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Autoimmune Diseases
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1. Humanized mouse models for organ-specific autoimmune diseases.
Match Strength: 9.164

Murine models for human autoimmune diseases are an essential tool for studying pathogenesis and for identifying new therapeutic targets. Mice are not the natural disease host, and conventional models have proved to be poor predictors of efficacy and safety in recent trials aiming to translate drug and biologic treatments to humans. Evidently, further steps towards recapitulating human diseases are urgently needed, for example using transgenic predisposing human HLA allele(s) plus T-cell receptor(s) implicated in a representative patient's autoimmune disease. The latest development - humanizing ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Dec;18(6):704-9. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

2. Decreased nerve growth factor levels in hyperthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy highlighting the role of neuroprotective factor in autoimmune thyroid diseases.
Match Strength: 7.587

Nerve growth factor (NGF), which is a neurotrophic factor, is involved in autoimmune and inflammatory processes. Serum NGF levels were investigated in 131 patients with autoimmune (95 with Graves' disease, of whom 57 had ophthalmopathy, 19 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and nonimmune thyroid diseases (17 with toxic nodular goitre), and 20 controls. NGF levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty-nine positive cases for NGF were detected: 21 cases in Graves' disease, 7 cases in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, no case in toxic nodular goitre and one case in controls. NGF levels ... Read More »
» Published in Cytokine. 2006 Aug;35(3-4):109-14. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

3. Nailfold capillaroscopy is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. A future tool for the analysis of microvascular heart involvement?
Match Strength: 7.411

Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) represents the most frequent clinical aspect of cardio/microvascular involvement and is a key feature of several autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Moreover, RP is associated in a statistically significant manner with many coronary diseases. In normal conditions or in primary RP (excluding during the cold-exposure test), the normal nailfold capillaroscopic pattern shows a regular disposition of the capillary loops along with the nailbed. On the contrary, in subjects suffering from secondary RP, one or more alterations of the capillaroscopic findings should alert the ... Read More »
» Published in Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Oct;45 Suppl 4:iv43-iv46.

4. The Overlap of Sjogren's Syndrome with Other Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.
Match Strength: 7.324

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the main diagnostic problems caused by the overlap between Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and other systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD). METHODS: We performed a MEDLINE search for articles published between January 1966 and December 2005 that specifically analyzed the overlap between SS and other SAD. We identified a list of diagnostic problems in patients with primary SS who had features considered typical of other SAD. RESULTS: Clinically, the main diagnostic problems occur in SS patients presenting with arthritis, Raynaud phenomenon, cutaneous features (subacute cutaneous ... Read More »
» Published in Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Feb;36(4):246-255. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

5. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and its role in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Match Strength: 6.959

Protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway of non-lysosomal proteolysis of intracellular proteins. It plays important roles in a variety of fundamental cellular processes such as regulation of cell cycle progression, division, development and differentiation, apoptosis, cell trafficking, and modulation of the immune and inflammatory responses. The central element of this system is the covalent linkage of ubiquitin to targeted proteins, which are then recognized by the 26S proteasome, an adenosine triphosphate-dependent, multi-catalytic protease. Damaged, ... Read More »
» Published in Cell Mol Immunol. 2006 Aug;3(4):255-61.

6. Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
Match Strength: 5.353

Rhythm and conduction disturbances and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are important manifestations of cardiac involvement in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a major cause of SCD is atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, leading to acute coronary syndrome and ventricular arrhythmias. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation and atrial ectopic beats are the major cardiac arrhythmias. In some cases, sinus tachycardia may be the only manifestation of cardiac involvement. The most frequent cardiac rhythm ... Read More »
» Published in Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Oct;45 Suppl 4:iv39-iv42.

7. The sera from individuals suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania brazilensis present antibodies against parasitic conserved proteins, but not their human counterparts.
Match Strength: 5.338

Sera from individuals suffering from leishmaniasis have been shown to strongly react against conserved proteins from the parasite, such as ribosomal, histones and heat-shock proteins. Some of these proteins have also been described as immunogenic in several auto-immune syndromes, and the detection of antibodies against them is considered to be indicative of disorder of the immune system. In this paper, we investigate whether there is any relationship between the recognition of some conserved proteins from leishmania braziliensis by individuals suffering from cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous ... Read More »
» Published in Parasite. 2006 Sep;13(3):231-6.

8. Induction of autoimmunity by expansion of autoreactive CD4+CD62Llow cells in vivo.
Match Strength: 4.975

The prerequisites of peripheral activation of self-specific CD4(+) T cells that determine the development of autoimmunity are incompletely understood. SJL mice immunized with myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151 developed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when pertussis toxin (PT) was injected at the time of immunization but not when injected 6 days later, indicating that PT-induced alterations of the peripheral immune response lead to the development of autoimmunity. Further analysis using IA(s)/PLP(139-151) tetramers revealed that PT did not change effector T cell ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1;177(7):4384-90.

9. Leucocyte-endothelial interactions in health and disease.
Match Strength: 4.893

The emigration of leucocytes into the tissue as a crucial step in the response to inflammatory signals has been acknowledged for more than 100 years. The endothelium does not only represent a mechanical barrier between blood and tissue, the circulatory system also connects different organ systems with each other, thus allowing the communication between remote systems. Leucocytes can function as messengers and messages at the same time. Failure or dysregulation of leucocyte-endothelial communication can severely affect the integrity of the organism. The interaction between leucocytes and the ... Read More »
» Published in Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006;(176 Pt 2):97-133.

10. Activated human T lymphocytes express cyclooxygenase-2 and produce proadipogenic prostaglandins that drive human orbital fibroblast differentiation to adipocytes.
Match Strength: 4.522

The differentiation of preadipocyte fibroblasts to adipocytes is a crucial process to many disease states including obesity, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. In Graves' disease, the orbit of the eye can become severely inflamed and infiltrated with T lymphocytes as part of the autoimmune process. The orbital fibroblasts convert to fat-like cells causing the eye to protrude, which is disfiguring and can lead to blindness. Recently, the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and its natural (15d-PGJ2) and synthetic (thiazolidinedione-type) PPAR-gamma ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Pathol. 2006 Oct;169(4):1183-93.

11. Communicating indeterminate HIV Western blot test results to clients: an observational study of three community testing sites.
Match Strength: 4.373

This study examined HIV test counselors' beliefs and practices regarding communicating indeterminate HIV test results to clients. There are many reasons for an indeterminate HIV antibody/ Western blot assay including early HIV infection, infection with other contagious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and second or subsequent pregnancies in women. Field observations of three community HIV testing sites and semistructured interviews with 16 HIV test counselors were conducted from August 2002 through June 2003. Counselors defined an indeterminate test result in different ways. They also presented ... Read More »
» Published in AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006 Sep;20(9):620-7.

12. Interleukine-6 (IL-6) may be a link between myasthenia gravis and myoepithelioma of the parotid gland.
Match Strength: 4.336

Myoepithelioma is a rare benign neoplasm of the salivary glands occurring more frequently in the parotids. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic, T-cell dependent, antibody and complement-mediated autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorder. Interleukine-6 (IL-6) is an immune protein belonging to the family of the hematopoietins, liberated in response to infection, burns, trauma, and neoplastic diseases. It seems that an overproduction of IL-6 might play an important role in the pathophysiology of MG. Moreover, it has been discussed the possible role of IL-6 as a modulating factor either in ... Read More »
» Published in Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(2):314-7. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

13. Reciprocal regulation between natural killer cells and autoreactive T cells.
Match Strength: 4.234

The initiation and the progression of autoimmune diseases stem from complex interactions that involve cells of both the innate and the adaptive immune system. As we discuss here, natural killer (NK) cells, which are components of the innate immune system, can inhibit or promote the activation of autoreactive T cells during the initiation of autoimmunity. After they have been activated, autoreactive T cells contribute to the homeostatic contraction of NK-cell populations. The dynamic interaction between NK cells and autoreactive T cells might indicate the transition from the innate immune ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 Oct;6(10):751-60.

14. Detection of serum antibodies to S-antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR).
Match Strength: 4.149

Serum autoantibodies to visual arrestin, also termed S-antigen, have been shown to accompany several autoimmune-related diseases. However, they were also detected in sera of healthy individuals; there is lack of a sensitive and fast method for evaluation of putative differences between those two groups of antibodies. We show that, using biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), it was possible to characterize real-time interactions of immune sera with immobilized arrestin. Binding characteristics revealed different interaction kinetics of antiarrestin antibodies present in ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2006;27(4):331-40.

15. Anti-CCP2 positivity in non-ra disease samples: citrulline-dependent or not?
Match Strength: 4.128

OBJECTIVES: Antibodies directed against citrullinated proteins (e.g. anti-CCP) have excellent diagnostic and good prognostic potential for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-1) is a chronic liver disease characterized by a variety of serum autoantibodies. Recently, in a large group of AIH- 1 patients without clear RA overlap, a relatively high percentage (9%) of anti-CCP2 positivity was scored. Our aim was to characterize the citrulline-dependence of the observed anti-CCP2 positivity in AIH-1 sera as well as in other groups of non-RA patients (mainly rheumatic diseases ... Read More »
» Published in Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Sep 19;

16. Bystander T cell activation--implications for HIV infection and other diseases.
Match Strength: 4.106

T cells are subject to tight regulatory measures, as uncontrolled responses might be detrimental to the host. Control measures include central or thymic tolerance, and peripheral tolerance mechanisms acting after naive T cells have encountered their cognate antigen, such as anergy induction, the contraction phase (whereby the majority of the expanded effector population undergoes apoptosis), and the action of regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, bystander T-cell activation circumvents the requirement for specific T-cell receptor stimulation, enabling T cells to bypass certain control ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Immunol. 2006 Nov;27(11):518-24. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

17. A high-resolution HLA and SNP haplotype map for disease association studies in the extended human MHC.
Match Strength: 3.931

The proteins encoded by the classical HLA class I and class II genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic and are essential in self versus non-self immune recognition. HLA variation is a crucial determinant of transplant rejection and susceptibility to a large number of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Yet identification of causal variants is problematic owing to linkage disequilibrium that extends across multiple HLA and non-HLA genes in the MHC. We therefore set out to characterize the linkage disequilibrium patterns between the highly polymorphic HLA genes ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Genet. 2006 Oct;38(10):1166-72. Epub 2006 Sep 24.

18. Potential clinical applications using stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.
Match Strength: 3.917

There is an abundance of clinical applications using human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) as a source for stem cell populations. Other than haematopoietic progenitors, there are mesenchymal, endothelial stem cells and neuronal precursors, in varying quantities, that are found in human umbilical cord blood. These may be useful in diseases such as immune deficiency and autoimmune disorders. Considering issues of safety, availability, transplant methodology, rejection and side effects, it is contended that a therapeutic stem cell transplant, utilizing stem cells from HUCB, provides a reliable ... Read More »
» Published in Reprod Biomed Online. 2006 Oct;13(4):562-72.

19. The effects of retinal abnormalities on the multifocal visual evoked potential.
Match Strength: 3.862

PURPOSE: To examine the effects on the amplitude and latency of the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) in retinal diseases associated with depressed multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG). METHODS: Static automated perimetry (SAP), mfERGs, and mfVEPs were obtained from 15 individuals seen by neuro-ophthalmologists and diagnosed with retinal disease based on funduscopic examination, visual field, and mfERG. Optic neuropathy was ruled out in all cases. Diagnoses included autoimmune retinopathy (n = 3), branch retinal arterial occlusion (n = 3), branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 1), ... Read More »
» Published in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Oct;47(10):4378-85.

20. Re-shaping the T cell repertoire: TCR editing and TCR revision for good and for bad.
Match Strength: 3.803

Protection against the universe of pathogens requires a functional, diverse T cell repertoire. However, the price that is paid for an evolved, effective immune system includes the potential danger of generating autoaggressive T cells. Autoimmune diseases result from inherent breach of tolerance to self-antigens leading to disruption of the regulatory to autoaggressive T cell homeostatic balance. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to control those processes. For T cells, positive and negative selection in the thymus assures that only fully functional, non-self-reactive T cells will ... Read More »
» Published in Clin Immunol. 2006 Sep 19;

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