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Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
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 << Prev 20  Showing 1 to 20 of 22 Matches Next 20 >>

1. Sexual experience in female rodents: cellular mechanisms and functional consequences.
Match Strength: 8.941

The neurobiology of female sexual behavior has largely focused on mechanisms of hormone action on nerve cells and how these effects translate into the display of copulatory motor patterns. Of equal importance, though less studied, are some of the consequences of engaging in sexual behavior, including the rewarding properties of sexual interactions and how sexual experience alters copulatory efficiency. This review summarizes the effects of sexual experience on reward processes and copulation in female Syrian hamsters. Neural correlates of these sexual interactions include long-term cellular ... Read More »
» Published in Brain Res. 2006 Dec 18;1126(1):56-65. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

2. Alcohol and suicidal behavior in adolescents.
Match Strength: 8.819

This review describes epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, treatment and prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. As one of the leading causes of death of young adults, adolescent suicide has become a public health problem and an increase in the adolescent suicide rate has been observed over the past several decades. One important risk factor thought to contribute to the recent rise in suicidal behavior among young adults is increasing alcohol abuse among adolescents. The link between alcohol and suicide in adolescents is complicated and multiple risk factors are important in ... Read More »
» Published in Minerva Pediatr. 2006 Aug;58(4):333-9.

3. Operant matching is a generic outcome of synaptic plasticity based on the covariance between reward and neural activity.
Match Strength: 7.588

The probability of choosing an alternative in a long sequence of repeated choices is proportional to the total reward derived from that alternative, a phenomenon known as Herrnstein's matching law. This behavior is remarkably conserved across species and experimental conditions, but its underlying neural mechanisms still are unknown. Here, we propose a neural explanation of this empirical law of behavior. We hypothesize that there are forms of synaptic plasticity driven by the covariance between reward and neural activity and prove mathematically that matching is a generic outcome of such ... Read More »
» Published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 10;103(41):15224-9. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

4. Reproductive toxicity of trenbolone acetate in embryonically exposed Japanese quail.
Match Strength: 7.168

This study was conducted to assess the effects of a one time embryonic exposure to trenbolone acetate on reproductive development and function in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Embryos were exposed to either 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50mug trenbolone or a sesame oil vehicle control at embryonic day 4. Onset of puberty, gonadal histopathology, sperm motility, cloacal gland size, and male copulatory behavior were assessed in adults. Trenbolone delayed onset of puberty in males, inhibited cloacal gland development, and reduced male reproductive behaviors. Industry laboratories have shown trenbolone ... Read More »
» Published in Chemosphere. 2007 Jan;66(7):1191-6. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

5. Social environment regulates corticotropin releasing factor, corticosterone and vasopressin in juvenile prairie voles.
Match Strength: 7.066

Stressful social conditions, such as isolation, that occur during sensitive developmental periods may alter present and future social behavior. Changes in the neuroendocrine mechanisms closely associated with affiliative behaviors and stress reactivity are likely to underlie these changes in behavior. In the present study, we assessed the effects of post-weaning social housing conditions on the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT), and components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (corticotropin releasing factor: [CRF], and corticosterone: [CORT]) in the prairie ... Read More »
» Published in Horm Behav. 2007 Jan;51(1):54-61. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

6. Encouraging compliance with graduated driver licensing restrictions.
Match Strength: 7.007

PROBLEM: Although graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs have reduced the high crash rates for 16-and 17-year-old drivers, research suggests that some teenagers fail to comply with restrictions on nighttime driving and carrying passengers. METHOD: A program to encourage compliance with GDL restrictions and seat belt requirements was implemented in Guilford County, North Carolina. The program combined increased enforcement with a multi-faceted publicity campaign drawing attention to the enforcement activity. A comparison community was studied to assess whether changes over time could be ... Read More »
» Published in J Safety Res. 2006;37(4):343-51. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

7. Cellular and molecular alterations in mice with deficient and reduced serotonin transporters.
Match Strength: 6.082

The function of serotonin transporters (SERTs) is related to mood regulation. Mice with defi- cient or reduced SERT function (SERT knockout mice) show several behavioral changes, including increased anxiety-like behavior, increased sensitivity to stress, and decreases in aggressive behavior. Some of these behavioral alterations are similar to phenotypes found in humans with short alleles of polymorphism in the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Therefore, SERT knockout mice can be used as a tool to study 5-HTTLPRrelated variations in personality and may ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Neurobiol. 2006 Aug;34(1-2):51-66.

8. The importance of regional lymph nodes for mucosal tolerance.
Match Strength: 5.865

The immune system is organized as a number of distinct lymphoid organs interconnected by recirculating lymphocytes. These organs, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and gut-associated Peyer's patches, are compartmentalized, providing separate niches for T and B cells. In addition, regional compartmentalization of lymphoid organs themselves exists, leading to the distinction between the mucosal and the systemic immune systems. This distinction not only reflects the anatomical localization but also is based on functional differences, with predominant tolerance induction via mucosal routes and immunity ... Read More »
» Published in Immunol Rev. 2006 Oct;213:119-30.

9. Antibody structure, instability, and formulation.
Match Strength: 5.609

The number of therapeutic monoclonal antibody in development has increased tremendously over the last several years and this trend continues. At present there are more than 23 approved antibodies on the US market and an estimated 200 or more are in development. Although antibodies share certain structural similarities, development of commercially viable antibody pharmaceuticals has not been straightforward because of their unique and somewhat unpredictable solution behavior. This article reviews the structure and function of antibodies and the mechanisms of physical and chemical instabilities. ... Read More »
» Published in J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jan;96(1):1-26.

10. Effects of artificial social stimuli on the reproductive schedule and hormone levels of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes).
Match Strength: 5.359

The effects of social stimuli on avian reproductive behaviors such as breeding schedules and courtship behaviors are well known due to numerous field studies. However, studies that have simultaneously examined the effects of social stimuli on reproductive behavior and the mediating endocrine mechanisms have been largely restricted to captive populations, which may not be representative of free-living populations. This study, conducted over two breeding seasons, aimed to simultaneously measure the effects of experimentally increasing auditory stimuli on the breeding schedule and endocrinology ... Read More »
» Published in Horm Behav. 2007 Jan;51(1):46-53. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

11. The ins and outs of MYC regulation by posttranslational mechanisms.
Match Strength: 4.914

The proteins of the MYC family are key regulators of cell behavior. MYC, originally identified as an oncoprotein, affects growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cells through its ability to regulate a significant number of genes. In addition MYC governs events associated with tumor progression, including genetic stability, migration, and angiogenesis. The pleiotropic activities attributed to MYC and their balanced control requires that the expression and function of MYC is tightly controlled. Indeed many different pathways and factors have been identified that impinge on MYC ... Read More »
» Published in J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 17;281(46):34725-9. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

12. The full bibliography of Ernst Ludwig Wynder.
Match Strength: 4.498

The chronology of lifetime publications authored and/or co-authored by Dr. Ernst L. Wynder spans a rich assortment of topics relating to the etiology and prevention of chronic diseases. Dr. Wynder's interdisciplinary approach to research in cancer and heart disease embraces the disciplines of epidemiology, biology, pathology, chemistry, biochemistry, tobacco sciences, and nutrition as well as health behavior, and health education. His works reflect his attention to diverse subjects from methodology in scientific endeavors, to mechanisms in carcinogenesis, brain development, alternative ... Read More »
» Published in Prev Med. 2006 Oct;43(4):274-90. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

13. Elevated pCREB in the PAG after exposure to the elevated plus maze in rats previously exposed to a cat.
Match Strength: 4.445

The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an ethologically based test of anxiety-like behavior. In addition, exposure to the maze itself is stressful and anxiogenic. One of the goals of this study was to examine if the stress of EPM exposure increased pCREB-like-immunoreactivity (lir). The second goal of this study was to determine if prior stress impacted expression of pCREB-lir in animals exposed to the EPM. Toward this end, pCREB-lir was examined after exposure to the EPM in young adult male rats that had been exposed to a cat 7 days earlier. Brain areas investigated included the amygdala, ... Read More »
» Published in Behav Brain Res. 2006 Dec 15;175(2):285-95. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

14. Theoretical assessment of unsteady aerodynamic effects in phonation.
Match Strength: 4.163

This paper ranks the importance of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in glottal flow. Particular emphasis is given to separation point motion, acceleration of glottal airflow by vocal fold motion, and viscous blockage. How nondimensional parameters such as the Reynolds, Strouhal, and Womersley numbers help in this ranking is also addressed. An equation of motion is derived which includes terms explicitly describing the effects of interest, assuming (1) a symmetrical glottis, (2) zero pressure recovery downstream of the vocal folds, and (3) a quasisteady glottal jet. Estimating the order of ... Read More »
» Published in J Acoust Soc Am. 2006 Sep;120(3):1578-88.

15. Brain Mechanisms Mediating Auditory Attentional Capture in Humans.
Match Strength: 4.126

The ability to detect and preferentially process salient auditory stimuli, even when irrelevant to a current task, is often critical for adaptive behavior. This stimulus-driven allocation of processing resources is known as "attentional capture." Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to investigate brain activity and behavioral effects related to such auditory attentional capture. Participants searched a sequence of tones for a target tone that was shorter or longer than the nontarget tones. An irrelevant singleton feature in the tone sequence resulted in behavioral ... Read More »
» Published in Cereb Cortex. 2006 Sep 21;

16. The potential for accurately measuring behavioral and economic dimensions of consumption, prices, and markets for illegal drugs.
Match Strength: 3.728

There are numerous analytic and methodological limitations to current measures of drug market activity. This paper explores the structure of markets and individual user behavior to provide an integrated understanding of behavioral and economic (and market) aspects of illegal drug use with an aim toward developing improved procedures for measurement. This involves understanding the social processes that structure illegal distribution networks and drug users' interactions with them. These networks are where and how social behaviors, prices, and markets for illegal drugs intersect. Our focus is ... Read More »
» Published in Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 13;

17. Electroacupuncture (EA) modulates the expression of NMDA receptors in primary sensory neurons in relation to hyperalgesia in rats.
Match Strength: 3.547

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor on the central terminals of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) appears to be playing an important role in the development of central sensitization related to persistent inflammatory pain. Acupuncture analgesia has been confirmed by numerous clinical observations and experimental studies to be a useful treatment to release different kinds of pains, including inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia. However, the underlying mechanisms of the analgesic effect of acupuncture are not fully understood. In the present study, using a rat model of inflammatory pain induced by ... Read More »
» Published in Brain Res. 2006 Nov 20;1120(1):46-53. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

18. Intrapancreatic axonal hyperbranching of dorsal root ganglia neurons in chronic pancreatitis model rats and its relation to pancreatic pain.
Match Strength: 3.487

OBJECTIVES: Increase in number of intrapancreatic nerve bundles has been implicated in the generation of persistent pain in chronic pancreatitis. To examine the origin of these nerve fibers and the mechanisms linking neural morphological change to pain generation, we used neuronal tracing techniques in combination with immunohistochemistry in spontaneous chronic pancreatitis in the Wistar Bonn/Kobori (WBN/Kob) rats. METHODS: For retrograde tracing, horseradish peroxidase was injected into the pancreas, and labeled neurons in the sensory ganglia were counted. For anterograde tracing, ... Read More »
» Published in Pancreas. 2006 Oct;33(3):268-79.

19. Neonatal stress and litter composition alter sucrose intake in both rat dam and offspring.
Match Strength: 3.438

The early postnatal environment can have long lasting effects on the physiology and behavior of both mother and offspring. A great deal of evidence indicates that stress during this time period is a risk factor for the future development of a multitude of disorders including substance abuse. The maternal separation paradigm is used to model such stress in rats. The current study evaluated the effects of maternal separation and litter composition on sucrose consumption, a non-drug measure of reward, in both male Long-Evans rat offspring and mother. On postnatal day 2, rats were cross-fostered, ... Read More »
» Published in Physiol Behav. 2006 Dec 30;89(5):735-41. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

20. Mechanical properties of the cell nucleus and the effect of emerin deficiency.
Match Strength: 3.324

Nuclear structure and mechanics are gaining recognition as important factors that affect gene expression, development, and differentiation in normal function and disease, yet the physical mechanisms that govern nuclear mechanical stability remain unclear. Here we examined the physical properties of the cell nucleus by imaging fluorescently labeled components of the inner nucleus (chromatin and nucleoli) and the nuclear envelope (lamins and membranes) in nuclei deformed by micropipette aspiration (confocal imaged microdeformation). We investigated nuclei, both isolated and in intact, living ... Read More »
» Published in Biophys J. 2006 Dec 15;91(12):4649-64. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

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* All information on is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.

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