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Avian Flu
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1. Outbreak of avian influenza H7N3 on a turkey farm in the Netherlands.
Match Strength: 7.283

This case report describes the course of an outbreak of avian influenza on a Dutch turkey farm. When clinical signs were observed their cause remained unclear. However, serum samples taken for the monitoring campaign launched during the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2003, showed that all the remaining turkeys were seropositive against an H7 strain of avian influenza virus, and the virus was subsequently isolated from stored carcases. The results of a reverse-transcriptase pcr showed that a H7N3 strain was involved, and it was characterised as of low pathogenicity. However, ... Read More »
» Published in Vet Rec. 2006 Sep 23;159(13):403-5.

2. Genetic diversity and epizootiology of Chlamydophila psittaci prevalent among the captive and feral avian species based on VD2 region of ompA gene.
Match Strength: 5.932

To study genetic diversity and occurrence of Chlamydophila psittaci, a total of 1,147 samples from 11 avian orders including 53 genera and 113 species of feral and captive birds were examined using ompA gene based nested PCR. Three types of chlamydiae: C. psittaci (94.12%), C. abortus (4.41%) and unknown Chlamydophila sp. (1.47%) were identified among 68 (5.93%) positive samples (Psittaciformes-59, Ciconiiformes-8 and Passeriformes-1). Based on nucleotide sequence variations in the VD2 region of ompA gene, all 64 detected C. psittaci strains were grouped into 4 genetic clusters. Clusters I, II ... Read More »
» Published in Microbiol Immunol. 2006;50(9):663-78.

3. Linkage of avian and reproductive tract tropism with sequence divergence adjacent to the 5S ribosomal subunit rrfH of Salmonella enterica.
Match Strength: 5.822

The 183 bp between the end of the 23S rrlH rRNA gene and the start of the 5S rrfH rRNA gene (ISR-1) and the 197 bp between the end of the rrfH rRNA gene and the start of the transfer RNA aspU (ISR-2) of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Pullorum, Heidelberg, Gallinarum, Typhi and Choleraesuis were compared. ISR-1s of D1 serotypes (Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis), B serotypes (Typhimurium and Heidelberg) and the C2 serotype Newport and the enteric fever pathogens serotype A Paratyphi and serotype D1 Typhi formed three clades, respectively. ISR-2 further ... Read More »
» Published in FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Nov;264(1):48-58. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

4. Avian circoviruses of the genus Circovirus: A potential trigger in Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL)/Bird fancier's lung (BFL).
Match Strength: 5.564

Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) or Bird fancier's lung (BFL) is one of the most common extrinsic allergic alveolitis or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is caused after prolonged inhalation of avian antigens and provokes a hypersensitivity reaction in the lungs of sensitised people. Although the pathogenic mechanism is unclear, the epidemiology of BFL shows that it occurs worldwide, and has been described in adults keeping birds and also in their children. Laboratory findings associated with the disease classified as a type III immunologic reaction that produces blood precipitin antibodies against ... Read More »
» Published in Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(2):320-3. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

5. Spatial and annual variability in concentrations and sources of Escherichia coli in multiple watersheds.
Match Strength: 5.316

Nonpoint source fecal contamination is a concern for drinking water supplies worldwide. In this study, 4812 E. coli isolates were classified to source. Results of this experiment show that the fecal coliform (FC) counts varied by year, month, and site, for each of the watersheds sampled. For both years, the lowest FC counts tended to be at the highest elevation sites followed by the drinking water intake sites at the lowest elevation. The highest FC counts tended to be at the mid-elevation sites on BX, Deer, and Duteau Creeks. The sources of E. coli varied significantly with stream for 2003 ... Read More »
» Published in Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Sep 1;40(17):5289-96.

6. Ligand-independent signaling during early avian B cell development.
Match Strength: 4.992

Surface immunoglobulin (sIg) expression has been conserved as a critical checkpoint in B lymphocyte development. In the chicken embryo, only sIg+ B cells are selectively expanded in the bursa of Fabricius, a primary lymphoid organ unique to the avian species. We have previously demonstrated that an interaction between the antigen- binding sites of sIg and a specific bursal ligand(s) is not required to regulate this developmental checkpoint. Rather, the requirement for sIg expression can be attributed to the surface expression of the Igalpha/beta heterodimer associated with sIg. More ... Read More »
» Published in Immunol Res. 2006;35(1-2):103-16.

7. Chicken suprachiasmatic nuclei: II. Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analysis.
Match Strength: 4.935

The vertebrate circadian system is composed of multiple inputs, oscillators, pacemakers, and outputs. In birds, the pineal gland and retinae have been defined as pacemakers within this system. Evidence for a third, hypothalamic pacemaker is abundant. It has been presumed that this pacemaker is homologous to the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Two candidate structures have been referred to as the avian SCN--the medial SCN (mSCN) and the visual SCN (vSCN). Previously, we suggested that both structures are involved in a "suprachiasmatic complex." To further explore evidence for an avian ... Read More »
» Published in J Comp Neurol. 2006 Nov 20;499(3):442-57.

8. Skull and mandible formation in the cuckoo (Aves, Cuculidae): contributions to the nomenclature in avian osteology and systematics.
Match Strength: 4.216

The study of the contributions of different bones to the formation of the skeleton in birds is necessary: (1) to establish homologies in comparative anatomy; (2) to delimit each bone structure correctly, mainly in relation to the skull and mandible where the bones are fused to each other in adults; and (3) to standardize nomenclature in avian osteology. In this paper at least one young specimen belonging to each sub-family of Cuculidae was examined in order to identify each bone in terms of boundaries and contributions to skull and mandible formation. These cuckoos specimens were also compared ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Morphol. 2005 Oct-Dec;42(4-5):163-72.

9. Comment on "Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates".
Match Strength: 3.819

Obenauer et al. (Research Articles, 17 March 2006, p. 1576) reported that the influenza A virus PB1-F2 gene is evolving under strong positive selection, as documented by an extremely high ratio of the number of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions to the number of synonymous substitutions (dN/dS). However, we show that this observation is likely to be an artifact related to the location of PB1-F2 in the +1 reading frame of the PB1 gene. Publication Types: ... Read More »
» Published in Science. 2006 Sep 15;313(5793):1573; author reply 1573. Comment on: Science. 2006 Mar 17;311(5767):1576-80.

10. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from North Dakota, USA (2003-2004).
Match Strength: 2.988

This study was designed to explore the role that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) may have played in disseminating West Nile virus (WNV) across the United States. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to detect WNV antibodies in avian species we were able to determine the WNV antibody prevalence in a cohort of red-winged blackbirds in central North Dakota in 2003 and 2004. The peak WNV antibody prevalence was 22.0% in August of 2003 and 18.3% in July of 2004. The results of this study suggest that red-winged blackbird migratory populations may be an important viral ... Read More »
» Published in Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006 Fall;6(3):305-9.

11. Spectral Tuning of Shortwave-sensitive Visual Pigments in Vertebrates(dagger).
Match Strength: 2.813

Of the four classes of vertebrate cone visual pigments, the shortwave-sensitive SWS1 class shows some of the largest shifts in lambda(max), with values ranging in different species from 390-435 nm in the violet region of the spectrum to <360 nm in the ultraviolet. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that the ancestral pigment most probably had a lambda(max) in the UV and that shifts between violet and UV have occurred many times during evolution. In violet-sensitive (VS) pigments, the Schiff base is protonated whereas in UV-sensitive (UVS) pigments, it is almost certainly unprotonated. The ... Read More »
» Published in Photochem Photobiol. 2006 Jun 1;

12. Bioterrorism with zoonotic disease: public health preparedness lessons from a multiagency exercise.
Match Strength: 2.682

Responding to agricultural bioterrorism with pathogenic agents that are communicable from animals to humans (zoonotic diseases) requires effective coordination of many organizations, both inside and outside of government. Action must be simultaneously taken to address public health concerns, respond to the agricultural dimensions of the event, and carry out the necessary law enforcement investigation. As part of a project focused on examining public health preparedness in Georgia, an exercise was carried out in July 2005 examining the intentional introduction of avian influenza (H5N1) in ... Read More »
» Published in Biosecur Bioterror. 2006;4(3):287-92.

13. Evolutionary relationships of vertebrate NACHT domain-containing proteins.
Match Strength: 2.567

Phylogenetic analyses of conserved [neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), MHC class II transcription activator (CIITA), incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina (HET-E), and telomerase-associated protein (TP1)] (NACHT) domains were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of vertebrate NACHT-containing proteins. The results supported the hypothesis that NOD3 is basal to the other NACHT-containing proteins found in tetrapods. The latter formed two strongly supported clusters or subfamilies, here designated NALP and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD). The ... Read More »
» Published in Immunogenetics. 2006 Oct;58(10):785-91. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

14. Phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and pathological aspects of the urine-concentrating mechanism.
Match Strength: 2.552

The urine-concentrating mechanism is one of the most fundamental functions of avian and mammalian kidneys. This particular function of the kidneys developed as a system to accumulate NaCl in birds and as a system to accumulate NaCl and urea in mammals. Based on phylogenetic evidence, the mammalian urine-concentrating mechanism may have evolved as a modification of the renal medulla's NaCl accumulating system that is observed in birds. This qualitative conversion of the urine-concentrating mechanism in the mammalian inner medulla of the kidneys may occur during the neonatal period. Human ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Exp Nephrol. 2006 Sep;10(3):165-74.

15. Real-time contributions of auditory feedback to avian vocal motor control.
Match Strength: 2.492

Songbirds and humans both rely critically on hearing for learning and maintaining accurate vocalizations. Evidence strongly indicates that auditory feedback contributes in real time to human speech, but similar contributions of feedback to birdsong remain unclear. Here, we assessed real-time influences of auditory feedback on Bengalese finch song using a computerized system to detect targeted syllables as they were being sung and to disrupt feedback transiently at short and precisely controlled latencies. Altered feedback elicited changes within tens of milliseconds to both syllable sequencing ... Read More »
» Published in J Neurosci. 2006 Sep 20;26(38):9619-28.

16. Zona Pellucida Domain of ZPB1 controls specific binding of ZPB1 and ZPC in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).
Match Strength: 2.367

The extracellular matrix surrounding avian oocytes, referred to as the perivitelline membrane (PL), exhibits a three-dimensional network of fibrils between granulosa cells and the oocyte. We previously reported that one of its components, ZPC, is synthesized in granulosa cells that are specifically incorporated into the PL; this incorporation might be mediated by a specific interaction with ZPB1, another PL constituent, which is synthesized in the liver. In order to extend our previous findings, we established an expression system for quail ZPB1 using a mammalian cell line, and several ZPB1 ... Read More »
» Published in Cells Tissues Organs. 2006;183(1):41-52.

17. Avian mortality at oil pits in the United States: A review of the problem and efforts for its solution.
Match Strength: 2.349

Oil production operations produce waste fluids that may be stored in pits, open tanks, and other sites accessible to wildlife. Birds visit these fluid-filled pits and tanks ("oil pits"), which often resemble water sources, and may become trapped and die. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has a program to reduce these impacts by locating problem pits, documenting mortality of protected wildlife species, and seeking cleanup or corrective action at problem pits with the help of state and federal agencies regulating the oil industry. Species identification and verification of protected ... Read More »
» Published in Environ Manage. 2006 Oct;38(4):532-44.

18. Effects of artificial social stimuli on the reproductive schedule and hormone levels of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes).
Match Strength: 2.232

The effects of social stimuli on avian reproductive behaviors such as breeding schedules and courtship behaviors are well known due to numerous field studies. However, studies that have simultaneously examined the effects of social stimuli on reproductive behavior and the mediating endocrine mechanisms have been largely restricted to captive populations, which may not be representative of free-living populations. This study, conducted over two breeding seasons, aimed to simultaneously measure the effects of experimentally increasing auditory stimuli on the breeding schedule and endocrinology ... Read More »
» Published in Horm Behav. 2007 Jan;51(1):46-53. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

19. Use of a vascular access port for the measurement of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in old broiler breeders.
Match Strength: 2.213

Techniques used to measure circulating hormone concentrations in avian species over extended periods routinely involve cannulation or multiple venipunctures under physical restraint, resulting in sepsis and stress. We adapted a method for serial blood sampling in chickens using a vascular access port (VAP) surgically implanted under the skin of the neck and connected to a catheter inserted in the right jugular vein. The system was used to measure circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) profiles in six, 21-mo-old broiler breeders at the end of their laying period. The VAP were implanted under ... Read More »
» Published in Poult Sci. 2006 Sep;85(9):1632-40.

20. Laying performance of pearl gray guinea fowl hens as affected by caging density.
Match Strength: 2.192

The caging density required for optimal egg production by various avian species and varieties is highly variable. Even so, little is known of the required cage density for optimum performance of the laying guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of varying cage densities on production performance of pearl gray guinea fowl laying hens. In 3 replicates, 270 pearl gray guinea hens [28 wk of age (WOA)] were weighed individually and randomly assigned to laying cages at densities of 1, 2, and 3 birds/cage, equivalent to 1394, 697, and 465 cm2/bird, ... Read More »
» Published in Poult Sci. 2006 Sep;85(9):1682-9.

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* All information on is for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Before changing your diet, or adding supplements to your diet, or beginning an exercise program, everyone should consult a qualified and licensed health practitioner; a physician, dietician or similar professional.

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