Revised Trauma Score ... Read More »
» Published in J Crit Care. 2006 Sep;21(3):253-8.

20. Biomechanical analysis of blade plate versus locking plate fixation for a proximal humerus fracture: comparison using cadaveric and synthetic humeri.
Match Strength: 3.695

OBJECTIVE: To compare the mechanical stability of a fixed-angle blade plate with that of a locking plate in a cadaveric proximal humerus fracture-fixation model subjected to cyclic loading. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether the use of synthetic humerus specimens would replicate significant differences found during cadaveric tests. DESIGN: Mechanical evaluation of constructs in bending and torsion. SETTING: Biomechanical laboratory in an academic medical center. METHODS: Simulated humeral neck fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification 11A3), in matched-pair ... Read More »
» Published in J Orthop Trauma. 2006 Sep;20(8):547-54.

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