Cervical anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations among first-trimester pregnant smokers.
OBJECTIVE: Anti-inflammatory cytokines play a role in the lower genital tract immune defense. We examined the impact of cigarette smoking in pregnancy on the detection of the 3 most important anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-4, -10, and -13) in the cervix. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fourteen gravid women from 4 to 16 weeks of gestation without bacterial vaginosis or sexually transmitted disease were queried regarding demographic factors and smoking. Concentrations of cytokines were determined with a multiplex assay for cervical swabs. RESULTS: There was a positive linear relationship between the number of cigarettes that were smoked per day and cervical concentrations of interleukin-4, -10, and -13 (P < .001 for each). Median concentrations of interleukin-4 and -10 were greater among women who smoked > or = 20 cigarettes per day than among non-smokers or less heavy smokers (P < .05 for both). There was no difference in concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines between smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking in pregnancy is associated with an increase of cervical anti-inflammatory cytokines without a commensurate increase of proinflammatory cytokines. This may have important impact on the host response to infection.
Keywords: anti inflammatory cytokines, anti inflammatory, inflammatory cytokines, proinflammatory cytokines, cigarette smoking, cytokines, concentrations, smokers, cervical, interleukin, smoking, inflammatory
Authored by Simhan HN, Caritis SN, Hillier SL, Krohn MA. Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Published in Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Dec;193(6):1999-2003. The full report is available online. A subscription to the periodical may be required.
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