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Animal Diseases
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1. Preclinical and clinical progress of particle-mediated DNA vaccines for infectious diseases.
Match Strength: 5.631

This review provides an overview of studies employing particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED) or the gene gun to administer DNA vaccines for infectious diseases in preclinical studies employing large animal models and in human clinical trials. It reviews the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of PMED DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates and swine and studies that have directly compared the effectiveness of PMED in these large animal models to existing licensed vaccines and intramuscular or intradermal delivery of DNA vaccines with a needle. Various clinical trials employing PMED have been ... Read More »
» Published in Methods. 2006 Sep;40(1):86-97.

2. Canine neurological diseases in a referral hospital population between 1989 and 2000 in Switzerland.
Match Strength: 4.320

OBJECTIVES: To merge clinical information from partly overlapping medical record databases of the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne. To describe the frequencies and localisations of neurological diseases in dogs, as well as their age, gender, breed and geographical distributions. METHODS: In this retrospective study, a new database, with specific variables and a diagnosis key list 'VITAMIN D', was created and defined. A total of 4497 dogs (average of 375 per year) with a well-documented neurological disease were included in the study. A key list for ... Read More »
» Published in J Small Anim Pract. 2006 Oct;47(10):582-7.

3. Mouse models of otitis media.
Match Strength: 4.195

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Otitis media is one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in the pediatric population. The personal and societal costs for otitis media are significant. Problems arising from antibiotic use have led to considerable animal research efforts to better understand the mechanisms of acute otitis media and to develop new strategies for its prevention and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Various animal models induce acute otitis media from a variety of interventions, including direct injection of whole bacteria or their products into the middle ear. The mouse model has begun to ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Oct;14(5):341-6.

4. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors.
Match Strength: 3.811

The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this system and immunization commonly led to protective immunity against pathogen challenge. The first vaccines produced in insect cells for animal use are now on the market. This chapter deals with the tailoring of the baculovirus-insect cell expression system for vaccine production in terms of ... Read More »
» Published in Adv Virus Res. 2006;68:193-253.

5. Drug insight: statins and gastrointestinal cancer.
Match Strength: 3.664

Statins are popular lipid-lowering drugs that have had a great impact on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Basic and clinical research have also revealed that statins have biologic activities that go beyond lipid lowering, and suggest that they might have other therapeutic benefits. Perhaps the most exciting of these additional biologic effects is the finding that statins can exert an anticancer effect on cultured cancer cells, and in animal models. Clinical studies of statins for the treatment and prevention of cancer have, however, produced conflicting results. ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Oct;3(10):552-62.

6. Endothelial cell senescence.
Match Strength: 3.254

The wear and tear processes that are thought to contribute to human ageing may play an important role in the development of vascular diseases. One such process is cellular senescence. In endothelial cells the senescent phenotype can be induced by a number of factors, including telomere damage, oxidative stress and sustained mitogenic stimulation. Several lines of evidence indicate that endothelial cell senescence maybe relevant to vascular disease. In this chapter we examine the causes, mechanisms and regulation of endothelial cell senescence as they emerge from studies in cell culture. We ... Read More »
» Published in Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006;(176 Pt 2):213-48.

7. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.
Match Strength: 3.167

This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered ... Read More »
» Published in Anim Reprod Sci. 2006 Dec;96(3-4):331-53. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

8. The American cotton rat: A novel model for pulmonary tuberculosis.
Match Strength: 2.996

Several animal models are used to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infections, but none is a fully ideal model of human disease. The American cotton rat is an excellent model for the study of several human viral and bacterial respiratory infectious diseases, but until now has not been reported to be a model with MTB infection. Preliminary experiments were designed in which two species of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus and Sigmodon fulviventer) received respiratory challenges with M. tuberculosis via either intranasal or aerosol inoculation. Granulomatous disease, often with central ... Read More »
» Published in Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2006 Sep 11;

9. Cortical neuronal and glial pathology in TgTauP301L transgenic mice: neuronal degeneration, memory disturbance, and phenotypic variation.
Match Strength: 2.668

Recapitulation of tau pathologies in an animal model has been a long-standing goal in neurodegenerative disease research. We generated transgenic (TgTauP301L) mice expressing a frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTPD-17) mutation within the longest form of tau (2N, 4R). TgTauP301L mice developed florid pathology including neuronal pretangles, numerous Gallyas-Braak-positive neurofibrillary tangles, and glial fibrillary tangles in the frontotemporal areas of the cerebrum, in the brainstem, and to a lesser extent in the spinal cord. These features were accompanied ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Pathol. 2006 Oct;169(4):1365-75.

10. Noonan syndrome and related disorders: dysregulated RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase signal transduction.
Match Strength: 2.626

Noonan syndrome is a relatively common, genetically heterogeneous Mendelian trait with a pleiomorphic phenotype. Prior to the period covered in this review, missense mutations in PTPN11 had been found to account for nearly 50% of Noonan syndrome cases. That gene encodes SHP-2, a protein tyrosine kinase that plays diverse roles in signal transduction including signaling via the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Noonan syndrome-associated PTPN11 mutations are gain-of-function, with most disrupting SHP-2's activation-inactivation mechanism. Here, we review recent information ... Read More »
» Published in Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Oct 15;15 Spec No 2:R220-6.

11. Therapeutic applications of conotoxins that target the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
Match Strength: 2.567

Pain therapeutics discovered by molecular mining of the expressed genome of Australian predatory cone snails are providing lead compounds for the treatment of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, shingles, diabetic neuropathy and other painful neurological conditions. The high specificity exhibited by these novel compounds for neuronal receptors and ion channels in the brain and nervous system indicates the high degree of selectivity that this class of neuropeptides can be expected to show when used therapeutically in humans. A lead compound, ACV1 (conotoxin Vc1.1 from Conus ... Read More »
» Published in Toxicon. 2006 Dec 1;48(7):810-29. Epub 2006 Jul 15.

12. Two-photon-excited fluorescence imaging of human RPE cells with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser.
Match Strength: 2.512

PURPOSE: To record the distribution and spectrum of human retinal pigment epithelial cell lipofuscin (LF) by two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. METHODS: Ex vivo TPEF imaging of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of human donor eyes was conducted with a multiphoton laser scanning microscope that employs a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser as an excitation laser source. The spectrum of autofluorescence of LF granules was analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope coupled to a UV argon laser. RESULTS: TPEF examination allowed for imaging of ... Read More »
» Published in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Oct;47(10):4553-7.

13. Herb medicine Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct ligation rats.
Match Strength: 2.474

The accumulation of hydrophilic bile acids in the liver is considered to play a pivotal role in the induction of hepatic injury. Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) decoction is an aqueous extract from three different herbs: Artemisia capillaries Thunb (Compositae), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), Rheum officinale Baill (Polygonaceae), which has been recognized as a hepatoprotective agent for various types of liver diseases. Therefore, we used an experimental of biliary atresia model to test that YCHT plays a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic damage with fibrosis ... Read More »
» Published in J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):318-24. Epub 2006 Aug 5.

14. Development of a novel bioavailable inhibitor of the calmodulin-regulated protein kinase MLCK: a lead compound that attenuates vascular leak.
Match Strength: 2.465

Tissue barriers involving epithelial and endothelial cell layers are critical to homeostasis, regulating passage of water, macromolecules, cells and certain classes of small molecules via two distinct cellular mechanisms, transcellular or paracellular. Endothelial or epithelial barrier dysfunction is a key component of pathophysiology in diverse diseases and injuries that have a broad impact on survival and quality of life. However, effective and safe small molecule therapeutics for these disorders are lacking. Success in development would therefore fill a major unmet medical need across ... Read More »
» Published in Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1266-74. Epub 2006 Aug 11.

15. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits induction of immunoproteasome and decreases survival in a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Match Strength: 2.453

Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) and an antioxidant, has beneficial effects in animal models of various diseases, including arthritis, brain ischemia, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because inflammation and oxidative damage are also hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied the effect of oral PDTC treatment on G93A-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic (TG) rat model of human ALS and observed that PDTC treatment significantly decreases the survival. PDTC ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;71(1):30-7. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

16. The VSL#3 probiotic formula induces mucin gene expression and secretion in colonic epithelial cells.
Match Strength: 2.438

Several studies have stressed the importance of the microbiota in the maintenance of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Administration of probiotic bacteria, supplements composed of microbiota constituents, was previously shown to diminish symptoms in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. This raises the possibility that probiotics may play an active role in enhancing the intestinal barrier at the mucosal surface. In this study, we investigated whether the clinically tested VSL#3 probiotic formula and/or its secreted components can augment the protective mucus layer in vivo and in ... Read More »
» Published in Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jan;292(1):G315-22. Epub 2006 Sep 14.

17. In vivo models of angiogenesis.
Match Strength: 2.172

The process of building new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and controlling the propagation of blood vessels (anti-angiogenesis) are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in wound healing and tissue growth. More than 500 million people may stand to benefit from anti- or pro-angiogenic treatments in the coming decades [National Cancer Institute (USA), Cancer Bulletin, volume 3, no. 9, 2006]. The use of animal models to assay angiogenesis is crucial to the search for therapeutic agents that inhibit angiogenesis in the clinical setting. Examples of persons that would benefit from these ... Read More »
» Published in J Cell Mol Med. 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3):588-612.

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