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Bacteremia
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1. Outcome in bacteremia associated with nosocomial pneumonia and the impact of pathogen prediction by tracheal surveillance cultures.
Match Strength: 8.248

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether pathogen prediction in bacteremia associated with nosocomial pneumonia (NP) by tracheal surveillance cultures improves adequacy of early antibiotic therapy and impacts mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective observational study of a prospectively gathered cohort. This cohort included all adult patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care hospital from 1992 through 2001 and who developed bacteremia associated with NP. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 128 episodes of bacteremia associated with NP were identified. In 110 episodes a tracheal surveillance ... Read More »
» Published in Intensive Care Med. 2006 Nov;32(11):1773-81. Epub 2006 Sep 16.

2. Predictors of long-term mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Match Strength: 7.341

PURPOSE: To determine the long-term outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and identify factors associated with increased mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 671 patients with VAP admitted to an intensive care unit between 1994 and 2000. We determined long-term and out-of-hospital mortality for these patients. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality was 42.3%; 19.8% of patients had concomitant bacteremia, the mortality was 59.7% versus 38.0% for those without bacteremia (P <.001). The factors associated with increased hospital mortality by univariable analysis were: ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Med. 2006 Oct;119(10):897.e13-9.

3. Active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decreases the incidence of MRSA bacteremia.
Match Strength: 7.311

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of performance of active surveillance cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the incidence of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia in an endemic hospital. DESIGN: Before-after trial. SETTING: A 700-bed hospital. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to the hospital who were at high risk for MRSA bacteremia. INTERVENTION: Performance of surveillance cultures for detection of MRSA were recommended for all patients at high risk, and contact isolation was implemented for patients with positive results of culture. Each MRSA-positive patient received ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):1004-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20. Comment in: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):999-1003.

4. Protective antigen as a correlative marker for anthrax in animal models.
Match Strength: 6.840

The most aggressive form of anthrax results from inhalation of airborne spores of Bacillus anthracis and usually progresses unnoticed in the early stages because of unspecific symptoms. The only reliable marker of anthrax is development of bacteremia, which increases with disease progress. Rapid diagnosis of anthrax is imperative for efficient treatment and cure. Herein we demonstrate that the presence and level of a bacterial antigen, the protective antigen (PA), a component of B. anthracis toxins, in host sera can serve as a reliable marker of infection. This was tested in two animal models ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Immun. 2006 Oct;74(10):5871-6.

5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of linezolid compared with vancomycin for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Match Strength: 5.470

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the cost-effectiveness of linezolid and vancomycin in the treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: A retrospective decision-analytic model was applied to pooled data from 2 prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind studies, and claims data from a large health plan (3.3 million members) located in the Mid-Atlantic region. Using hospital claims for patients in the health plan with suspected NP, we then determined their daily billed (submitted) hospital charges for 4 mutually ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Ther. 2006 Aug;28(8):1184-98.

6. Surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci: type, rates, costs, and implications.
Match Strength: 4.637

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 2 active surveillance strategies for detection of enteric vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in an intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Thirty-month prospective observational study. SETTING: ICU at a university-affiliated referral center. PATIENTS: All patients with an ICU stay of 24 hours or more were eligible for the study. INTERVENTION: Clinical active surveillance (CAS), involving culture of a rectal swab specimen for detection of VRE, was performed on admission, weekly while the patient was in the ICU, and at discharge. Laboratory-based active surveillance (LAS), ... Read More »
» Published in Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;27(10):1068-75. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

7. Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).
Match Strength: 3.137

Recent years have seen a worldwide resurgence in serious infections caused by group A streptococci. This group includes Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common pathogens among children which causes diverse suppurative infections, such as pharyngitis, as well as nonsuppurative infections with sequelae, such as rheumatoid fever and rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes produces several superantigen-like erythrogenic toxins, which are believed to be associated with pyrogenicity, erythromatous skin reactions, and various immunologic and cytotoxic effects. These toxins also can cause ... Read More »
» Published in J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2006 Sep;45(5):79-82.

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