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Amoebiasis
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1. Amoebiasis cutis in HIV positive patient.
Match Strength: 12.410

Protozoan infections of the skin, particularly cutaneous amoebiasis, are rare in HIV-positive patients. We report a case of amoebiasis cutis in an HIV-positive truck driver with a history of frequent unprotected sexual exposures. He presented with multiple painful ulcers and sinuses with purulent discharge, necrotic slough and scarring in the perianal and gluteal region for the last 2 years. He was positive for HIV-1 and -2. Cutaneous biopsy revealed numerous Entamoeba histolytica in the trophozoite form, in addition to an inflammatory infiltrate and necrotic debris. He responded well to oral ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006 May-Jun;72(3):224-6.

2. Invasive amoebiasis.
Match Strength: 12.305

Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel ... Read More »
» Published in Chirurgia (Bucur). 2006 Sep-Oct;101(5):539-42.

3. Differentiation of entamoeba histolytica and entamoeba dispar by PCR: a preliminary study in Izmir, Turkey.
Match Strength: 11.100

The causative agent of amoebiasis is currently attributed to two distinct species (E. histolytica and E. dispar). The aim of this study was to differentiate these species by PCR in stool samples. Isolated genomic DNA was amplified by PCR and band products of 101 bp (E. dispar) were obtained. All seven stool samples were found to be E. dispar, not E. histolytica. Our results demonstrated the significance of E. histolytica/dispar differentiation in the diagnosis of amoebiasis. This study is preliminary to our current research project entitled "Investigation of the prevalence of amoebiasis and ... Read More »
» Published in New Microbiol. 2007 Jan;30(1):45-8.

4. Clinical significance of the redefinition of the agent of amoebiasis.
Match Strength: 10.379

Entamoeba histolytica is the pathogenic species of Entamoeba that causes amoebic dysentery and other invasive disease. The morphologically similar species, E. dispar, is non-pathogenic and accounts for about 90% of the previously estimated 500 million E. histolytica infections world-wide. Because of the recent redefinition of E. histolytica and E. dispar, and the limited number of drugs available to treat amoebiasis, a new approach to treatment of individuals carrying these parasites is necessary. A meeting of eminent scientists has recently agreed that on no account should prophylaxis against ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2001 Oct-Dec;43(4):183-7.

5. Detection of IgA anti-Entamoeba histolytica in the patients' saliva.
Match Strength: 10.367

E. histolytica is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution. The diagnosis of this parasite still depends on the microscopic examination. Determination of the sIgA in the different body fluid proves to be of diagnostic value in many pathogens. To find out the potentials of salivary sIgA in diagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis, 30 patients with parasitologic proved E. histolytica and 30 cross-matched negative controls were selected for levels of salivary sIgA using radial immunodiffuion technique. The result showed a high significant increase in the mean concentration of salivary sIgA in ... Read More »
» Published in J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2004 Dec;34(3 Suppl):1095-104.

6. Serologic Testing for Amoebiasis
Match Strength: 10.362

The diagnosis of amoebiasis presents problems, particularly if one relies on finding the organism. Thus, serologic tests are expedient. A gel diffusion precipitin test (GDP), commercially available, simple to perform, and inexpensive, was compared with the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). 257 Patients' sera were tested; 14 had amoebic colitis, 21 had amoebic liver abscess, 63 had suspected amoebic liver abscess, and 46 had inflammatory bowel disease. GDP tests were positive in 85% of amoebic colitis and 95% of amoebic liver abscess patients; IHA was positive in 91% of amoebic colitis and ... Read More »
» Published in Gastroenterology. 1980 Jan;78(1):136-41.

7. Pathophysiology of amoebiasis
Match Strength: 9.983

Few organisms are more aptly named than Entamoeba histolytica, an intestinal protozoan parasite that can lyse and destroy human tissue. Within the past four years, new models of E. histolytica infection have begun to illuminate how amoebic trophozoites cause intestinal disease and liver abscess, and have expanded our understanding of the remarkable killing ability of this parasite. Here, I summarize recent work on the interactions between E. histolytica and human intestine, and between E. histolytica and hepatocytes, and discuss what these studies tell us about the role of inflammation and ... Read More »
» Published in Trends Parasitol. 2001 Jun;17(6):280-5.

8. Regulation of the inflammatory immune response by the cytokine/chemokine network in amoebiasis.
Match Strength: 9.902

Amoebiasis is caused by the protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and persists as one of the leading parasitic diseases affecting millions worldwide. This parasite invades the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis and ulcers. It may also spread to other organs, mainly the liver, causing amoebic liver abscess (ALA). Current research efforts have focused on the development of specific diagnostic tests and animal models searching for a better understanding of the complex physiopathology of this disease. Analysis of the inflammatory immune response during intestinal amoebiasis in both human disease ... Read More »
» Published in Parasite Immunol. 2007 Dec;29(12):679-84.

9. Amoebiasis: diagnosis by aspiration and exfoliative cytology.
Match Strength: 9.305

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of fine needle aspiration and exfoliative cytology in the identification of amoebic cysts/trophozoites, and to characterize amoebiasis. The subjects consisted of 15 patients, 11 diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as amoebic abscesses (14 liver and one pulmonary) and four women whose cervical smears contained Entamoeba histolytica cysts or trophozoites. Of 128 ultrasonographically guided FNAC of hepatic lesions over a four year period, 17 were abscesses of which 10 were diagnosed as amoebic. A single case of pulmonary ... Read More »
» Published in Cytopathology. 2001 Oct;12(5):329-33.

10. Microbicidal action of lactoferrin and lactoferricin and their synergistic effect with metronidazole in Entamoeba histolytica.
Match Strength: 9.295

Lactoferrin (Lf), in its iron-free form, has been shown to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In the light of new agents to control amoebiasis, the microbicidal activity of human and bovine Lf and bovine lactoferricin (bLfcin, fragment 4-14), and of each combined with metronidazole, the main drug used in amoebiasis, was evaluated in trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. Both lactoferrins and bLfcin were able to kill amoebas in a concentration-dependent manner. This killing effect was modulated according to the culture age, pH, and temperature. Parasites obtained from the ... Read More »
» Published in Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Jun;84(3):327-36.

11. Vaccines for amoebiasis: barriers and opportunities.
Match Strength: 9.074

Amoebiasis, infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, remains a global health problem, despite the availability of effective treatment. While improved sanitation could lead to the eradication of this disease, it is unlikely that this will occur worldwide in the foreseeable future; thus alternative measures must be pursued. One approach is to develop a vaccine to prevent this deadly disease. Clinical studies indicate that mucosal immunity may provide some protection against recurrent intestinal infection with E. histolytica, but there is no clear evidence that protective ... Read More »
» Published in Parasitology. 2006 Oct;133 Suppl:S81-6.

12. Amoebiasis
Match Strength: 8.964

Amoebiasis is the second leading cause of death from parasitic disease worldwide. The causative protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a potent pathogen. Secreting proteinases that dissolve host tissues, killing host cells on contact, and engulfing red blood cells, E histolytica trophozoites invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. In some cases amoebas breach the mucosal barrier and travel through the portal circulation to the liver, where they cause abscesses consisting of a few E histolytica trophozoites surrounding dead and dying hepatocytes and liquefied cellular ... Read More »
» Published in Lancet. 2003 Mar 22;361(9362):1025-34.

13. Resistance of C57BL/6 mice to amoebiasis is mediated by nonhemopoietic cells but requires hemopoietic IL-10 production.
Match Strength: 8.684

Resistance to intestinal amoebiasis is mouse strain dependent. C57BL/6 (B6) mice clear Entamoeba histolytica within hours of challenge, whereas C3H and CBA strains are susceptible to infection and disease. In this study, we show using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice that mouse strain-dependent resistance is mediated by nonhemopoietic cells; specifically, B6 BM --> CBA recipients remained susceptible as measured by amoeba score and culture, whereas CBA BM --> B6 recipients remained resistant. Interestingly, hemopoietic IL-10 was required for maintaining the resistance of B6 mice, in that ... Read More »
» Published in J Immunol. 2006 Jul 15;177(2):1208-13.

14. Stable expression of Gal/GalNAc lectin of Entamoeba histolytica in transgenic chloroplasts and immunogenicity in mice towards vaccine development for amoebiasis.
Match Strength: 8.299

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, transgene containment via maternal inheritance and multigene engineering in a single transformation event. Entamoeba histolytica infects 50 million people, causing about 100,000 deaths annually, but there is no approved vaccine against this pathogen. LecA, a potential target for blocking amoebiasis, was expressed for the first time in transgenic plants. Stable transgene integration into chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot ... Read More »
» Published in Plant Biotechnol J. 2007 Mar;5(2):230-9.

15. Drug resistance in amoebiasis.
Match Strength: 8.111

Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is a major public health problem in developing countries. Morphologically similar E. dispar is non pathogenic. Because of the redefinition of E. histolytica and E. dispar, and the limited number of antiamoebic drugs available, a new approach to treat such individuals is necessary. The cost of treating asymptomatic individuals is highly exorbitant and not justifiable. The indiscriminate use of antiamoebic drugs can result in increased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Entamoeba species, and treatment failure may emerge as an ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Med Res. 2006 Feb;123(2):115-8.

16. Synthesis and antiamoebic activity of metronidazole thiosemicarbazone analogues.
Match Strength: 8.062

Repeated treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection with commonly used antiamoebic drugs results in not only increasing the toxicity potential but also leads to the development of clinical resistance. Thus new effective agents with less toxicity against amoebiasis are urgently required. With this view, metronidazole thiosemicarbazone analogues 1-11 were synthesized wherein thioamide moiety was substituted by different cyclic and aromatic amines. These compounds were screened against HM1:IMSS strain of E. histolytica parasite cultured in vitro and the sensitivity of the parasite to the ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Med Chem. 2007 Dec 23

17. Brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica.
Match Strength: 7.157

A patient of cerebral amoebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica with no evidence of disease elsewhere is described. He made a complete recovery after surgical excision of the abscess along with metronidazole therapy. Publication Types: Case ... Read More »
» Published in J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Mar;52:251-2.

18. Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: comparison of two PCR assays for diagnosis in a non-endemic setting.
Match Strength: 6.894

Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical parasitology laboratory. The identification of Entamoeba dispar as a morphologically identical but non-pathogenic species has highlighted the need for non-microscopic detection methods able to differentiate between the two organisms. In this study we evaluated the utility of conventional PCR and real-time PCR as methods for identification and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar. The second aim of this study was to determine the relative proportions of infections caused by E. ... Read More »
» Published in Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 May;100(5):450-7. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

19. Multidrug resistance in amoebiasis patients.
Match Strength: 6.824

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba sp. a protozoan parasite, is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. The symptomatic patients are treated by specific chemotherapy. However, there are reports of treatment failure in some cases suggesting the possibility of drug resistance. The present study was therefore planned to assess the presence and expression of mRNA of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene in clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. METHODS: Forty five clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. [E. histolytica (15) and E. dispar ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Med Res. 2006 Aug;124(2):189-94.

20. Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinases with interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) activity cause intestinal inflammation and tissue damage in amoebiasis
Match Strength: 6.682

The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal inflammation and ulceration. Amoebic trophozoites activate the transcription factor NF-kappa B in human intestinal epithelial cells, initiating an inflammatory response programme with resultant damage to the intestinal tissue. Amoebic cysteine proteinases have been proposed as important virulence factors for amoebiasis. To test the role of amoebic cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of amoebic colitis, human intestinal xenografts in SCID mice were infected with E. histolytica trophozoites expressing an antisense message to ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Microbiol. 2000 Aug;37(3):542-8.

21. Dioxo- and oxovanadium(V) complexes of thiohydrazone ONS donor ligands: synthesis, characterization, reactivity, and antiamoebic activity.
Match Strength: 6.659

As a contribution to the development of novel vanadium complexes with pharmacologically interesting properties, two neutral dioxovanadium(V) complexes [VO2(Hpydx-sbdt)] (1) and [VO2(Hpydx-smdt)] (3) [H2pydx-sbdt (I) and H2pydx-smdt (II) are the Schiff bases derived from pyridoxal and S-benzyl- or S-methyldithiocarbazate] have been synthesized by the reaction of [VO(acac)2] and the potassium salts of the ligands in methanol followed by aerial oxidation. Heating of the methanolic solutions of these complexes yields the oxo-bridged binuclear complexes [{VO(pydx-sbdt)}2mu-O] (2) and [{VO(pydx-smdt ... Read More »
» Published in Inorg Chem. 2006 Feb 6;45(3):1260-9.

22. Ultrasound Patterns and Frequency of Focal Liver Lesions After Successful Treatment of Amoebic Liver Abscess
Match Strength: 6.552

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and morphology of residual liver lesions in patients successfully treated for amoebic liver abscess. METHODS: Retrospective ultrasound-based study of 240 adult males from an amoebiasis-endemic area in Vietnam with a documented clinical history of amoebic liver abscess. Subjects were re-examined by hepatic ultrasound 1-13 years after abscess treatment. RESULTS: In 17 subjects (7.1%) focal hypo- or isoechoic areas were identified within the liver with a diameter of 8-48 mm surrounded by a hyperechoic wall. These lesions were associated with positive amoeba ... Read More »
» Published in Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Apr;11(4):504-8.

23. Ultrasound patterns and frequency of focal liver lesions after successful treatment of amoebic liver abscess.
Match Strength: 6.432

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and morphology of residual liver lesions in patients successfully treated for amoebic liver abscess. METHODS: Retrospective ultrasound-based study of 240 adult males from an amoebiasis-endemic area in Vietnam with a documented clinical history of amoebic liver abscess. Subjects were re-examined by hepatic ultrasound 1-13 years after abscess treatment. RESULTS: In 17 subjects (7.1%) focal hypo- or isoechoic areas were identified within the liver with a diameter of 8-48 mm surrounded by a hyperechoic wall. These lesions were associated with positive amoeba ... Read More »
» Published in Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Apr;11(4):504-8.

24. Colonic amoebiasis and spirochetosis: Morphological, ultrastructural and microbiological evaluation.
Match Strength: 6.225

Background: The present study reports on a prompt diagnosis of colonic amoebiasis with colonic spirochetosis by Brachyspira aalborgi and B. pilosicoli; such diagnosis allowed exclusion of other diseases and resolution of the case after specific treatment. Methods and Results: A 37-year-old Italian man with a history of several months' mucosal diarrhea travelled to Greece, Romania and Tunisia. After his last trip he presented with an increase of up to 3-5 discharges daily, associated with bloody diarrhea, supporting the clinical suspect of inflammatory bowel disease. Colonoscopy revealed ... Read More »
» Published in J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jan;22(1):64-7.

25. Colonic amoebiasis and spirochetosis: Morphological, ultrastructural and microbiological evaluation.
Match Strength: 6.225

Background: The present study reports on a prompt diagnosis of colonic amoebiasis with colonic spirochetosis by Brachyspira aalborgi and B. pilosicoli; such diagnosis allowed exclusion of other diseases and resolution of the case after specific treatment. Methods and Results: A 37-year-old Italian man with a history of several months' mucosal diarrhea travelled to Greece, Romania and Tunisia. After his last trip he presented with an increase of up to 3-5 discharges daily, associated with bloody diarrhea, supporting the clinical suspect of inflammatory bowel disease. Colonoscopy revealed ... Read More »
» Published in J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jan;22(1):64-7.

26. Intestinal inflammation associated with flagellates in snakes.
Match Strength: 6.126

The intestines of 51 snakes with histologically diagnosed or suspected amoebiasis were reinvestigated immunohistochemically with an Entamoeba invadens antibody. In 22 cases, trophozoites of Entamoeba invadens stained positively in the inflamed intestinal wall, but the protozoa visible in the pathologically changed intestines of a further 20 snakes were negative. On the basis of light and electron microscopical findings, these protozoa were identified as flagellates ... Read More »
» Published in J Comp Pathol. 1995 May;112(4):417-21.

27. Microscopy, PCR and ELISA applied to the epidemiology of amoebiasis in Greece.
Match Strength: 5.950

Detection and differentiation between Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar are of great importance both for diagnosis and epidemiological studies. The present study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of these species in Greece and to assess the performance of microscopy, ELISA and PCR in the field. Our results indicate that the prevalence of these parasites is very low in Greece and that PCR and ELISA are by far better than microscopy. When it comes to the choice between ELISA and PCR, it seems that in real situations the advantages of PCR are outweighed by those of ELISA. Publication Types: ... Read More »
» Published in Parasitol Int. 2001 Sep;50(3):185-9.

28. A "fishy" cough: hepatobronchial fistula due to a pyogenic liver abscess.
Match Strength: 5.694

A hepatobronchial fistula is an anatomic communication between the liver parenchyma and the bronchial tree. Major causes of such fistulae include inflammatory conditions resulting from obstruction of the biliary tract and infectious processes, such as pyogenic liver abscesses, amoebiasis, and hydatid cysts. We report a rare case of a patient (with a chronic, recurrent hepatic abscess) who suffered a persistent, productive cough resulting from a hepatobronchial fistula. Publication Types: Case ... Read More »
» Published in N Z Med J. 2006 Mar 31;119(1231):U1906.

29. Synthesis and Anti-Amoebic Activity of Gold(I), Ruthenium(II), and Copper(II) Complexes of Metronidazole.
Match Strength: 5.591

A series of Au, Ru, and Cu complexes of metronidazole (=[1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazole; 1) were prepared as highly potent anti-amoebic drugs. The complexes [Au(PPh(3))(1)]PF(6) (2), [Ru(1)(2)(Cl)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (3), and [Cu(1)(2)(mu-Cl)(H(2)O)](2)Cl(2) (4) were readily synthesized from [Au(PPh(3))Cl], RuCl(3)3 H(2)O, and CuCl(2)2 H(2)O, respectively. All complexes were thoroughly characterized by IR, UV/VIS, (1)H-NMR, FAB-MS, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and, in the case of 4, also by X-ray crystallography (Fig. 1). All complexes were evaluated in vitro as growth ... Read More »
» Published in Chem Biodivers. 2005 Oct;2(10):1320-30.

30. Superior vena cava syndrome caused by pulmonary amoebic abscess.
Match Strength: 5.551

Isolated pulmonary amoebiasis without involvement of liver and other systems is extremely rare. Its presentation with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is not well documented. The case of 38-year-old male who developed SVC syndrome due to a large pulmonary amoebic abscess, which initially mimicked a pulmonary neoplasm with distal lung abscess is presented here. Subsequent bacteriological examination of the aspirated pus and the sputum along with suggestive serology confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary amoebic abscess. Publication Types: Case ... Read More »
» Published in Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2006 Oct-Dec;48(4):275-7.

31. Progress in research on Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis.
Match Strength: 5.204

Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite of humans that causes 40,000-100,000 deaths annually. Clinical amoebiasis results from the spread of the normally luminal parasite into the colon wall and beyond; the key development in understanding this complex multistage process has been the publication of the E. histolytica genome, from which has come an explosion in the use of microarrays to examine changes in gene expression that result from changes in growth conditions. The genome has also revealed a unique arrangement of tRNA genes and an extraordinary number of genes for putative virulence ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006 Aug;9(4):367-73. Epub 2006 Jul 7.

32. NMR derived solution structure of an EF-hand calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba Histolytica.
Match Strength: 5.194

We present the three-dimensional (3D) solution structure of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP), an etiologic agent of amoebiasis affecting millions worldwide. EhCaBP is a 14.7 kDa (134 residues) monomeric protein thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. The 3D structure of Ca(2+)-bound EhCaBP has been derived using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques. The study reveals the presence of two globular domains connected by a flexible linker region spanning 8 amino acid residues. Each domain consists of a pair of ... Read More »
» Published in Biochemistry. 2001 Dec 4;40(48):14392-403.

33. SINE elements of Entamoeba dispar.
Match Strength: 5.151

Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar are closely related protozoan parasites; the former causes clinical amoebiasis in humans while the latter appears to be non-pathogenic. The molecular biology of E. histolytica shows a number of unusual features, one of which is the abundance of polyadenylated but apparently untranslatable mRNAs produced; many of these are the product of at least three families of SINEs (EhSINE1-3). Here we show that the genome of E. dispar contains numerous copies of a SINE element (EdSINE1) whose 5'- and 3'-ends are very similar to those of EhSINE1 but with a much less ... Read More »
» Published in Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Dec 8;

34. Parasitism in Kansas in the 1800s: a glimpse to the past through the analysis of grave sediments from Meadowlark cemetery.
Match Strength: 5.071

During the excavations of the XIX century Meadowlark cemetery (Manhattan, Kansas, US), samples of sediments were taken from around five skeletons, and analyzed to detect intestinal parasites. No helminth eggs were found, but immunological ELISA tests for Entamoeba histolytica were positive in three samples. The immunological techniques have been successfully used in paleoparasitology to detect protozoan infections. Amoebiasis could have been a severe disease in the past, especially where poor sanitary conditions prevailed, and there is evidence that this cemetery may have been used in a ... Read More »
» Published in Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Dec 5;101 Suppl 2:53-6.

35. Multifocal Balamuthia mandrillaris infection in a dog in Australia.
Match Strength: 4.993

A 6-year-old male golden retriever, with an 8-month history of seizures and a clinical diagnosis of lymphoma in the central nervous system, was (at the owner's request) euthanized after signs of respiratory distress and shock developed. Upon postmortem examination, the diagnoses of meningoencephalitis and pneumonia were made. A histological examination of selected tissues from both the lung and central nervous system revealed a severe, acute, multifocal, amoebic, embolic pneumonia and a severe, chronic, multifocal, nonsuppurative, amoebic meningoencephalitis. Indirect immunofluorescence ... Read More »
» Published in Parasitol Res. 2007 Jan;100(2):423-6. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

36. Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni--Entamoeba histolytica coinfection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).
Match Strength: 4.854

Data on Schistosoma mansoni-Entamoeba histolytica coinfection are scarce in the literature. In the present study, hamsters that had been infected for 70 days with Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain) were inoculated via the portal vein with two strains of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica: ICB-EGG (highly virulent) and ICB-RPS (non-virulent). The most evident result of coinfection was increased morbidity and mortality, in comparison with either of the infections alone. Histologically, there were no evident signs of interaction between these two infections. The morphological findings of ... Read More »
» Published in Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007 Mar-Apr;40(2):170-4.

37. Virulence of Entamoeba Histolytica Strains of Human Origin in Bombay to Golden Hamster
Match Strength: 4.810

The virulence following intrahepatic inoculation to hamsters with 17 strains of Entamoeba histolytica isolated in cultures from clinical cases of amoebiasis and from asymptomatic carriers has been investigated. All 10 strains from clinical cases and four from asymptomatic carriers were found to be virulent for hamster liver, producing moderate or high grade of hepatic lesions, whereas three strains from asymptomatic carriers were found to possess low virulence with production of low grade of liver lesions. The strains from clinical cases produced marked decrease in the weight of the infected ... Read More »
» Published in Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1984 Jun;37(3):125-30.

38. Use of molecular tools to distinguish Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infection among the aborigines in Cameron Highlands.
Match Strength: 4.745

Amoebiasis is an infectious diseased caused by parasitic one-celled protozoan called Entamoeba histolytica. Numerous protozoa also can inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract of human. Majority of these protozoa are non-pathogenic commensals or only causes disease under certain circumstances. Morphologically, E. histolytica, the invasive form, share the same characteristic with the nonpathogenic form, E. dispar. Both strains can be distinguished by using DNA identification. Many previous researches in Malaysia only reported infection with E. histolytica infection. Therefore in this study we tried ... Read More »
» Published in Trop Biomed. 2006 Jun;23(1):31-6.

39. Antiamoebic activity of iridoids from Morinda morindoides leaves.
Match Strength: 4.694

An aqueous decoction (dried extract), an 80 % methanolic extract from Morinda morindoides (Rubiaceae) leaves, and five iridoids isolated from the 80 % methanolic extract were evaluated in vitro for their activity against Entamoeba histolytica and their cytotoxicity. The aqueous decoction and the 80 % methanolic extract exhibited a promising antiamoebic activity with IC (50) values of 3.1 +/- 1.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, respectively. All tested iridoids displayed antiamoebic activity, the most active being epoxygaertneroside (IC (50): 1.3 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and methoxygaertneroside (IC (50): ... Read More »
» Published in Planta Med. 2006 Jun;72(8):751-3. Epub 2006 May 29.

40. Amoebiasis: current status in Australia.
Match Strength: 4.674

Entamoeba histolytica is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide, infecting about 50 million people and resulting in 40,000-100,000 deaths a year. In Australia, people at risk of infection include immigrants, travellers returning from countries of high endemicity, Indigenous people, and men who have sex with men. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic carriage to invasive disease. Amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscess are the most common invasive manifestations observed in Australia. Diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion and laboratory investigations. ... Read More »
» Published in Med J Aust. 2007 Apr 16;186(8):412-6.

41. Cyclooctadiene Ru(II) complexes of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde-derived thiosemicarbazones: synthesis, characterization and antiamoebic activity.
Match Strength: 4.620

Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) 1-10 were synthesized by condensing substituted thiosemicarbazide with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde. These thiosemicarbazones were further reacted with [Ru(eta4-C8H12)(CH3CN)2Cl2] to form complexes of the type [Ru(eta4-C8H12)(TSC)Cl2] 1a-10a. Thiosemicarbazones exhibited antiamoebic activity in the range IC50=1.09-5.42 microM. In vitro assessment of antiamoebic activity indicated that the thiosemicarbazones 3, IC50=1.67 microM, 4, IC50=1.11 microM and 6, IC50=1.09 microM showed substantially less IC50 value than metronidazole (IC50=1.87 microM), a commonly used drug ... Read More »
» Published in Eur J Med Chem. 2006 May;41(5):592-8. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

42. Differentiating Amoebic Ulcero-Haemorrhagic Recto-Colitis from Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Still a Diagnostic Dilemma
Match Strength: 4.612

The colon responds monomorphically to a variety of insults thus making it difficult to differentiate invasive amoebic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The authors present a case with chronic dysentery, haematochezia, anaemia and hypoproteinaemia. The endoscopic findings were suggestive of IBD. The stool examination was negative for trophozoites or cysts of parasites. The recto-colonic biopsy specimens showed mucosal inflammation with exudates containing amoebic trophozoites. The patient was successfully treated with metronidazole and iodoquinol. He recovered within two weeks and ... Read More »
» Published in West Indian Med J. 2005 Jun;54(3):210-2.

43. Thioredoxin-linked metabolism in Entamoeba histolytica.
Match Strength: 4.556

Entamoeba histolytica, an intestinal protozoan that is the causative agent of amoebiasis, is exposed to elevated amounts of highly toxic reactive oxygen species during tissue invasion. In this work, we report the molecular cloning, from E. histolytica genomic DNA, of the genes ehtrxr and ehtrx41, respectively coding for thioredoxin reductase (EhTRXR) and thioredoxin (EhTRX41). The genes were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and characterized. EhTRXR catalyzed the NADPH (Km=4.5 microM)-dependent reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2 ... Read More »
» Published in Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 May 15;42(10):1496-505. Epub 2007 Feb 20.

44. Treatment options for the eradication of intestinal protozoa.
Match Strength: 4.529

Pathogenic intestinal protozoa are responsible for clinically important infections in both the developed and the developing world. These organisms are responsible for both acute and chronic diarrhea, and Entamoeba histolytica, which affects the colon, can spread to involve the liver. Many of these pathogens, particularly the intracellular protozoa that predominantly affect the small intestine, produce their most devastating effects in patients with HIV/AIDS and other forms of immune deficiency. There are also various intestinal protozoa that do not seem to have any adverse effects on humans ... Read More »
» Published in Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;3(8):436-45.

45. Bioinformatics and Functional Analysis of an Entamoeba histolytica Mannosyltransferase Necessary for Parasite Complement Resistance and Hepatical Infection.
Match Strength: 4.468

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety is one of the ways by which many cell surface proteins, such as Gal/GalNAc lectin and proteophosphoglycans (PPGs) attach to the surface of Entamoeba histolytica, the agent of human amoebiasis. It is believed that these GPI-anchored molecules are involved in parasite adhesion to cells, mucus and the extracellular matrix. We identified an E. histolytica homolog of PIG-M, which is a mannosyltransferase required for synthesis of GPI. The sequence and structural analysis led to the conclusion that EhPIG-M1 is composed of one signal peptide and 11 ... Read More »
» Published in PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Feb 13;2(2):e165.

46. Entamoeba histolytica cell movement: a central role for self-generated chemokines and chemorepellents.
Match Strength: 4.455

Entamoeba histolytica cells, the cause of amoebic dysentery, are highly motile, and this motility is an essential feature of the pathogenesis and morbidity of amoebiasis. However, the control of E. histolytica motility within the gut and during invasion is poorly understood. We have used an improved chemotaxis assay to identify the key extracellular signals mediating Entamoeba chemotaxis. The dominant responses we observe are caused by factors generated by E. histolytica cells themselves. Medium that has been conditioned by E. histolytica growth causes both chemokinesis and negative chemotaxis ... Read More »
» Published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 5;103(49):18751-6. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

47. Gastrointestinal parasites in the immunocompromised.
Match Strength: 4.423

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parasites and other infections have many effects on the gastrointestinal tract of individuals who are immunocompromised. Few reviews focus on parasitic infections, which are covered here. RECENT FINDINGS: The review first examines recent advances in our understanding of the taxonomy, diagnosis and treatment of pathogens such as cryptosporidia, cyclospora, isospora and microsporidia, which are recognized causes of diarrhoea in the immunocompromised, and discusses possible links between amoebiasis and HIV. The complex interactions of both intact and abnormal immune systems ... Read More »
» Published in Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;18(5):427-35.

48. Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii by a single-round PCR assay.
Match Strength: 4.399

A single-round PCR assay was developed for detection and differential diagnosis of the three Entamoeba species found in humans, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba histolytica, and Entamoeba dispar, that are morphologically identical as both cysts and trophozoites. A conserved forward primer was derived from the middle of the small-subunit rRNA gene, and reverse primers were designed from signature sequences specific to each of these three Entamoeba species. PCR generates a 166-bp product with E. histolytica DNA, a 752-bp product with E. dispar DNA, and a 580-bp product with E. moshkovskii DNA. ... Read More »
» Published in J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Sep;44(9):3196-200.

49. Inhibition of Human Monocyte Locomotion by Products of Axenically Grown E. Histolytica
Match Strength: 4.375

The supernatant fluid of axenically grown E. histolytica inhibits chemotaxis, chemokinesis and random mobility of human mononuclear phagocytes (MP) as measured in Boyden chambers. Human polymorphonuclear phagocytes (PMN) locomotion is apparently unaffected. The factor was found in comparable amounts in the supernatant fluid of axenic cultures of four E. histolytica strains that differed in their human pathogenicity and virulence, as well as in two entamoebas non-pathogenic for man. This dialysable and thermolabile MP-locomotion inhibiting entamoeba product (EP) can be absorbed out by ... Read More »
» Published in Parasite Immunol. 1985 Sep;7(5):527-43.

50. Characterization of chaperonin 10 (Cpn10) from the intestinal human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica.
Match Strength: 4.373

Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a poverty-related disease that kills an estimated 100 000 people each year. E. histolytica does not contain "standard mitochondria", but harbours mitochondrial remnant organelles called mitosomes. These organelles are characterized by the presence of mitochondrial chaperonin Cpn60, but little else is known about the functions and molecular composition of mitosomes. In this study, a gene encoding molecular chaperonin Cpn10--the functional partner of Cpn60--was cloned, and its structure and expression were characterized, as well as the ... Read More »
» Published in Microbiology. 2005 Sep;151(Pt 9):3107-15.

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